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Decreased approach motivation in depression

2006 Scandinavian Journal of Psychology  
The present study examined relations between choice preference and reaction time to emotionally valenced words, dysphoric symptoms (BDI), and dysfunctional attitudes (DAS) in clinically depressed (CD; n = 61), previously depressed (PD; n = 42), and never depressed controls (ND; n = 46). The results showed: 1) NDs and PDs exhibited a choice preference for the relatively more positive words and differed significantly from CDs; 2) PDs and CDs exhibited longer reaction time and differed
more » ... y from NDs; and 3) BDI and DAS were positively associated with reaction time to positively valenced words, whereas no associations were found for reaction time to negatively valenced words. The increased reaction time, in PDs and CDs, is discussed as a possible vulnerability factor to depression, which may be related to decreased approach motivation.
doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.2006.00525.x pmid:17107499 fatcat:ttethuwwubcrxhzwz2ids4mhjm

Learning with Holographic Reduced Representations [article]

Ashwinkumar Ganesan, Hang Gao, Sunil Gandhi, Edward Raff, Tim Oates, James Holt, Mark McLean
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Holographic Reduced Representations (HRR) are a method for performing symbolic AI on top of real-valued vectors by associating each vector with an abstract concept, and providing mathematical operations to manipulate vectors as if they were classic symbolic objects. This method has seen little use outside of older symbolic AI work and cognitive science. Our goal is to revisit this approach to understand if it is viable for enabling a hybrid neural-symbolic approach to learning as a
more » ... e component of a deep learning architecture. HRRs today are not effective in a differentiable solution due to numerical instability, a problem we solve by introducing a projection step that forces the vectors to exist in a well behaved point in space. In doing so we improve the concept retrieval efficacy of HRRs by over 100×. Using multi-label classification we demonstrate how to leverage the symbolic HRR properties to develop an output layer and loss function that is able to learn effectively, and allows us to investigate some of the pros and cons of an HRR neuro-symbolic learning approach. Our code can be found at
arXiv:2109.02157v2 fatcat:c6jv5rvr7zbuvcrqcutiydc7ku

Isoperimetric inequalities for nilpotent groups

Steve M. Gersten, Derek F. Holt, Tim R. Riley
2003 Geometric and Functional Analysis  
We prove that every finitely generated nilpotent group of class c admits a polynomial isoperimetric function of degree c+1 and a linear upper bound on its filling length function.
doi:10.1007/s00039-003-0430-y fatcat:zxypif4tefcfxd3hqrf6pb7tve

Automated electronic reminders to facilitate primary cardiovascular disease prevention: randomised controlled trial

Tim A Holt, Margaret Thorogood, Frances Griffiths, Stephen Munday, Tim Friede, David Stables
2010 British Journal of General Practice  
TA Holt, M Thorogood, F Griffiths, et al British Journal of General Practice, April 2010 e139 Figure 1 . 1 Example of a group A message appearing during consultation.  ... 
doi:10.3399/bjgp10x483904 pmid:20353659 pmcid:PMC2845504 fatcat:nlah3zvf45c5pkbmytjdpagttm

Genetic Models with Reduced Penetrance Related to the Y Chromosome

R. W. R. Darling, Tim Holt
1999 Biometrics  
Environmental Factors Which Might Have Affected PAP Holt (1997) has found that PAP scores taken at 11-13 months of age are very reliable and highly repeatable.  ...  1 Pulmonary Artery Pressure in Cattle: Introduction to the Data A Puzzling Parent-to-Offspring Correlation Structure Holt (1997) describes a procedure for measuring pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.0006-341x.1999.00055.x pmid:11318179 fatcat:lcxcrivrsfabxlhsjwjz4vveqa

Automaticity for graphs of groups [article]

Susan Hermiller, Derek F Holt, Tim Susse, Sarah Rees
2020 arXiv   pre-print
But Redfern had slightly weaker conditions on the associated structures than we need, and our definition of strong automatic coset systems comes from later work of Holt and Hurt in [19] , where some fellow  ... 
arXiv:1905.05943v3 fatcat:bk33tmorizhwpjfjjbkyuw2zsa

Hope and expectancies for future events in depression

Jens C. Thimm, Arne Holte, Tim Brennen, Catharina E. A. Wang
2013 Frontiers in Psychology  
The present study investigated prospective cognition with the Hope scale (Snyder et al., 1991) and the Unrealistic Optimism Scale (Weinstein, 1980) in clinically depressed (CD; n = 61), previously depressed (PD; n = 42), and never depressed controls (ND; n = 46). In line with previous research, significant negative correlations between hope and symptoms of depression were found. Previously depressed reported lower levels of hope than NDs, but were more hopeful than CDs. In addition,
more » ... s between depressive symptoms, dysfunctional attitudes, and expectations for the future were examined. As hypothesized, the CDs estimated their probability of experiencing positive events in the future as lower and their probability of experiencing negative events as higher than the two other groups. The PDs differed not from the NDs in their probability estimates. Implications of the findings are discussed.
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00470 pmid:23898314 pmcid:PMC3721024 fatcat:dlzm5eupsbb77pgnppge4d4lvq

Book of the Month: When Food Kills

Tim Holt
2004 Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine  
The safety of food is possibly the oldest human preoccupation. In early prehistoric times, the need to communicate where the next meal might come from and whether it was safe to eat must have produced a strong selection pressure in favour of language acquisition. The hunter-gatherers were also learning to control fire, a hazardous technology that, among other benefits, allowed meat to be cooked and lessened the risk of consuming live parasites. So it is little wonder that in modern times so
more » ... of what we hear, what we say, and what we read centres on the same areas of concern, nor that we get our fingers burned occasionally as the food industry invents new technologies for every generation. This is a long and very rich history. Hugh Pennington, who chaired an inquiry into the 1996 Escherichia coli outbreak in Scotland, makes a clear case that these episodes are not simply the result of late twentieth century technology. In When Food Kills 1 he provides a broad and well illustrated sweep of the disasters that have struck the industry in recent and not so recent times. To give an example, he records how between 1912 and 1937, some 65 000 people died of bovine tuberculosis in England and Wales through drinking cow's milk. His writing style is unusual for such an exercise-a pleasing blend of the scientific and the journalistic. What we are offered is a front-line report with the insights of a microbiologist and an admixture of personal opinion that takes the book far beyond simple documentary. Pennington deals not only with medical aspects such as molecular biology, genetics, and epidemiology, but also with the historical and sociological implications of food disasters, their impact on the status of science and the public's faith in it, and the ways that all of these fit in with disasters of other types. A theme running through the book concerns the 'Lardner effect'-Pennington's term for the phenomenon whereby a rare disaster affecting large numbers of people at once has a much greater impact on public anxiety than an endemic background risk that in total affects a far greater number. This applies not only to foodborne infections that rarely kill, such as Campylobacter, but also to more deadly pathogens; the incidents that worry people most are those with a large number of simultaneous victims, such as acute epidemics of infection, or oil rig disasters, or motorway accidents. Nonetheless, Pennington's analysis did remind me of the opposite scenario described by Carl Sagan in his book Pale Blue Dot. 2 Sagan reckoned that, when frequency is related to likely death rate, we are at greater risk of dying from asteroid impact than from a commercial plane accident; yet few of us spend much time worrying about asteroids. Perhaps the Lardner effect is overcome, and denial supervenes, when the possible devastation becomes massive. This may have happened in the 1990s when projected estimates of the scale of nvCJD cases ranged from a few dozen to several million. The most pessimistic estimates, fortunately now deemed unlikely, were simply too awful to contemplate. In his preface Pennington claims that, through a long tradition connecting Macbeth with Joseph Lister, Scotland has taken a central part in the history of foodborne disasters. In the most recent past he refers to the E. coli epidemic at Wishaw and to the emergence of nvCJD at higher incidence in Scotland and the North of England than elsewhere in the UK. Major figures in prion research before the advent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) included the Edinburgh workers Alan Dickinson, Richard Kimberlin, and Hugh Fraser. Pennington's 'Scotland bias' is not intended to be taken too seriously, but for the record, at least two important individuals based north of the border do not get a mention in the book. One of these is David Doyle, a Glasgow neuropathologist who was active in the early response to the emergence of BSE. The other was a dietitian, Julie Phillips, without whose knowledge of the propensity for offal to find its way into the human food chain, based on her deep Scottish roots, an early comment might not have influenced the debate at a key stage. 3 It is of course the contributions these individuals made, and not their origins, that make them noteworthy. When Food Kills stands out from other accounts of the subject by providing a rich perspective that includes disasters unrelated to the food industry. I am not sure whether enduring lessons can be learnt from the linking themes, but the book deserves attention from anyone who appreciates the combined attributes of a practising microbiologist, a scientific authority and a broadly read thinker. That should be all of us.
doi:10.1177/014107680409700514 pmcid:PMC1079471 fatcat:mqa34cpsabccrcsq6rvzmiw3ie

Creating Cybersecurity Knowledge Graphs from Malware After Action Reports

Aritran Piplai, Sudip Mittal, Anupam Joshi, Tim Finin, James Holt, Richard Zak
2020 IEEE Access  
TIM FININ is the Willard and Lillian Hackerman Chair in Engineering and a Professor of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering at UMBC.  ...  JAMES HOLT is a researcher at the Laboratory for Physical Sciences focused on applying Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning techniques to address Cybersecurity problems.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3039234 fatcat:5ymamllt7fcf3eq5pwdle4vd5y

Ocean Measurements from Space in 2025

Anthony Freeman, Victor Zlotnicki, Tim Liu, Ben Holt, Ron Kwok, Simon Yueh, Jorge Vazquez, Dave Siegel, Gary Lagerloef
2010 Oceanography  
Tim Liu is Senior Research Scientist, JPL-CalTech, Pasadena, CA, USA. Benjamin Holt is Research Scientist, JPL-CalTech, Pasadena, CA, USA.  ...  Actual SAR data (Figure 2) show eddies with diameters 40 km and shorter in the Santa Barbara Channel (DiGiacomo and Holt, 2001).  ... 
doi:10.5670/oceanog.2010.12 fatcat:vvdbyzp7jfc65odkgwtjgbvrne

The Shared Evolution Of Stars And Their Planetary Systems

Brad Carter, Belinda Nicholson, Dag Evensberget, Stephen Marsden, Jim Hughes, Greg Perugini, Shelley Zaleski, Tim Holt, John Kielkopf, Christoph Tylor, Ian Waite
2018 Zenodo  
USQ astrophysics research aims to advance understanding of the shared evolution of stars and their planetary systems via a range of complementary studies and collaborations. Current projects include stellar magnetic field mapping and wind modeling, exoplanet detection and characterization, and dynamical modeling of solar system bodies and exoplanetary systems. Our research uses existing and new facilities, including USQ's Mt Kent Observatory, its new MINERVA-Australis telescope array for NASA
more » ... SS follow-up, the new Veloce precision radial velocity spectrograph on the 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope at Siding Spring, and a forthcoming SONG asteroseismology node at Mt Kent.
doi:10.5281/zenodo.1481276 fatcat:hgyt2aurbjew5pgts5vjsdus4u

Expression profiling and identification of novel genes in hepatocellular carcinomas

Carrie R Graveel, Tim Jatkoe, Steven J Madore, Alison L Holt, Peggy J Farnham
2001 Oncogene  
Liver cancer is the ®fth most common cancer worldwide and unlike certain other cancers, such as colon cancer, a mutational model has not yet been developed. We have performed gene expression pro®ling of normal and neoplastic livers in C3H/HeJ mice treated with diethylnitrosamine. Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we compared gene expression in liver tumors to three dierent states of the normal liver: quiescent adult, regenerating adult, and newborn. Although each comparison revealed hundreds
more » ... dierentially expressed genes, only 22 genes were found to be deregulated in the tumors in all three comparisons. Three of these genes were examined in human hepatocellular carcinomas and were found to be upregulated. As a second method of analysis, we used Representational Dierence Analysis (RDA) to clone mRNA fragments dierentially expressed in liver tumors versus regenerating livers. We cloned several novel mRNAs that are dierentially regulated in murine liver tumors. Here we report the sequence of a novel cDNA whose expression is upregulated in both murine and human hepatocellular carcinomas. Our results suggest that DEN-treated mice provide an excellent model for human hepatocellular carcinomas. Oncogene (2001) 20, 2704 ± 2712.
doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204391 pmid:11420682 fatcat:qrhydwgcrjbezbbuo6fwit6cjm

A nationwide adaptive prediction tool for coronary heart disease prevention

Tim A Holt, Lucila Ohno-Machado
2003 British Journal of General Practice  
Standardised electronic recording of cardiovascular risk factor data collected during primary care delivery could be used to create a new strategy, using an adaptive prediction model, for targeting primary prevention interventions at high-risk individuals. In the short term, this should progressively improve data quality and allow risk modification to be monitored at the population level. In the long term, feedback of data on cardiovascular disease development might enable the model to tailor
more » ... e recommended interventions more appropriately to the needs of the individual and to adapt to future changes in risk patterns. Ultimately, the inclusion of additional cardiovascular risk factors might enable a richer, more realistic picture of cardiovascular risk profiles to be uncovered. This model may have wider uses in both research and practice, and provides a further incentive for the standardisation of record keeping in primary care.
pmid:14702907 pmcid:PMC1314730 fatcat:6bx6zn57qvcs3mcoriiobknlva

The painful shoulder: an update on assessment, treatment, and referral

Majid Artus, Tim A Holt, Jonathan Rees
2014 British Journal of General Practice  
doi:10.3399/bjgp14x681577 pmid:25179075 pmcid:PMC4141618 fatcat:vuf36ncbdrfmzd4dek2y5pxeyq

A data driven nonlinear stochastic model for blood glucose dynamics

Yan Zhang, Tim A. Holt, Natalia Khovanova
2016 Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine  
c o m p u t e r m e t h o d s a n d p r o g r a m s i n b i o m e d i c i n e 1 2 5 ( 2 0 1 6 ) 18-25 a b s t r a c t The development of adequate mathematical models for blood glucose dynamics may improve early diagnosis and control of diabetes mellitus (DM). We have developed a stochastic nonlinear second order differential equation to describe the response of blood glucose concentration to food intake using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data. A variational Bayesian learning scheme was
more » ... plied to define the number and values of the system's parameters by iterative optimisation of free energy. The model has the minimal order and number of parameters to successfully describe blood glucose dynamics in people with and without DM. The model accounts for the nonlinearity and stochasticity of the underlying glucose-insulin dynamic process. Being data-driven, it takes full advantage of available CGM data and, at the same time, reflects the intrinsic characteristics of the glucose-insulin system without detailed knowledge of the physiological mechanisms. We have shown that the dynamics of some postprandial blood glucose excursions can be described by a reduced (linear) model, previously seen in the literature. A comprehensive analysis demonstrates that deterministic system parameters belong to different ranges for diabetes and controls. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. This is the first study introducing a continuous data-driven nonlinear stochastic model capable of describing both DM and non-DM profiles. of predictive control algorithms is a model that captures the relationship between glucose excursions, food intake and insulin delivery. The development of such a model represents a major challenge due to limited access to quality data, high cost of equipment for data collection, and, most importantly, the complexity of the underlying systems dynamics. The latter includes four major properties: the glucose-insulin system is open, event-driven, nonlinear and stochastic. These essential properties are rarely incorporated altogether into models of blood-glucose dynamics. http://dx.
doi:10.1016/j.cmpb.2015.10.021 pmid:26707373 fatcat:rkim25s5sbauzndritaf7z7xta
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