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Die Festung des Glaubens: Triumph und Scheitern des islamischen Rationalismus im 11. Jahrhundert, yazar Tilman Nagel, (München: Verlag C. H. Beck, 1988)

Mehmet Akif CEYHAN
2021 Journal of Analytic Divinity  
Jahrhundert, Autor Tilman Nagel, (München: Verlag C. H. Beck, 1988) . olup olmadığı veya sorumluysa nasıl olduğu problemidir.  ...  Jahrhundert, Autor Tilman Nagel, (München: Verlag C. H. Beck, 1988). Nagel'e göre İslam düşüncesinin en büyük problemlerinden biri, Hz.  ... 
doi:10.46595/jad.984575 fatcat:prtme2fd4zan7olp3objxge2vy

A Probabilistic Model for LCF [article]

Sebastian Schmitz, Thomas Seibel, Tilman Beck, Georg Rollmann, Rolf Krause, Hanno Gottschalk
2013 arXiv   pre-print
Fatigue life of components or test specimens often exhibit a significant scatter. Furthermore, size effects have a non-negligible influence on fatigue life of parts with different geometries. We present a new probabilistic model for low-cycle fatigue (LCF) in the context of polycrystalline metal. The model takes size effects and inhomogeneous strain fields into account by means of the Poisson point process (PPP). This approach is based on the assumption of independently occurring LCF cracks and
more » ... the Coffin-Manson-Basquin (CMB) equation. Within the probabilistic model, we give a new and more physical interpretation of the CMB parameters which are in the original approach no material parameters in a strict sense, as they depend on the specimen geometry. Calibration and validation of the proposed model is performed using results of strain controlled LCF tests of specimens with different surface areas. The test specimens are made of the nickel base superalloy RENE 80.
arXiv:1308.5842v1 fatcat:xs5g2e264ffjxilkqp3m7iecmm

Combined Notch and Size Effect Modeling in a Local Probabilistic Approach for LCF [article]

Lucas Mäde, Sebastian Schmitz, Hanno Gottschalk, Tilman Beck
2017 arXiv   pre-print
In recent years a local probabilistic model for low cycle fatigue (LCF) based on the statistical size effect has been developed and applied on engineering components. Here, the notch support extension based on the stress gradient effect is described in detail, as well as an FEA-based parameter calibration. An FEA is necessary to simulate non-homogeneous stress fields in non-smooth specimens which exhibit gradients and determine size effects. The hazard density approach and the surface
more » ... n over the FEA stress lead to geometry-independent model parameters. Three different materials (superalloys IN-939, Rene80, steel 26NiCrMoV14-5) and three different geometry types (smooth, notch, cooling hole specimens) are considered for a more comprehensive validation of the probabilistic LCF model and to demonstrate its wide application range. At the same time, a reduced testing effort is needed compared to deterministic model predictions with notch support.
arXiv:1709.00320v1 fatcat:z3hw2fa3brbe5p2avciqs42qim

AdapterDrop: On the Efficiency of Adapters in Transformers [article]

Andreas Rücklé, Gregor Geigle, Max Glockner, Tilman Beck, Jonas Pfeiffer, Nils Reimers, Iryna Gurevych
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Massively pre-trained transformer models are computationally expensive to fine-tune, slow for inference, and have large storage requirements. Recent approaches tackle these shortcomings by training smaller models, dynamically reducing the model size, and by training light-weight adapters. In this paper, we propose AdapterDrop, removing adapters from lower transformer layers during training and inference, which incorporates concepts from all three directions. We show that AdapterDrop can
more » ... lly reduce the computational overhead when performing inference over multiple tasks simultaneously, with minimal decrease in task performances. We further prune adapters from AdapterFusion, which improves the inference efficiency while maintaining the task performances entirely.
arXiv:2010.11918v2 fatcat:gwjn5s72njbj3jnczla7aybycq

An Image Registration Model in Electron Backscatter Diffraction [article]

Manuel Gräf and Sebastian Neumayer and Ralf Hielscher and Gabriele Steidl and Moritz Liesegang and Tilman Beck
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Recently, variational methods were successfully applied for computing the optical flow in gray and RGB-valued image sequences. A crucial assumption in these models is that pixel-values do not change under transformations. Nowadays, modern image acquisition techniques such as electron backscatter tomography (EBSD), which is used in material sciences, can capture images with values in nonlinear spaces. Here, the image values belong to the quotient space SO(3)/ 𝒮 of the special orthogonal group
more » ... ulo the discrete symmetry group of the crystal. For such data, the assumption that pixel-values remain unchanged under transformations appears to be no longer valid. Hence, we propose a variational model for determining the optical flow in SO(3)/𝒮-valued image sequences, taking the dependence of pixel-values on the transformation into account. More precisely, the data is transformed according to the rotation part in the polar decomposition of the Jacobian of the transformation. To model non-smooth transformations without obtaining so-called staircasing effects, we propose to use a total generalized variation like prior. Then, we prove existence of a minimizer for our model and explain how it can be discretized and minimized by a primal-dual algorithm. Numerical examples illustrate the performance of our method.
arXiv:2106.05645v2 fatcat:ask4js4dxzhgbabsecc3ezhlcq

What to Read Next? Challenges and Preliminary Results in Selecting Representative Documents [chapter]

Tilman Beck, Falk Böschen, Ansgar Scherp
2018 Communications in Computer and Information Science  
0000−0003−4223−5353] , and Ansgar Scherp 2[0000−0002−2653−9245] Abstract. The vast amount of scientific literature poses a challenge when one is trying to understand a previously unknown topic. Selecting a representative subset of documents that covers most of the desired content can solve this challenge by presenting the user a small subset of documents. We build on existing research on representative subset extraction and apply it in an information retrieval setting. Our document selection
more » ... cess consists of three steps: computation of the document representations, clustering, and selection of documents. We implement and compare two different document representations, two different clustering algorithms, and three different selection methods using a coverage and a redundancy metric. We execute our 36 experiments on two datasets, with 10 sample queries each, from different domains. The results show that there is no clear favorite and that we need to ask the question whether coverage and redundancy are sufficient for evaluating representative subsets.
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-99133-7_19 fatcat:6zv573vhsfguhnu3lnazzuw4va

Performance Comparison of Ad-Hoc Retrieval Models over Full-Text vs. Titles of Documents [chapter]

Ahmed Saleh, Tilman Beck, Lukas Galke, Ansgar Scherp
2018 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
While there are many studies on information retrieval models using full-text, there are presently no comparison studies of full-text retrieval vs. retrieval only over the titles of documents. On the one hand, the full-text of documents like scientific papers is not always available due to, e. g., copyright policies of academic publishers. On the other hand, conducting a search based on titles alone has strong limitations. Titles are short and therefore may not contain enough information to
more » ... satisfactory search results. In this paper, we compare different retrieval models regarding their search performance on the full-text vs. only titles of documents. We use different datasets, including the three digital library datasets: EconBiz, IREON, and PubMed. The results show that it is possible to build effective title-based retrieval models that provide competitive results comparable to full-text retrieval. The difference between the average evaluation results of the best title-based retrieval models is only % less than those of the best full-text-based retrieval models.
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-04257-8_30 fatcat:wwxzjk57urcgrakcnwn4iecu7u

Structure of BeF3−-Modified Response Regulator PleD: Implications for Diguanylate Cyclase Activation, Catalysis, and Feedback Inhibition

Paul Wassmann, Carmen Chan, Ralf Paul, Andreas Beck, Heiko Heerklotz, Urs Jenal, Tilman Schirmer
2007 Structure  
Cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous bacterial second messenger involved in the regulation of cell surface-associated traits and persistence. We have determined the crystal structure of PleD from Caulobacter crescentus, a response regulator with a diguanylate cyclase (DGC) domain, in its activated form. The BeF 3 À modification of its receiver domain causes rearrangement with respect to an adaptor domain, which, in turn, promotes dimer formation, allowing for the
more » ... t encounter of two symmetric catalytic domains. The substrate analog GTPaS and two putative cations are bound to the active sites in a manner similar to adenylate cyclases, suggesting an analogous two-metal catalytic mechanism. An allosteric c-di-GMP-binding mode that crosslinks DGC and an adaptor domain had been identified before. Here, a second mode is observed that crosslinks the DGC domains within a PleD dimer. Both modes cause noncompetitive product inhibition by domain immobilization. Structure 15, 915-927, August
doi:10.1016/j.str.2007.06.016 pmid:17697997 fatcat:umw4ul46o5cybhmjlmgflgig3i

Investigating label suggestions for opinion mining in German Covid-19 social media [article]

Tilman Beck, Ji-Ung Lee, Christina Viehmann, Marcus Maurer, Oliver Quiring, Iryna Gurevych
2021 arXiv   pre-print
This work investigates the use of interactively updated label suggestions to improve upon the efficiency of gathering annotations on the task of opinion mining in German Covid-19 social media data. We develop guidelines to conduct a controlled annotation study with social science students and find that suggestions from a model trained on a small, expert-annotated dataset already lead to a substantial improvement - in terms of inter-annotator agreement(+.14 Fleiss' κ) and annotation quality -
more » ... pared to students that do not receive any label suggestions. We further find that label suggestions from interactively trained models do not lead to an improvement over suggestions from a static model. Nonetheless, our analysis of suggestion bias shows that annotators remain capable of reflecting upon the suggested label in general. Finally, we confirm the quality of the annotated data in transfer learning experiments between different annotator groups. To facilitate further research in opinion mining on social media data, we release our collected data consisting of 200 expert and 2,785 student annotations.
arXiv:2105.12980v2 fatcat:wcyaqqsoendejcg2s2ozeebbsm

Conserved Gating Elements in TRPC4 and TRPC5 Channels

Andreas Beck, Tilman Speicher, Christof Stoerger, Thomas Sell, Viviane Dettmer, Siti A. Jusoh, Ammar Abdulmughni, Adolfo Cavalié, Stephan E. Philipp, Michael X. Zhu, Volkhard Helms, Ulrich Wissenbach (+1 others)
2013 Journal of Biological Chemistry  
Gating mechanisms of TRPC channels are mostly unknown. Results: Replacing the highly conserved glycine residue within the linker between transmembrane domains 4 and 5 by serine renders TRPC4 and TRPC5 channels constitutively active. Conclusion: TRPC channel opening seems to require similar constraints than the voltage-gated potassium channels. Significance: Novel mechanistic insights into structural requirements of TRPC channel gating are provided.
doi:10.1074/jbc.m113.478305 pmid:23677990 pmcid:PMC3707650 fatcat:27irul2sjzb4xb5vub3ae6u7qy

AdapterHub Playground: Simple and Flexible Few-Shot Learning with Adapters [article]

Tilman Beck, Bela Bohlender, Christina Viehmann, Vincent Hane, Yanik Adamson, Jaber Khuri, Jonas Brossmann, Jonas Pfeiffer, Iryna Gurevych
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Contact Person: Tilman Beck, M.Sc.  ...  ., 2012) are of great interest in social science research (Boumans and Trilling, 2016; Beck et al., 2021; van Atteveldt and Peng, 2021) .  ... 
arXiv:2108.08103v3 fatcat:i2wa3yw5fjbq3cg7wxtpyjieui

Discordant Clinical Course of Vitamin-D-Hydroxylase (CYP24A1) Associated Hypercalcemia in Two Adult Brothers With Nephrocalcinosis

Tilman Jobst-Schwan, Andrea Pannes, Karl Peter Schlingmann, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Bodo B. Beck, Michael S. Wiesener
2015 Kidney & Blood Pressure Research  
/Pannes/Schlingmann/Eckardt/Beck/Wiesener: Phenotype Variability in CYP24A1 Disease © 2015 S.  ...  Jobst-Schwan/Pannes/Schlingmann/Eckardt/Beck/Wiesener: Phenotype Variability in CYP24A1 Disease laboratory parameters see Table 3 ).  ... 
doi:10.1159/000368520 pmid:26304832 fatcat:pxlkv7k3ibhivprg4n4ymhwcs4

Assessment of chemical modifications of sites in the CDRs of recombinant antibodies

Markus Haberger, Katrin Bomans, Katharina Diepold, Michaela Hook, Jana Gassner, Tilman Schlothauer, Adrian Zwick, Christian Spick, Jochen Felix Kepert, Brigitte Hienz, Michael Wiedmann, Hermann Beck (+6 others)
2014 mAbs  
Modifications like asparagine deamidation, aspartate isomerization, methionine oxidation, and lysine glycation are typical degradations for recombinant antibodies. For the identification and functional evaluation of antibody critical quality attributes (CQas) derived from chemical modifications in the complementary-determining regions (CDrs) and the conserved regions, an approach employing specific stress conditions, elevated temperatures, pH, oxidizing agents, and forced glycation with glucose
more » ... incubation, was applied. The application of the specific stress conditions combined with ion exchange chromatography, proteolytic peptide mapping, quantitative liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and functional evaluation by surface plasmon resonance analysis was adequate to identify and functionally assess chemical modification sites in the CDrs of a recombinant IgG1. LC-Met-4, LC-asn-30/31, LC-asn-92, HC-Met-100c, and HC Lys-33 were identified as potential CQas. However, none of the assessed degradation products led to a complete loss of functionality if only one light or heavy chain of the native antibody was affected. mabs Volume 6 Issue 2 2), the heavy chain Lys-65 (CDR 2), and the heavy chain Lys-98 (CDR 3) were found to represent accessible glycation sites. 11, 37, 38 Moreover, Goetze et al. have analyzed the in vivo glycation rates of Lys residues in the conserved regions of recombinant mAbs. 39 Thus, new developability concepts for the next generation of therapeutic proteins have recently been discussed. [40] [41] [42] In the present study, an approach employing stress conditions (elevated temperatures, pH, oxidizing agents, and forced glycation with glucose incubation), ion exchange chromatography, and proteolytic peptide mapping combined with quantitative LC-MS for the induction, identification and quantification of Asn deamidation, Asp isomerization, Met oxidation, and Lys glycation was applied. This test system allowed us to identify light chain Met-4, Asn-30, Asn-31, Asn-92, heavy chain Lys-33, and Met-100c as potential chemical degradation sites in the variable region of a recombinant IgG1.
doi:10.4161/mabs.27876 pmid:24441081 pmcid:PMC3984323 fatcat:l2w7cwbfhnespc6ppyf7dntjla

On the differentiation between trait and state food craving: Half-year retest-reliability of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State(FCQ-S)

Adrian Meule, Carina Beck Teran, Jasmin Berker, Tilman Gründel, Martina Mayerhofer, Petra Platte
2014 Journal of Eating Disorders  
Food craving refers to an intense desire to consume a specific food. The Food Cravings Questionnaires (FCQs) assess food cravings on a trait and a state level. Method: The current study examined half-year retest-reliability of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S) and reports associations with current food deprivation in female students. Results: The FCQ-T-r had higher retest-reliability (r tt = .74) than the FCQ-S (r tt =
more » ... Although trait food craving was correlated with state food craving, it was unaffected by current food deprivation. Conclusions: Although state and trait food craving are interdependent, the FCQs are able to differentiate between the two. As scores of the FCQ-T-r represent a stable trait, but are also sensitive to changes in eating behavior, they may be useful for the investigation of the course of eating disorders and obesity.
doi:10.1186/s40337-014-0025-z pmid:25356313 pmcid:PMC4212121 fatcat:6q5b32xclrebnef2q4oxcvw2gy

Erratum to: On the differentiation between trait and state food craving: Half-year retest-reliability of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S)

Adrian Meule, Carina Beck Teran, Jasmin Berker, Tilman Gründel, Martina Mayerhofer, Petra Platte
2014 Journal of Eating Disorders  
Meule A, Beck Teran C, Berker J, Gründel T, Mayerhofer M, Platte P: On the differentiation between trait and state food craving: Half-year retest-reliability of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced  ... 
doi:10.1186/s40337-014-0033-z pmid:25434374 pmcid:PMC4245763 fatcat:zy7u5cjc5vhq5absapm2rdzhci
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