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The advantage of loose-coupling is that it is easy to implement. However, it is not preferable for implementing new data types and operations in large databases when high performance is required. ... In tight-coupling, new data types and operations are integrated into the core of the DBMS engine in the extensible applications of a geographical information system (GIS) implemented using Odysseus/OpenGIS ... Tightly-coupled spatial database features In this section, we present the tightly-coupled spatial database features of the Odysseus/ OpenGIS DBMS. ...doi:10.1007/s10707-009-0086-3 fatcat:mhgddydam5c5nalmythxk3it4i