A copy of this work was available on the public web and has been preserved in the Wayback Machine. The capture dates from 2021; you can also visit the original URL.
The file type is
The design of marine protected areas (MPAs) has been optimized under assumptions of spatially and temporally homogeneous larval dispersal, despite complex spatiotemporal patterns displayed by ocean currents. Here we studied the effect of dispersal variability on the effectiveness of MPA networks across scales. We adopted a nested approach integrating the dynamics of both within and among MPA connectivity into a stochastic metapopulation model and first derived metapopulation persistencedoi:10.1101/2020.12.05.413013 fatcat:o2okp5wadrbbthq7c4wnerbzsq
more »... d reproductive effort) and stability over MPA networks by partitioning within and among MPA contributions in relation to the spatial resolution of within-MPA connectivity. We applied this framework over a range of dispersal traits (spawning time and pelagic larval duration) and MPA network configurations, based on simulated biophysical connectivity along the northeast Pacific coast. Our results show how within-MPA dynamics affect predictions based on parameters of MPA networks such as MPA size, spacing, and pelagic larval duration. Increasing within-MPA spatial resolution predicted increasing population persistence and stability independently of other network properties. High-resolution within-MPA dynamics also predicted a negative relationship between species persistence and MPA spacing while that relationship was non-monotonic under low-resolution within-MPA dynamics. Our analysis also resolved the role of pelagic larval duration for scaling up within-MPA dynamics to MPA networks: species with short larval duration led to increasing network stability with MPA spacing while the opposite was observed for species with long larval duration. Our study stresses the importance of integrating fluctuating larval connectivity, both within and among MPAs, and more specifically suggest the benefit of small and nearby MPAs under increasing ocean variability.
Through full genome analyses of four atypical Bacillus cereus isolates, designated B. cereus biovar anthracis, we describe a distinct clade within the B. cereus group that presents with anthrax-like disease, carrying virulence plasmids similar to those of classic Bacillus anthracis. We have isolated members of this clade from different mammals (wild chimpanzees, gorillas, an elephant and goats) in West and Central Africa (Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Central African Republic and Democratic Republicdoi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004923 pmid:27607836 pmcid:PMC5015827 fatcat:6uc7h6e2r5ch5njbiuj5briwcq
more »... of Congo). The isolates shared several phenotypic features of both B. anthracis and B. cereus, but differed amongst each other in motility and their resistance or sensitivity to penicillin. They all possessed the same mutation in the regulator gene plcR, different from the one found in B. anthracis, and in addition, carry genes which enable them to produce a second capsule composed of hyaluronic acid. Our findings show the existence of a discrete clade of the B. cereus group capable of causing anthrax-like disease, found in areas of high biodiversity, which are possibly also the origin of the worldwide distributed B. anthracis. Establishing the impact of these pathogenic bacteria on threatened wildlife species will require systematic investigation. Furthermore, the consumption of wildlife found dead by the local population and presence in a domestic animal reveal potential sources of exposure to humans. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases |
Additional: In addition to the chapters presented in this thesis, I collaborated with Tianna Peller, a PhD student who is also working in the Second Canadian Healthy Oceans Network (CHONe2): Arneill GE ... Peller and I developed the research, processed and analysed the literature/data. T. Peller wrote the manuscript and I contributed to the writing. S. Leroux and F. ... Values range from -1 to +1, with scores of +1 Peller T, Andrews S, Leroux SJ, Guichard F (2020) From Marine Metacommunities to Metaecosystems: Examining the Nature, Scale and Significance of Resource ...doi:10.48336/d7ba-et27 fatcat:akfqqeuwureobapqoupyns7uny