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The Cochrane library
Differences between review and review update We amended Ahmed A Abdel-Hameed Adeel to Ahmed A Adeel, and Tom Burkot to Thomas R Burkot. ... D E C L A R A T I O N S O F I N T E R E S T DPW is supported by the Effective Health Care Research Consortium. ...doi:10.1002/14651858.cd008090.pub3 pmid:29226959 pmcid:PMC5741835 fatcat:4nnni25g5rhypdmo2kq3ivkfru
Climate change could significantly affect vectorborne disease in humans. Temperature, precipitation, humidity, and other climatic factors are known to affect the reproduction, development, behavior, and population dynamics of the arthropod vectors of these diseases. Climate also can affect the development of pathogens in vectors, as well as the population dynamics and ranges of the nonhuman vertebrate reservoirs of many vectorborne diseases. Whether climate changes increase or decrease thedoi:10.1016/j.amepre.2008.08.030 pmid:18929970 fatcat:hyp7ugerzfaw7ecqwuu6gyxkne
more »... ence of vectorborne diseases in humans will depend not only on the actual climatic conditions but also on local nonclimatic epidemiologic and ecologic factors. Predicting the relative impact of sustained climate change on vectorborne diseases is difficult and will require long-term studies that look not only at the effects of climate change but also at the contributions of other agents of global change such as increased trade and travel, demographic shifts, civil unrest, changes in land use, water availability, and other issues. Adapting to the effects of climate change will require the development of adequate response plans, enhancement of surveillance systems, and development of effective and locally appropriate strategies to control and prevent vectorborne diseases. (Am J Prev Med 2008;35(5):436 -450)
R . , G A R Z I E R A , L . , L A C R O I X , R . , D O N N E L L Y , C . A . , A L P H E Y , L . , M A L A V A S I , A . & C A P U R R O , 6 . C R A W F O R D , J . E . , C L A R K E , D . ... N o t j u s t f r o m b l o o d : M o s q u i t o n u t r i e n t a c q u i s i t i o n f r o m n e c t a r s o u r c e s . T r e n d s P a r a s i t o l , 3 6 , 4 7 3 - 4 8 4 . B A S R U R , N . ...doi:10.1101/2021.05.24.445527 fatcat:hmvdoypbejf5fnwpx3e35ag5xe
Background Vector surveillance provides critical data for decision-making to ensure that malaria control programmes remain effective and responsive to any threats to a successful control and elimination programme. The quality and quantity of data collected is dependent on the sampling tools and laboratory techniques used which may lack the sensitivity required to collect relevant data for decision-making. Here, 40 vector control experts were interviewed to assess the benefits and limitations ofdoi:10.1186/s12936-020-03494-0 pmid:33239015 fatcat:ecudp7qo2nc2hdq4xmjo3pidhe
more »... the current vector surveillance tools and techniques. In addition, experts shared ideas on "blue sky" indicators which encompassed ideas for novel methods to monitor presently used indicators, or to measure novel vector behaviours not presently measured. Algorithms for deploying surveillance tools and priorities for understanding vector behaviours are also needed for collecting and interpreting vector data. Results The available tools for sampling and analysing vectors are often hampered by high labour and resource requirements (human and supplies) coupled with high outlay and operating costs and variable tool performance across species and geographic regions. The next generation of surveillance tools needs to address the limitations of present tools by being more sensitive, specific and less costly to deploy to enable the collection and use of epidemiologically relevant vector data to facilitate more proactive vector control guidance. Ideas and attributes for Target Product Profiles (TPPs) generated from this analysis provide targets for research and funding to develop next generation tools. Conclusions More efficient surveillance tools and a more complete understanding of vector behaviours and populations will provide a basis for more cost effective and successful malaria control. Understanding the vectors' behaviours will allow interventions to be deployed that target vulnerabilities in vector behaviours and thus enable more effective control. Through defining the strengths and weaknesses of the current vector surveillance methods, a foundation and initial framework was provided to define the TPPs for the next generation of vector surveillance methods. The draft TTPs presented here aim to ensure that the next generation tools and technologies are not encumbered by the limitations of present surveillance methods and can be readily deployed in low resource settings.
Burkot is a senior research entomologist in the bacterial Zoonoses Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ...doi:10.3201/eid0703.017323 pmid:11384533 pmcid:PMC2631781 fatcat:i2stoifbqvco5kpr6kychlf7xq
We used the R package "hierfstat" (Goudet, 2005) to estimate global FST and the population differentiation statistic Dest (Jost, 2008) among the 2018 samples. . ... To run Locator we first pruned SNPs by linkage disequilibrium using the snpgdsLDpruning function in the R package "SNPRelate" (arguments, method = composite and ld.threshold = 0.2). ...doi:10.1101/2020.11.30.405191 fatcat:hmlrkfy4wbh3jdaa7zene2nvwy
Malaria transmission after universal access and use of malaria preventive services is known as residual malaria transmission. The concurrent spatial-temporal distributions of people and biting mosquitoes in malaria endemic villages determines where and when residual malaria transmission occurs. Understanding human and vector population behaviors and movements is a critical first step to prevent mosquito bites to eliminate residual malaria transmission. This study identified where people in thedoi:10.1038/s41598-020-63994-6 pmid:32341476 fatcat:dylidxiibvfw7o7yvsbhxzqece
more »... olomon Islands are over 24-hour periods. Participants (59%) were predominantly around the house but not in their house when most biting by Anopheles farauti, the dominant malaria vector, occurs. While 84% of people slept under a long-lasting insecticide-treated bed net (LLIN), on average only 7% were under an LLIN during the 18:00 to 21:00 h peak mosquito biting period. On average, 34% of participants spend at least one night away from their homes each fortnight. Despite high LLIN use while sleeping, most human biting by An. farauti occurs early in the evening before people go to sleep when people are in peri-domestic areas (predominantly on verandas or in kitchen areas). Novel vector control tools that protect individuals from mosquito bites between sundown and when people sleep are needed for peri-domestic areas.
Parasites & Vectors
The original barrier screen collections in Indonesia, the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea by Burkot et al. ... This analysis was conducted using R statistical software version 3.1.2. Results A total of 6395 female unfed mosquitoes were captured over 24 nights. ...doi:10.1186/s13071-019-3291-4 fatcat:k66ckmtdnffkrfx37f3dzgplwq
Parasites & Vectors
., Redmond, WA, USA) for statistical analyses with the R statistical environment (ver. 4.0.3; https:// www.r-proje ct. org). ... relative abundance and species richnessTwo separate generalised linear models with negative binomial distributions were used to estimate the influence of experimental factors for both mosquito abundance (R ...doi:10.1186/s13071-021-04999-6 pmid:34620217 pmcid:PMC8499491 fatcat:td2hlznkkzdj5p6in5ziauogde
All analyses were conducted using the R package V3.1.2  . ...doi:10.1186/s12936-016-1168-y pmid:26964528 pmcid:PMC4785651 fatcat:rzjyborbe5fvxffkqediihhvs4
The ultimate long-term goal of malaria eradication was recently placed back onto the global health agenda. When planning for this goal, it is important to remember why the original Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP), conducted with DDT-based indoor residual spraying (IRS), did not achieve its goals. One of the technical reasons for the failure to eliminate malaria was over reliance on a single intervention and subsequently the mosquito vectors developed behavioural resistance so thatdoi:10.1186/1475-2875-12-56 pmid:23388506 pmcid:PMC3570334 fatcat:bwm5ughwdvenxb32ztprgrxqfu
more »... ey did not come into physical contact with the insecticide. Hypothesis and how to test it: Currently, there remains a monolithic reliance on indoor vector control. It is hypothesized that an outcome of long-term, widespread control is that vector populations will change over time, either in the form of physiological resistance, changes in the relative species composition or behavioural resistance. The potential for, and consequences of, behavioural resistance was explored by reviewing the literature regarding vector behaviour in the southwest Pacific. Discussion: Here, two of the primary vectors that were highly endophagic, Anopheles punctulatus and Anopheles koliensis, virtually disappeared from large areas where DDT was sprayed. However, high levels of transmission have been maintained by Anopheles farauti, which altered its behaviour to blood-feed early in the evening and outdoors and, thereby, avoiding exposure to the insecticides used in IRS. This example indicates that the efficacy of programmes relying on indoor vector control (IRS and long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets [LLINs]) will be significantly reduced if the vectors change their behaviour to avoid entering houses. Conclusions: Behavioural resistance is less frequently seen compared with physiological resistance (where the mosquito contacts the insecticide but is not killed), but is potentially more challenging to control programmes because the intervention effectiveness cannot be restored by rotating the insecticide to one with a different mode of action. The scientific community needs to urgently develop systematic methods for monitoring behavioural resistance and then to work in collaboration with vector control programmes to implement monitoring in sentinel sites. In situations where behavioural resistance is detected, there will be a need to target other bionomic vulnerabilities that may exist in the larval stages, during mating, sugar feeding or another aspect of the life cycle of the vector to continue the drive towards elimination.
All statistical analyses were conducted in RStudio (R v. 3.4.1). The effect of weather on catch sizes of An. farauti was evaluated using a forward-selection GLMM. ...doi:10.1186/s12936-019-2923-7 pmid:31477123 pmcid:PMC6721334 fatcat:d3sjwsunyrfohcrlnpcgq66yb4
All analyses were conducted using the R package V3.6.0  . ... e P Nitrate (mg/L) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Gentle Moderate Steep f o e g a t n e c r e P s ites 0 -4 5 -9 10 -14 15 -19 > 20 Water depth (cm) 0% 20% 40% 60% ...doi:10.1186/s12936-019-3049-7 pmid:31829189 pmcid:PMC6907239 fatcat:vifccq2ccbgd7abizzpngyypae
Malaria is a vector-borne disease that contributes substantially to the global burden of morbidity and mortality. The management of malaria-related data from heterogeneous, autonomous, and distributed data sources poses unique challenges and requirements. Although online data storage systems exist that address specific malaria-related issues, a globally integrated online resource to address different aspects of the disease does not exist. In this article, we describe the design, implementation,doi:10.1093/database/bax073 pmid:29220463 pmcid:PMC5632519 fatcat:qfu3krznifbfzfjd3pazbphh4u
more »... and applications of a multidimensional, online analytical processing data warehouse, named the VecNet Data Warehouse (VecNet-DW). It is the first online, globally-integrated platform that provides efficient search, retrieval and visualization of historical, predictive, and static malariarelated data, organized in data marts. Historical and static data are modelled using star schemas, while predictive data are modelled using a snowflake schema. The major goals, characteristics, and components of the DW are described along with its data taxonomy and ontology, the external data storage systems and the logical modelling and physical design phases. Results are presented as screenshots of a Dimensional Data browser, a Lookup Tables browser, and a Results Viewer interface. The power of the DW emerges from integrated querying of the different data marts and structuring those queries to the desired dimensions, enabling users to search, view, analyse, and store large volumes of aggregated data, and responding better to the increasing demands of users. Database URL: https://dw.vecnet.org/datawarehouse/ V C The Author(s)
These analyses were performed using the R package (v3.5.1). ... For more details regarding the scale and scope of vector control and surveillance operations, see Burkot et al.  . ...doi:10.1186/s12936-020-03493-1 pmid:33228725 fatcat:annebxj52nflhnq6kc6srcb4hu
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