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Patently Different? How Does the Strength of Patents Influence Globalization of R&D? Empirical Evidence from the 2004 Indian Patent Reforms

Anand Nandkumar, Kannan Srikanth
2011 Social Science Research Network  
In this paper, using a unique natural experiment that relates to the recently enacted patent reforms in India, we contribute towards understanding how IP regime strength influences the division of labor  ...  However, there is considerable evidence that MNE offshore significant levels of R&D, over and above what is required for local customization or government enforced technology transfers.  ...  Almost all MNEs captive managers that we interviewed for this study said that their Indian captive center had full responsibility for R&D, product development and support for some global products, with  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1885246 fatcat:ldguzgrr45bvxemsjn4k7lmdne

Outsourcing and the rise of innovative software services in Bangalore

Rasmus Lema
2011 Innovation and Development  
Over the last three decades, outsourcing has had a big influence on the international division of labour.  ...  It is clear that it has been a major reason for the enormous build-up of production capabilities in the developing world, in particular in the export platforms of Asia.  ...  Recall the example of the outsourced development of a management information system (MIS) for use in the microfinance industry.  ... 
doi:10.1080/2157930x.2011.556488 fatcat:kh73a64n4ba4hlwebcjitk7rii

The Economics of Offshore Financial Services and the Choice of Tax, Currency, and Exchange-Rate Regimes

George M. von Furstenberg
2006 Social Science Research Network  
According to McAndrews (1997) , the market production of network services may often be inefficiently low because using a network imposes a (positive) external effect on other users of network, an effect  ...  Rising real exchange rates in NMS in part reflect productivity growth in the traded sectors giving rise to Balassa-Samuelson effects, as well as a growing demand for non-traded goods and the effects of  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.925885 fatcat:ycuk3dutwvd7xe4igk3itqdcum

Research Note—Industry-Specific Human Capital and Wages: Evidence from the Business Process Outsourcing Industry

Keongtae Kim, Sunil Mithas, Jonathan Whitaker, Prasanto K. Roy
2014 Information systems research  
While IS researchers have studied some dimensions of human capital, the role of industry-specific human capital has remained understudied.  ...  The IT-enabled business process outsourcing (BPO) industry provides an ideal setting to study returns to human capital, because jobs in this industry are standardized and many professionals in this new  ...  Twenty-three of these 25 firms are outsourcing vendors, one firm is a captive provider, and one firm provides both outsourced and captive services.  ... 
doi:10.1287/isre.2014.0532 fatcat:mcgznalkibcvxdkstzpgpafr4e

Individualism–Collectivism in Hofstede and GLOBE

Paul Brewer, Sunil Venaik
2011 Journal of International Business Studies  
body of literature that addresses 'what kind of innovation models effectively address emerging markets needs'?  ...  We find that most BOP business models reported in the literature view the poor as consumers of somewhat adapted products rather than co-inventors and entrepreneurs.  ...  Several findings emerge from the results. First, the stability of university-industry relationship is identified as a critical dimension of the  ... 
doi:10.1057/jibs.2010.62 fatcat:q5synlhlgbekxnqpg5rr2cjrry

Access to finance in value chains: New evidence from Latin America [chapter]

2014 Global value chains and world trade  
See Athukorala (2003) , Athukorala and Yamashita (2006) , Kimura and Obashi (2009) for a comparison of production networks in China and East Asia; Kimura, Takahashi and Hayakawa (2005) for analysis  ...  The opinions expressed in this chapter are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of their institutions. 5 Comparative studies between Asia and Europe and Latin America are so  ...  Except for a couple of countries, the index of the 'number of production stages' is above 2.5 (it should be recalled that the index for a final industry without production stages equals 1), illustrating  ... 
doi:10.18356/f5b95e08-en fatcat:n32ssvqzyfg3davcultibgiyxe

The interplay of networking activities and internal knowledge actions for subsidiary influence within MNCs

Zhaleh Najafi-Tavani, Axèle Giroud, Ulf Andersson
2014 Journal of World Business  
In contrast to the dominant rational analytic model, we argue that the managers of SMEs simplify the structure of the internationalization decision by decomposing it into a hierarchy of two different stages  ...  Based on a sample of 436 Spanish SMEs, our paper contributes to the literature of SME`s internationalization in two ways: First, it shows the explanatory capacity of the hierarchical model to split SME  ...  Offshoring is intended as delocalization of business services in foreign countries that may occur either through a whollyowned company (Captive Offshoring) or by outsourcing the service activity (Offshore  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2013.02.004 fatcat:2ieddcypavgkvn6yb2oveuys4u

OUTSOURCING, OFFSHORING THE IFO INSTITUTE'S MODEL FOR REDUCING VAT FRAUD ACTIVATION VERSUS OTHER EMPLOYMENT POLICIES PROSPECTS FOR THE EUROPEAN ECONOMY ACCESSION COUNTRIES IN THE SHADOWS LABOUR UNIONS: FAILING TO COPE WITH STRUCTURAL CHANGE A joint initiative of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and the Ifo Institute for Economic Research

Lael Brainard, Robert Litan, Erkki Liikanen, Bruce Cronin, Lesley Catchpowle, David Hall, Jacob Kirkegaard, Hans-Werner Sinn, Andrea Gebauer, Rüdiger Parsche, Lars Calmfors
2004 unpublished
) UK Abroad Mixed Internal Insourcing Inhouse ('Captive') offshoring External Outsourcing Outsourced offshoring Locally Integrated Offshoring Table 2 2 Differential benefits of outsourcing  ...  Another issue is that of trade vs. compensation.  ...  Nevertheless, the experts surveyed expect the economy of the euro area to grow by 1.7% in 2004 after a mere 0.4% in 2003.  ... 
fatcat:ngwqm6g2qfdnjagxacl6idsccy

Patterns of sustainability values among subsidiaries

Morten Rask, Jakob Lauring
2012 International Journal of Sustainable Strategic Management (IJSSM)  
We introduce a new form of analysis to the international business field, and a new analytical tool to the field of scientometry.  ...  We contribute to this debate by investigating the evolution of the IB field through a scientometric examination of the population of scholarly articles published in its premier journal, the Journal of  ...  captive offshoring, while the geographic distance has lost relevance.  ... 
doi:10.1504/ijssm.2012.049008 fatcat:cotuwrnckzdc3mzthlcj2yem64

Governance in European Food Value Chains

David Barling, Jennifer Gresham
2019 Zenodo  
Each study evaluates the governance of the value chain through the different stages of production, processing and retail, following the transformation from farmed/grown commodity to final food product.  ...  Interviews allowed for a deeper exploration of the different perceptions of relationships dynamics felt by actors across each value chain. 2.  ...  This outsourcing of policy delivery is a feature of contemporary food policy (Lang et al. 2009 ).  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.5188542 fatcat:qkpltzag75cnhjv4u4fus35y3a

Governance in European Food Value Chains

David Barling, Jennifer Gresham
2019 Zenodo  
Each study evaluates the governance of the value chain through the different stages of production, processing and retail, following the transformation from farmed/grown commodity to final food product.  ...  Interviews allowed for a deeper exploration of the different perceptions of relationships dynamics felt by actors across each value chain. 2.  ...  This outsourcing of policy delivery is a feature of contemporary food policy (Lang et al. 2009 ).  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.4956325 fatcat:2m4y7dslhfcyxcy336j7bc2jza

Engineering for a Changing World [chapter]

James J. Duderstadt
2010 Holistic Engineering Education  
Acknowledgments The author wishes to acknowledge as well the insight and suggestions provided by many colleagues who responded to earlier drafts of this report including Dan Atkins, Arden  ...  Which of course raises the logical question: Can we sustain a population of that magnitude on Spaceship Earth?  ...  The growing tendency of American industry to outsource engineering services should serve as a wakeup call in the same way that the outsourcing of blue-collar manufacturing jobs did in the 1980s.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1393-7_3 fatcat:jenb3msvwnasdfuet7jpp3biai

The Nature And Structuration Of Management Control In Knowledge Intensive Work A Study Of Information Technology Services Work In India

Secki Payyappilly Jose
2020
Overall, the study makes a contribution to a deeper understanding of the basis and form of managerial strategies that seek to extend control over knowledge intensive work.  ...  The following study is an examination of the nature of labour processes and management controls within a type of knowledge-intensive work, specifically Information Technology Services or ITS work.  ...  A majority of the ITS work carried out in India is offshored and outsourced.  ... 
doi:10.25392/leicester.data.12624668 fatcat:tkwilzyuhjgw3oc4k7um4aldh4

Design Ltd.: Renovated Myths for the Development of Socially Embedded Technologies [article]

Federico Cabitza, Carla Simone
2013 arXiv   pre-print
of software and modern IT in the organizational domain.  ...  Points backing these and similar concepts are made to promote further discussion on the need to rethink the main assumptions underlying IT design and development some fifty years later the coming of age  ...  and representationally paraded expertise was often "bounced off", so that the programs of 13 This parcelization is nowadays so obvious that offshore outsourcing has become a practice that is conceptually  ... 
arXiv:1211.5577v3 fatcat:doxvgksfszeabfwiigoxfzmhqa

Vol. 2, No. 4, October 2009. All in one file

Cindy Xu
2009 International Business Research  
Production and all other labor-intensive operations are outsourced and subcontracted, the company being essentially a coordinator of elaborate, cascading chains of outsourced production.  ...  Insert Figure 1 Here ART is a blend of the use of insurance and capital market instruments and typically consists of the use of one or a combination of the following products: captive insurance, finite  ...  A brief outline of the Johansen (1988) procedure is given below: The notation Z t denote a p 1 vector of variables which are not integrated in order higher than one, then Z t can be formulated as a VAR  ... 
doi:10.5539/ibr.v2n4p0 fatcat:gknfjddr4jhazfj7qzkv3wcpv4
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