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Responsibility beyond design: Physicians' requirements for ethical medical AI

Martin Sand, Juan Manuel Durán, Karin Rolanda Jongsma
2021 Bioethics  
Despite worries about the explainability and accuracy of such medical AI systems, it is reasonable to assume that they will be increasingly implemented in medical practice.  ...  Medical AI is increasingly being developed and tested to improve medical diagnosis, prediction and treatment of a wide array of medical conditions.  ...  The four dimensions of contestable AI diagnostics -A patient-centric approach to explainable AI. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, 107, 101901. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.artmed.2020.101901  ... 
doi:10.1111/bioe.12887 pmid:34089625 pmcid:PMC9291936 fatcat:hi2qm7uqh5gfrntt6mugflv3a4

"Democratizing" artificial intelligence in medicine and healthcare: Mapping the uses of an elusive term

Giovanni Rubeis, Keerthi Dubbala, Ingrid Metzler
2022 Frontiers in Genetics  
access to and oversight of data, and 4) making AI an object of democratic governance.Discussion: The envisioned democratization in most visions mainly focuses on patients as consumers and relies on or  ...  Results: We identified four clusters of visions of democratizing AI in healthcare and medicine: 1) democratizing medicine and healthcare through AI, 2) multiplying the producers and users of AI, 3) enabling  ...  For instance, the European Commission (EC) has begun to elaborate on an approach that "places people at the centre of the development of AI (human centric AI) and encourages the use of this powerful technology  ... 
doi:10.3389/fgene.2022.902542 pmid:36046243 pmcid:PMC9422998 fatcat:27l5jvxqifghdbeirtfaftwyxa

Towards Launching AI Algorithms for Cellular Pathology into Clinical Pharmaceutical Orbits [article]

Amina Asif, Kashif Rajpoot, David Snead, Fayyaz Minhas, Nasir Rajpoot
2021 arXiv   pre-print
, treatment sensitivity and patient stratification -- heralding the promise of a new data-driven AI era for both histopathology and oncology.  ...  With data serving as the fuel and AI as the engine, CPath algorithms are poised to be ready for takeoff and eventual launch into clinical and pharmaceutical orbits.  ...  Interpretability and explainability Many ML approaches, and notably DL methods, are known to be black-box approaches, making it hard or impossible to understand how the model reaches a decision.  ... 
arXiv:2112.09496v1 fatcat:2xukmfmc6rhhfk4e6bxl4u6ipq

What rights matter? Examining the place of social rights in the EU's artificial intelligence policy debate

Jędrzej Niklas, Lina Dencik
2021 Internet Policy Review  
As such, the AI policy debate both exposes and advances new normative conflicts over the meaning of rights as a central component of any attachment to 'European values' .  ...  In this paper, we explore these questions in relation to the recent AI policy debate in the European Union with a particular focus on the place of social rights as a historically pertinent but neglected  ...  Summaries covered the role of human rights in documents, political recommendations, issues related to social policies, and a general approach to AI.  ... 
doi:10.14763/2021.3.1579 fatcat:3gu5ft5qqbcdhnqzbenx54mvuq

How to Assess Trustworthy AI in Practice [article]

Roberto V. Zicari, Julia Amann, Frédérick Bruneault, Megan Coffee, Boris Düdder, Eleanore Hickman, Alessio Gallucci, Thomas Krendl Gilbert, Thilo Hagendorff, Irmhild van Halem, Elisabeth Hildt, Sune Holm (+8 others)
2022 arXiv   pre-print
This report is a methodological reflection on Z-Inspection^. Z-Inspection^ is a holistic process used to evaluate the trustworthiness of AI-based technologies at different stages of the AI lifecycle.  ...  We share the lessons learned from conducting a series of independent assessments to evaluate the trustworthiness of AI systems in healthcare.  ...  An interesting question which we would need to address in the future is if there is some tension in having a process for assessing AI which uses another AI which is not assessed.  ... 
arXiv:2206.09887v2 fatcat:fc4h6u4o6zhk3axjfr5a2xxrl4

Foundations for Meaning and Understanding in Human-centric AI [article]

Steels, Luc (ed.)
2022 Zenodo  
A short conclusion identifying key research topics for meaning-based human-centric AI.  ...  We call this kind of AI meaningful AI in contrast to AI that rests exclusively on the use of statistically acquired pattern recognition and pattern completion.  ...  and rhetorics in economics and economic a↵airs; reminding me not to lose sight of a fundamental aspect of this ambitious project, its focus on the human beings, and on their use of language for (re)constructing  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.6666819 fatcat:ia3wwkrfrrcmhfpxobqxvwtesi

Flexible and Context-Specific AI Explainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach [article]

Valérie Beaudouin, David Bounie (IP Paris, ECOGE, SES), Stéphan Clémençon, Florence d'Alché-Buc, James Eagan, Jayneel Parekh
2020 arXiv   pre-print
The originality of this paper is to combine technical, legal and economic aspects of explainability to develop a framework for defining the "right" level of explain-ability in a given context.  ...  To achieve trust and accountability, designers and operators of machine learning algorithms must be able to explain the inner workings, the results and the causes of failures of algorithms to users, regulators  ...  or treatment of disease would require that doctors inform patients of the existence and modalities of any big data processing operations that contribute to disease prevention, diagnostic, treatment of  ... 
arXiv:2003.07703v1 fatcat:knsvo6eftzf2fe3eeoekck5xaa

Artificial Intelligence's Grand Challenges: Past, Present, and Future

Ganesh Mani, Frank Chen, Steve Cross, Thomas Kalil, Vanathi Gopalakrishnan, Francesca Rossi, Ken Stanley
2021 The AI Magazine  
, Thomas Kalil, and Vanathi gopalakrishnan. i dedicate this article to the memory of Ai pioneer Jaime Carbonell, one of my mentors and long-term collaborators.  ...  Ashok goel's enthusiasm was key to the project and its unique format.  ...  on each of a plurality of task dimensions.  ... 
dblp:journals/aim/ManiCCKGRS21 fatcat:nh6p3tcqlfavhglzjjg4jmzsei

Advancing Personalized Medicine Through the Application of Whole Exome Sequencing and Big Data Analytics

Pawel Suwinski, ChuangKee Ong, Maurice H. T. Ling, Yang Ming Poh, Asif M. Khan, Hui San Ong
2019 Frontiers in Genetics  
This is led by a fundamental shift from the 'one size fits all' paradigm for treatment of patients with conditions or predisposition to diseases, to one that embraces novel approaches, such as tailored  ...  This includes the incorporation of artificial intelligence (AI) in the clinical utility landscape of genomic information, and future consideration to create a new frontier toward advancing the field of  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank Ms. Nur Atiqah Azhar for her assistance in the artwork of Figures 1, 2 herein.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fgene.2019.00049 pmid:30809243 pmcid:PMC6379253 fatcat:aep2s7mcfrbofap6ygppzgefhy

Voice-based diagnosis of covid-19: ethical and legal challenges

Marco Almada, Juliano Maranhão
2021 International Data Protecion Law  
The authors thank the anonymous reviewers for their comments on previous versions of this article.  ...  Thomas Ploug and Søren Holm, 'The Four Dimensions of Contestable AI Diagnostic -A Patient-Centric Approach to Explainable AI' (2020) 107 Artificial Intelligence in Medicine. 17 Stan Benjamens, Pranavsingh  ...  Once the app obtains the required data, it produces an output: for SPIRA, whether a patient should seek health care; for SoundCov, a diagnostic of Covid-19.  ... 
doi:10.1093/idpl/ipab004 fatcat:jflgrvpy6bd4rdsuowdzsteofm

Ensuring patient and public involvement in the transition to AI‐assisted mental health care: A systematic scoping review and agenda for design justice

Teodor Zidaru, Elizabeth M. Morrow, Rich Stockley
2021 Health Expectations  
Patient and public involvement (PPI) in the transition to AI-assisted health care is essential for design justice based on diverse patient needs.  ...  Further research is needed to understand effective modes of public engagement in the context of AI technologies, to examine pressing ethical and safety issues and to develop new methods of PPI at every  ...  studies of impact or evaluation reports that explain how a PPI element influenced a research study or the design of a health intervention; and (e) patient and public views on data-driven approaches to  ... 
doi:10.1111/hex.13299 pmid:34118185 fatcat:i64ljjahnrdkrl3d3ynewbezcu

Artificial Intelligence (AI): Multidisciplinary perspectives on emerging challenges, opportunities, and agenda for research, practice and policy

Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Laurie Hughes, Elvira Ismagilova, Gert Aarts, Crispin Coombs, Tom Crick, Yanqing Duan, Rohita Dwivedi, John Edwards, Aled Eirug, Vassilis Galanos, P. Vigneswara Ilavarasan (+23 others)
2019 International Journal of Information Management  
Acknowledgement This submission was developed from a workshop on Artificial Intelligence (AI), which was held at the School of Management, Swansea University on 13 th June 2019.  ...  We are very grateful to everyone who attended the workshop and contributed their perspectives during the workshop and as an input to this article.  ...  AI (and especially robotics) specialists have to a great extent turned to bio-inspired and nonhuman-centric approaches to achieve small successes, little by little (e.g.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2019.08.002 fatcat:f2bggou4unhgjoiei2hzimigmu

Experiences of Microaggressions Among American Indian and Alaska Native Students in Two Post-Secondary Contexts

Victoria O'Keefe, Brenna Greenfield
2019 Monografi: ISSN 1046-7750  
Increased AI/AN microaggressions research is needed to bring awareness, education, and solutions.  ...  American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) are subject to widespread cultural misrepresentations ranging from intrusive questions about ethnic identity to Native-themed sports team mascots.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge Gabrielle Benjamin, Ge-Waden Dunkley, and Karla Washington. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ... 
doi:10.5820/aian.2603.2019.58 pmid:31743415 fatcat:lyokjcnhkrfc5dzdftyeyskusy

The Contribution of Data-Driven Technologies in Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals

Nadine Bachmann, Shailesh Tripathi, Manuel Brunner, Herbert Jodlbauer
2022 Sustainability  
This study presents a comprehensive literature review on how data-driven approaches have enabled or inhibited the successful achievement of the 17 SDGs to date.  ...  The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set out to improve the quality of life of people in developed, emerging, and developing countries by covering social and economic aspects, with  ...  Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/su14052497 fatcat:i6gjzrzqqjdvlaaglxq22i73ba

Data Justice in Practice: A Guide for Developers

David Leslie, Michael Katell, Mhairi Aitken, Jatinder Singh, Morgan Briggs, Rosamund Powell, Cami Rincón, Antonella Perini, Smera Jayadeva, Christopher Burr
2022 Zenodo  
This portion of the guide is intended to provide a background picture of the different stages of the lifecycle and to show how the data justice pillars can be woven into the stages and their respective  ...  Next, to support developers in designing, developing, and deploying responsible and equitable data-intensive and AI/ML systems, we outline the AI/ML project lifecycle through a sociotechnical lens, walking  ...  Confronting questions of equitable access involves four dimensions of data justice: Concerns with equitable access should: Four-dimensional approach to equitable access Aims to establish the equal dignity  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.6428185 fatcat:2qyb3npdibh4fajeivenv74sxi
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