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Perfect Storm: Climate Change and Tourism

Serhan Cevik, Manuk Ghazanchyan
2021 Journal of Globalization and Development  
As extreme weather events are becoming more frequent and severe over time, our findings indicate that the Caribbean countries need to invest more in adaptation and mitigation in order to reduce vulnerabilities  ...  Using a multidimensional index, this study investigates the long-term impact of climate change vulnerability on international tourism in a panel of 15 Caribbean countries over the period 1995–2017.  ...  and Olken (2012) find that higher temperatures result in a significant reduction in economic growth in developing countries.  ... 
doi:10.1515/jgd-2020-0015 fatcat:vs42nhasazeejflf5jdfhxnmx4

Does open source improve system security?

B. Witten, C. Landwehr, M. Caloyannides
2001 IEEE Software  
Disclaimer The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and not the Department of Defense or Mitretek Systems.  ...  In addition, we thank Rick Murphy of Mitretek Systems and Steve Lipner and Sekar Chandersekaran of Microsoft, who provided helpful reviews of a draft of this article, but who do not necessarily concur  ...  However, these code bases have also created an information infrastructure whose vulnerabilities are so striking as to endanger national and economic security. 1 Distributed denial of service attacks have  ... 
doi:10.1109/52.951496 fatcat:fbkful7wgveubeon4dldsaxvye

Socioeconomic predictors of COVID-19-related health disparities among United States workers: A structural equation modeling study

Ariadna Capasso, Sooyoung Kim, Shahmir H. Ali, Abbey M. Jones, Ralph J. DiClemente, Yesim Tozan, Karen D. Cowgill
2022 PLOS Global Public Health  
The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted the physical and mental health, and the economic stability, of specific population subgroups in different ways, deepening existing disparities.  ...  Findings highlight how interrelated financial, mental health, and healthcare access vulnerabilities contribute to the disproportionate COVID-19-related burden among U.S. workers.  ...  These findings underscore the need to buttress labor policies to secure employment conditions, including fixed income in place of hourly or task-based wages, and mandatory paid sick leave.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pgph.0000117 fatcat:2gfyvibvwbdspiy3k7i62ddraq

Social protection in the face of climate change: targeting principles and financing mechanisms

Michael R. Carter, Sarah A. Janzen
2017 Environment and Development Economics  
The paper further shows insurance-based vulnerability-targeted social protection dominates (in economic growth and poverty reduction measures) both in-kind transfers and asset-based vulnerability-targeted  ...  The analysis shows the long-term level and depth of poverty can be improved by incorporating 'vulnerability-targeted social protection' into a conventional social protection system.  ...  and drive poverty Preliminary findings from the theoretical analysis are: Gauged by standard poverty metrics, targeting some of a fixed social protection budget at the vulnerable can reduce 1 st and 2  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1355770x17000407 fatcat:otjznpezcnb3fhbvm253acep3q

Dynamic Vulnerability Analysis of Mountain Settlements Exposed to Geological Hazards: A Case Study of the Upper Min River, China

Mingtao Ding, Chuan Tang, Tao Huang, Zemin Gao
2020 Advances in Civil Engineering  
Based on a field investigation, collation of yearbook data, and analysis through the use of SPSS statistical software, a vulnerability evaluation index system of geological hazards was devised.  ...  According to the actual field situation and the acquired data of the study area in 2006, 2009, and 2015, 16 indicators were selected as settlement vulnerability evaluation indexes of geological hazards  ...  (12) Per capita investment in fixed assets (D12): per capita investment in fixed assets is the economic activity of construction and purchase of fixed assets, that is, the reproduction of fixed assets  ... 
doi:10.1155/2020/8887487 fatcat:sbkhxsx6pjfdtn27tsi6btegvy

Government Health Expenditure and Public Health Outcomes: A Comparative Study among EU Developing Countries

Mihaela Onofrei, Anca-Florentina Vatamanu, Georgeta Vintilă, Elena Cigu
2021 International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health  
Secondarily, we studied how the status of good governance, health care system performance, and socioeconomic vulnerabilities affect the public health's outcomes in the selected countries.  ...  Moreover, the consolidation of health care system performance directly improves the quality of life among EU developing countries, which indicates that public policymakers should intervene and provide  ...  These results agree with previous findings, showing that quality of government matters in public health and it is a gap in the literature, argued by the fact that most of the papers deal with economic,  ... 
doi:10.3390/ijerph182010725 pmid:34682472 fatcat:pclb67zscfc2roe46g62fa7ymu

Challenges to Cybersecurity: Current State of Affairs

Ravi Sen
2018 Communications of the Association for Information Systems  
The most widely used approaches to minimize the risk of cybersecurity incident due to software vulnerabilities include: 1) developing and distributing patches to fix the vulnerabilities, 2) using technical  ...  etc.), 3) the producer of the vulnerable system, and 4) the custodian of the system responsible for maintaining the system.  ... 
doi:10.17705/1cais.04302 fatcat:cekaw4bnsfatjgeiueghszgi3e

Economic Factors of Vulnerability Trade and Exploitation

Luca Allodi
2017 Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security - CCS '17  
In this paper we provide an empirical investigation of the economics of vulnerability exploitation, and the effects of market factors on likelihood of exploit.  ...  Our findings reveal that exploits in the underground are priced similarly or above vulnerabilities in legitimate bug-hunting programs, and that the refresh cycle of exploits is slower than currently often  ...  This may indicate a prolonged economic interest in the exploitation of Microsoft and Adobe vulnerabilities, a finding consistent with related work on the persistence of vulnerabilities on end-user systems  ... 
doi:10.1145/3133956.3133960 dblp:conf/ccs/Allodi17 fatcat:7zhphlvu3rf5pe4hwlxcs7oe2i

A Comprehensive Assessment and Spatial Analysis of Vulnerability of China's Provincial Economies

Chongqiang Ren, Guofang Zhai, Shutian Zhou, Wei Chen, Shasha Li
2018 Sustainability  
Comprehensive assessment of economic vulnerability in the process of economic growth under the theoretical framework of vulnerability will provide a new perspective for vulnerability studies.  ...  Vulnerability theory is a fundamental scientific knowledge system in sustainable development, and vulnerability assessment is important in vulnerability studies.  ...  Acknowledgments: This study is supported by Humanities and Social Sciences of the Ministry of Education Planning Fund of China, NO. 17YJAZH066 and major training projects for basic scientific research  ... 
doi:10.3390/su10041261 fatcat:74h4y4uagrdsditjuek5zis4mi

An Empirical Study of Bug Bounty Programs

Thomas Walshe, Andrew Simpson
2020 2020 IEEE 2nd International Workshop on Intelligent Bug Fixing (IBF)  
We consider the economics of bug bounty programs, investigating the costs and benefits to those running such programs and the hackers that participate in finding vulnerabilities.  ...  The task of identifying vulnerabilities is commonly outsourced to hackers participating in bug bounty programs.  ...  The research described in this paper was undertaken as part of the "Data and models for secure software engineering" project, which is funded by the UK's National Cyber Security Centre.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ibf50092.2020.9034828 fatcat:osics6zdrrfihi44tslxcwkbhu

A COVID-19 Community Vulnerability Index to drive precision policy in the US [article]

Peter Smittenaar, Nicholas Stewart, Staci Sutermaster, Lindsay Coome, Aaron Dibner-Dunlap, Mokshada Jain, Yael Caplan, Christine Campigotto, Sema K. Sgaier
2021 medRxiv   pre-print
In April 2020 we released the US COVID-19 Community Vulnerability Index (CCVI) to bring to life vulnerability to health, economic, and social impact of COVID-19 at the state, county, and census tract level  ...  Here we describe the methodology, how vulnerability is distributed across the U.S., and assess the impact on vulnerable communities over the first year of the pandemic.  ...  We find that seven of the 10 most vulnerable counties are in North Carolina and seven out of the top ten most vulnerable states are located within the South.  ... 
doi:10.1101/2021.05.19.21257455 fatcat:ntmzu5ae4ravpky6n7pgtyzryq

Between a risk society and a welfare state: social risk resilience and vulnerability to poverty in Lithuania

Jekaterina Navickė
2015 Socialinė teorija empirija politika ir praktika  
Abstract This paper looks into the role the tax-benefit system plays in mitigating the effects of widespread socio-economic risks in the context of individualization, welfare state transformation and recent  ...  The performance of the tax-benefit system in providing a safety net against income loss in cases of unemployment and childbirth is evaluated using the stress-testing approach suggested by Atkinson (2009  ...  The approach complements other types of vulnerability analysis, focusing on concrete socio-economic risks and on the functioning of the tax-benefit system in relation to them.  ... 
doi:10.15388/stepp.2015.10.4861 fatcat:g4qtlngrwzcndfwijgvdlpaqfi

Quantified security is a weak hypothesis

Vilhelm Verendel
2009 Proceedings of the 2009 workshop on New security paradigms workshop - NSPW '09  
Despite applying a number of techniques from fields such as computer science, economics and reliability theory to the problem it is unclear what valid results exist with respect to operational security  ...  We classify a significant part of the work between 1981 and 2008 with respect to security perspective, target of quantification, underlying assumptions and type of validation.  ...  Thus, even in a fixed environment of systems and threats the behavior and patterns of security events may change over time. • Low stationarity, with systems, threat environments and vulnerabilities that  ... 
doi:10.1145/1719030.1719036 dblp:conf/nspw/Verendel09 fatcat:254sjcnwcvgcfams4hludb6bri

Open and Closed Systems Are Equivalent [chapter]

2007 Perspectives on Free and Open Source Software  
So in what follows I will talk about 'open systems' versus 'closed systems', which differ simply in the difficulty in finding and fixing a security vulnerability.  ...  The equivalence of open and closed systems is a different kind of result, more like some equivalence theorems found in economics.  ...  Appendix The following exposition is taken from [15] , and uses an argument familiar to students of statistical mechanics. If there are N (t) bugs left after t tests, let the  ... 
doi:10.7551/mitpress/5326.003.0013 fatcat:ilgx7ih3ibfmrm2rokkh7bn5lq

Transient Poverty, Poverty Dynamics, and Vulnerability to Poverty: An Empirical Analysis Using a Balanced Panel from Rural China

Patrick S. Ward
2016 World Development  
China's economic reforms starting in the late 1970s have resulted in rapid economic growth, with annual growth in gross domestic product averaging greater than 10 percent per year for more than thirty  ...  This rising income gap challenges the notion that economic reforms in China have been as successful as the poverty statistics would suggest.  ...  Collective farming ended in almost all of China and family farms emerged as the dominant system of farming.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.10.022 pmid:26855470 pmcid:PMC4740920 fatcat:v7buc2arzzb3ziia3rbyrqi3sq
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