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The applicability of probabilistic methods to the online recognition of fixations and saccades in dynamic scenes

Enkelejda Kasneci, Gjergji Kasneci, Thomas C. Kübler, Wolfgang Rosenstiel
2014 Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications - ETRA '14  
In this paper we analyze the applicability of two types of mainstream probabilistic models to the identification of fixations and saccades in dynamic scenes: (1) Hidden Markov Models and (2) Bayesian Online  ...  In many applications involving scanpath analysis, especially when dynamic scenes are viewed, consecutive fixations and saccades, have to be identified and extracted from raw eye-tracking data in an online  ...  There is a wide variety of methods for the online analysis of eye-tracking data and the recognition of fixations and saccades.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2578153.2578213 dblp:conf/etra/KasneciKKR14 fatcat:5r5dg5rvlnhljlosbctvxeewne

Exploiting Three-Dimensional Gaze Tracking for Action Recognition During Bimanual Manipulation to Enhance Human–Robot Collaboration

Alireza Haji Fathaliyan, Xiaoyu Wang, Veronica J. Santos
2018 Frontiers in Robotics and AI  
Robots capable of robust, real-time recognition of human actions during manipulation tasks could be used to improve quality of life in the home and quality of work in industrial environments.  ...  Statistical analyses of gaze fixation duration and saccade size suggested that some actions (pouring and stirring) may require more visual attention than other actions (reach, pick up, set down, and move  ...  Recognition robustness and latency will be hampered by large quantities of objects, the degree of clutter, and the inclusion of novel objects in the scene.  ... 
doi:10.3389/frobt.2018.00025 pmid:33500912 pmcid:PMC7805858 fatcat:szyhefjgyfel7pj7uuiipiveeq

A probabilistic tour of visual attention and gaze shift computational models [article]

Giuseppe Boccignone
2016 arXiv   pre-print
From a crude discussion of a variety of available models spelled in probabilistic terms, it appears that current approaches in computational vision are hitherto far from achieving the goal of an active  ...  In this paper a number of problems are considered which are related to the modelling of eye guidance under visual attention in a natural setting.  ...  Since dealing with image sequences, the SDE provides operates in different dynamic modes: pursuit needs to be taken also into account in addition to saccades and fixational movements.  ... 
arXiv:1607.01232v1 fatcat:cjilgfixxbfmbg2iip3ka74lda

Modelling eye movements in a categorical search task

G. J. Zelinsky, H. Adeli, Y. Peng, D. Samaras
2013 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences  
More recently, TAM was also shown to predict off-object fixations and centre-looking fixations-cases in which the initial saccade during search is directed to the centre of a scene regardless of its starting  ...  computational models to predict categorical guidance and recognition in the context of a search task [44] .  ... 
doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0058 pmid:24018720 pmcid:PMC3758201 fatcat:4zvuhaozjbednfaxaetxahbco4

An interactive model-based environment for eye-movement protocol analysis and visualization

Dario D. Salvucci
2000 Proceedings of the symposium on Eye tracking research & applications - ETRA '00  
EyeTracer augments the typical functionality of such systems by incorporating model-based tracing algorithms that interpret protocols with respect to the predictions of a cognitive process model.  ...  These algorithms provide robust strategy classification and fixation assignment that help to alleviate common difficulties with eye-movement data, such as equipment noise and individual variability.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was completed in part at Carnegie Mellon University under a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship awarded to Dario Salvucci and Office of Naval Research grant N00014  ... 
doi:10.1145/355017.355026 dblp:conf/etra/Salvucci00 fatcat:zwaoom3pvvat5myn2hr4qw62pm

Scanpath modeling and classification with hidden Markov models

Antoine Coutrot, Janet H. Hsiao, Antoni B. Chan
2017 Behavior Research Methods  
HMMs encapsulate the dynamic and individualistic dimensions of gaze behavior, allowing DA to capture systematic patterns diagnostic of a given class of observers and/or stimuli.  ...  Firstly, we use fixations recorded while viewing 800 static natural scene images, and infer an observer-related characteristic: the task at hand.  ...  This method can be used by a broad range of scientists to quantify gaze behavior. A very promising application would be to integrate our approach in visual attention saccadic models.  ... 
doi:10.3758/s13428-017-0876-8 pmid:28409487 pmcid:PMC5809577 fatcat:quiexmw6rjbxpilppebb4eylm4

Eye movement analysis with hidden Markov models (EMHMM) with co-clustering

Janet H Hsiao, Hui Lan, Yueyuan Zheng, Antoni B Chan
2021 Behavior Research Methods  
Through applying this method to eye movements in scene perception, we discovered explorative (switching between the foreground and background information or different regions of interest) and focused (  ...  The eye movement analysis with hidden Markov models (EMHMM) method provides quantitative measures of individual differences in eye-movement pattern.  ...  as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.  ... 
doi:10.3758/s13428-021-01541-5 pmid:33929699 pmcid:PMC8613150 fatcat:ltgxg3hysjgzdbeymjdiwrv6hy

Scanpath Prediction on Information Visualisations [article]

Yao Wang, Mihai Bâce, Andreas Bulling
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Our method achieves a relative improvement in sequence score of 11.5% for scanpath prediction, and a relative improvement in Pearson correlation coefficient of up to 23.6% for saliency prediction.  ...  We propose Unified Model of Saliency and Scanpaths (UMSS) -- a model that learns to predict visual saliency and scanpaths (i.e. sequences of eye fixations) on information visualisations.  ...  Tsotsos, “Active of oculomotor fixation and saccadic behaviors,” IEEE fixation control to predict saccade sequences,” in Pro- Transactions on biomedical engineering, vol. 57  ... 
arXiv:2112.02340v1 fatcat:wttsjupdoneankubda7wt4iq3q

An intrinsic neural eye tracker in primary visual cortex [article]

Adam P. Morris, Bart Krekelberg
2018 bioRxiv   pre-print
SummaryHumans and other primates rely on eye movements to explore visual scenes and to track moving objects.  ...  As in previous studies 1-4, we observed neurons that were sensitive to gaze direction during fixation, despite comparable stimulation of their receptive fields.  ...  To reveal the representation of eye position during saccades in V1, we applied the fixation decoder sequentially and independently to each point in time throughout the fixationsaccade-fixation sequence  ... 
doi:10.1101/443507 fatcat:g6qbzfgrqzcqleufi6kahbacia

CRISP: A computational model of fixation durations in scene viewing

Antje Nuthmann, Tim J. Smith, Ralf Engbert, John M. Henderson
2010 Psychological review  
While substantial behavioral and computational research has been devoted to investigating the placement of fixations in scenes, relatively little is known about the mechanisms that control fixation durations  ...  Here, we propose a computational model (CRISP) that accounts for saccade timing and programming and thus for variations in fixation durations in scene viewing.  ...  In Simulation Study 3, we focused on the degree to which (and how) fixations in scene viewing are controlled online by the current visual scene input (Henderson & Pierce, 2008; ).  ... 
doi:10.1037/a0018924 pmid:20438231 fatcat:3qp4eugrwrgtbjfamr2amr5dry

Abstracts of the 20th European Conference on Eye Movements, 18-22 August 2019, in Alicante (Spain)

Susana Martinez-Conde, Luis Martinez-Otero, Albert Compte, Rudolf Groner
2019 Journal of Eye Movement Research  
This document contains all abstracts of the 20th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 18-22, 2019, in Alicante, Spain Video stream "Glimpses at 20th ECEM": https://vimeo.com/user43478756.  ...  Both tasks involved three incentive levels indicated by an auditory cue before the start of each saccade.  ...  Reward was calculated as a fraction of the maximum depending on the performance (accuracy and speed).  ... 
doi:10.16910/jemr.12.7.1 pmid:33828763 pmcid:PMC7917478 fatcat:wqzwn552cndsnablyikzx3og5e

Gaze map matching

Peter Kiefer, Ioannis Giannopoulos
2012 Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems - SIGSPATIAL '12  
The paper explores the challenges of gaze map matching and relates it to the (vehicle) map matching problem.  ...  Two eye tracking data sets recorded during the visual inspection of 14 road network maps of varying realism and complexity are used for this evaluation.  ...  Our discussions with Martin helped to shape some of the ideas expressed in this paper. In addition, we would also like to thank Alain Geiger for his input on (vehicle) map matching.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2424321.2424367 dblp:conf/gis/KieferG12 fatcat:uc4dfpvatve6tftsonzlub7fwe

Ecological Sampling of Gaze Shifts

Giuseppe Boccignone, Mario Ferraro
2014 IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics  
Visual attention guides our gaze to relevant parts of the viewed scene, yet the moment-to-moment relocation of gaze can be different among observers even though the same locations are taken into account  ...  those obtained from eye-tracked subjects while viewing complex dynamic scenes. , where he is currently an Associate Professor of perception models, man-machine interaction, and affective and behavioral  ...  Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the Referees and the Associate Editor for their enlightening and valuable comments that have greatly improved the quality and clarity of an earlier version  ... 
doi:10.1109/tcyb.2013.2253460 pmid:23757548 fatcat:5qsgz7oxbzbylnn4som6fk6zeu

What/Where to Look Next? Modeling Top-Down Visual Attention in Complex Interactive Environments

Ali Borji, Dicky N. Sihite, Laurent Itti
2014 IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man & Cybernetics. Systems  
Probabilistic inference in our model is performed over object-related functions which are fed from manual annotations of objects in video scenes or by state-ofthe-art object detection/recognition algorithms  ...  Our results show that the proposed model is more effective in employing and reasoning over spatiotemporal visual data compared with the state-of-the-art.  ...  However, in the context of sensori-motor interaction and online interactive tasks like those used here, memory-dependent prediction is a valid assumption with several applications when the goal is to predict  ... 
doi:10.1109/tsmc.2013.2279715 fatcat:z4g6nari2jb5lbhx2jb2ouwyaq

Computational models: Bottom-up and top-down aspects [article]

Laurent Itti, Ali Borji
2015 arXiv   pre-print
as well as theoreticians, second, models have practical and technological applications of interest to the applied science and engineering communities.  ...  For theoretical models, we refer the reader to a number of previous reviews that address attention theories and models more generally Itti_Koch01nrn,Paletta_etal05,Frintrop_etal10,Rothenstein_Tsotsos08  ...  Army (W81XWH-10-2-0076), and Google. The authors affirm that the views expressed herein are solely their own, and do not represent the views of the United States government or any agency thereof.  ... 
arXiv:1510.07748v1 fatcat:3yikl7e6xfeyrbgrtfpx6ybo6y
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