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Winograd Schemas and Machine Translation [article]

Ernest Davis
2016 arXiv   pre-print
This paper discusses how Winograd schemas and other sentence pairs could be used as challenges for machine translation using distinctions between pronouns, such as gender, that appear in the target language  ...  A Winograd schema is a pair of sentences that differ in a single word and that contain an ambiguous pronoun whose referent is different in the two sentences and requires the use of commonsense knowledge  ...  Veloso for help with the various languages and discussion of gendered pronouns.  ... 
arXiv:1608.01884v2 fatcat:ujws5gjuxvf73g2cv6jj5uyfna

A Review of Winograd Schema Challenge Datasets and Approaches [article]

Vid Kocijan, Thomas Lukasiewicz, Ernest Davis, Gary Marcus, Leora Morgenstern
2020 arXiv   pre-print
The Winograd Schema Challenge is both a commonsense reasoning and natural language understanding challenge, introduced as an alternative to the Turing test.  ...  This paper reviews existing Winograd Schema Challenge benchmark datasets and approaches that have been published since its introduction.  ...  Acknowledgements This work was supported by the EPSRC studentship OUCS/EPSRC-NPIF/VK/1123106.  ... 
arXiv:2004.13831v1 fatcat:l53sirqin5edvgj4yb2gfojmji

The Defeat of the Winograd Schema Challenge [article]

Vid Kocijan, Ernest Davis, Thomas Lukasiewicz, Gary Marcus, Leora Morgenstern
2022 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we review the history of the Winograd Schema Challenge and assess its significance.  ...  The Winograd Schema Challenge -- a set of twin sentences involving pronoun reference disambiguation that seem to require the use of commonsense knowledge -- was proposed by Hector Levesque in 2011.  ...  Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Alan Turing Institute under the EP-SRC grant EP/N510129/1, the AXA Research Fund, the EPSRC grant "Unlocking the Potential of AI for English Law", and the  ... 
arXiv:2201.02387v2 fatcat:u66g2bunqjagvbjxpxgqws676i

Using Semantic Web Resources for Solving Winograd Schemas: Sculptures, Shelves, Envy, and Success

Peter Schüller, Mishal Kazmi
2015 International Conference on Semantic Systems  
Winograd Schemas are sentences where a pronoun must be linked to one of two possible entities in the same sentence.  ...  We discuss two example Winograd Schemas and related knowledge that can be discovered by manual search in WikiData, DBPedia, Ba-belNet, freebase, WordNet, VerbNet, and the Component Library.  ...  INTRODUCTION The Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC) [20, 12] was proposed as a more practical alternative for the Turing Test.  ... 
dblp:conf/i-semantics/SchullerK15 fatcat:br24m7k3d5h37m5pbmcxu42spq

Reasoning about Conditional Beliefs for the Winograd Schema Challenge

Denis Golovin, Jens Claßen, Christoph Schwering
2017 International Symposium on Commonsense Reasoning  
The Winograd Schema Challenge has been proposed as an alternative to the Turing Test for measuring a machine's intelligence by letting it solve difficult pronoun resolution problems that cannot be tackled  ...  We discuss and evaluate an implementation where relevant commonsense background information is obtained from the ConceptNet semantic network, translated into our formalism, and processed by a reasoner  ...  This work was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) research unit FOR 1513 on Hybrid Reasoning for Intelligent Systems, project A1.  ... 
dblp:conf/commonsense/GolovinCS17 fatcat:wja7wctgrvdxjlrulbblxijtfa

KARaML: Integrating Knowledge-Based and Machine Learning Approaches to Solve the Winograd Schema Challenge

Suk Joon Hong, Brandon Bennett, Judith Clymo, Lucía Gómez Álvarez
2022 AAAI Spring Symposia  
The Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC) is a commonsense reasoning task introduced as an alternative to the Turing Test.  ...  A central idea in our work is that semantic roles are key for the high-level commonsense reasoning involved in the WSC. We extract semantic roles using a knowledge-based reasoning system.  ...  This seems to provide a general way by which information expressed in natural language can be matched with predicates occurring in the formalised axioms of a KR system.  ... 
dblp:conf/aaaiss/HongBCA22 fatcat:pdfnedspwvaplorcyf34cof4a4

A Generalized Knowledge Hunting Framework for the Winograd Schema Challenge

Ali Emami, Adam Trischler, Kaheer Suleman, Jackie Chi Kit Cheung
2018 Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop  
The Winograd Schema Challenge is a popular alternative Turing test, comprising a binarychoice coreference-resolution task that requires significant common-sense and world knowledge to solve.  ...  Our method works by (i) generating queries from a parsed representation of a Winograd question, (ii) acquiring relevant knowledge using Information Retrieval, and (iii) reasoning on the gathered knowledge  ...  Conclusion We developed a knowledge-hunting framework to tackle the Winograd Schema Challenge.  ... 
doi:10.18653/v1/n18-4004 dblp:conf/naacl/EmamiTSC18 fatcat:75fbrqi3o5fwfguff2tfdy4bjm

WinoWhy: A Deep Diagnosis of Essential Commonsense Knowledge for Answering Winograd Schema Challenge [article]

Hongming Zhang, Xinran Zhao, Yangqiu Song
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we present the first comprehensive categorization of essential commonsense knowledge for answering the Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC).  ...  For each of the questions, we invite annotators to first provide reasons for making correct decisions and then categorize them into six major knowledge categories.  ...  To explore a principled way of representing commonsense knowledge and solving commonsense reasoning problems, we take the Winograd Schema Challenge as the breaking point to conduct a detailed diagnosis  ... 
arXiv:2005.05763v1 fatcat:jqngr4agbbh6dpq73tkrimvtuu

Establishing a Human Baseline for the Winograd Schema Challenge

David Bender
2015 Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Conference  
The Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC) is a pronoun resolution task for which deep semantic knowledge is required to achieve high performance.  ...  a particular corpus, but more fundamentally as a guide in defining desirable characteristics for Winograd Schemas (WS).  ...  Acknowledgements We are grateful to Dr Robert Goldstone of the Percepts and Concepts Laboratory at Indiana University for his guidance and support.  ... 
dblp:conf/maics/Bender15 fatcat:tgfo3ietg5h6dbkxas4pnoheq4

A Simple Machine Learning Method for Commonsense Reasoning? A Short Commentary on Trinh & Le (2018) [article]

Walid S. Saba
2018 arXiv   pre-print
as serious models for the commonsense reasoning needed in natural language understanding in general, and in reference resolution, in particular.  ...  This is a short Commentary on Trinh & Le (2018) ("A Simple Method for Commonsense Reasoning") that outlines three serious flaws in the cited paper and discusses why data-driven approaches cannot be considered  ...  In doing so, T&L use the Winograd Schema (WS) challenge as a benchmark.  ... 
arXiv:1810.00521v1 fatcat:lctw4gf2wrboxpkrcymzy5qxla

The Sensitivity of Language Models and Humans to Winograd Schema Perturbations [article]

Mostafa Abdou, Vinit Ravishankar, Maria Barrett, Yonatan Belinkov, Desmond Elliott, Anders Søgaard
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Large-scale pretrained language models are the major driving force behind recent improvements in performance on the Winograd Schema Challenge, a widely employed test of common sense reasoning ability.  ...  Overall, humans are correct more often than out-of-the-box models, and the models are sometimes right for the wrong reasons.  ...  Mostafa Abdou and Anders Søgaard are supported by a Google Focused Research Award and a Facebook Research Award. Yonatan Belinkov was supported by the Harvard Mind, Brain, and Behavior Initiative.  ... 
arXiv:2005.01348v2 fatcat:h4qzsspzdnh3dk6oypjdpvrf4i

How Reasonable are Common-Sense Reasoning Tasks: A Case-Study on the Winograd Schema Challenge and SWAG

Paul Trichelair, Ali Emami, Adam Trischler, Kaheer Suleman, Jackie Chi Kit Cheung
2019 Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)  
Recent studies have significantly improved the state-of-the-art on common-sense reasoning (CSR) benchmarks like the Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC) and SWAG.  ...  We make case studies of both benchmarks and design protocols that clarify and qualify the results of previous work by analyzing threats to the validity of previous experimental designs.  ...  Acknowledgements This work is supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and by the Canada CIFAR AI Chair program.  ... 
doi:10.18653/v1/d19-1335 dblp:conf/emnlp/TrichelairETSC19 fatcat:werlo6hfwnbfrnt3b2lvfwkuaq

Contrastive Self-Supervised Learning for Commonsense Reasoning [article]

Tassilo Klein, Moin Nabi
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We propose a self-supervised method to solve Pronoun Disambiguation and Winograd Schema Challenge problems.  ...  Empirical results show that our method alleviates the limitation of current supervised approaches for commonsense reasoning.  ...  Winograd Schema Challenge: The second task is WSC-273 (Levesque et al., 2012) , which is known to be more challenging than PDP-60.  ... 
arXiv:2005.00669v1 fatcat:v2bxj4kltrfjnnxm7ufqthpe5m

WinoGrande: An Adversarial Winograd Schema Challenge at Scale

Keisuke Sakaguchi, Ronan Le Bras, Chandra Bhagavatula, Yejin Choi
The Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC) (Levesque, Davis, and Morgenstern 2011), a benchmark for commonsense reasoning, is a set of 273 expert-crafted pronoun resolution problems originally designed to be  ...  the scale and the hardness of the dataset.  ...  Introduction The Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC) (Levesque, Davis, and Morgenstern 2011), proposed as an alternative to the Turing Test (Turing 1950) , has been used as a benchmark for evaluating commonsense  ... 
doi:10.1609/aaai.v34i05.6399 fatcat:ump7vhxwlfbytf5tz3nhb4bmbu

Semantic Analysis of Winograd Schema No. 1 [chapter]

Brandon Bennett
2021 Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications  
The Winograd Schema Challenge is a general test for Artificial Intelligence, based on problems of pronoun reference resolution.  ...  I investigate the semantics and interpretation of Winograd Schemas, concentrating on the original and most famous example.  ...  Introduction The Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC) was proposed by Levesque et al. [1] as an updated form of the Turing Test.  ... 
doi:10.3233/faia210369 fatcat:h56eudbgprf6de3fdjly6xvr2u
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