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The Weakness of CTC Qubits and the Power of Approximate Counting

Ryan O'Donnell, A. C. Cme Say
2018 ACM Transactions on Computation Theory  
We present results in structural complexity theory concerned with the following interrelated topics: computation with postselection/restarting, closed timelike curves (CTCs), and approximate counting.  ...  Using the above-mentioned characterization of PP, we show that any poly(n)-time quantum computation using a CTC of O(log n) qubits may as well just use a CTC of 1 classical bit.  ...  Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Scott Aaronson for helpful answers to quite a number of questions, as well as Chris Umans for his expertise on BPP path , Eric Allender and Lance Fortnow  ... 
doi:10.1145/3196832 fatcat:7gfqpncsa5hitb72fkamj6glpq

Association of clinical outcomes in metastatic breast cancer patients with circulating tumour cell and circulating cell-free DNA

Zhong Ye, Chun Wang, Shaogui Wan, Zhaomei Mu, Zhenchao Zhang, Maysa M. Abu-Khalaf, Frederick M. Fellin, Daniel P. Silver, Manish Neupane, Rebecca J. Jaslow, Saveri Bhattacharya, Theodore N. Tsangaris (+18 others)
2019 European Journal of Cancer  
However, no study has explored the prognostic value of the combined use of CTC and ccfDNA.  ...  CTCs were enumerated using the CellSearch System. ccfDNAs were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Qubit fluorometer.  ...  Acknowledgments Role of the funding source  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2018.10.012 pmid:30528798 pmcid:PMC6347110 fatcat:qjizl3zm6fa6hkcjug6tlbldde

Computability Theory of Closed Timelike Curves [article]

Scott Aaronson and Mohammad Bavarian and Giulio Gueltrini
2016 arXiv   pre-print
We ask, and answer, the question of what's computable by Turing machines equipped with time travel into the past: that is, closed timelike curves or CTCs (with no bound on their size).  ...  We also study an alternative model of CTCs, due to Lloyd et al., which uses postselection to "simulate" a consistency condition, and which yields BPP_path in the classical case or PP in the quantum case  ...  The basic idea here is to start the CTC qubits in some quantum state |ψ , then do a computation on the qubits, and finally use a projective measurement to postselect on the qubits being returned to the  ... 
arXiv:1609.05507v1 fatcat:kfsphf7dnvgblkft6q5kxcsv34

Causality Violation and Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics [article]

Jacques Pienaar
2013 arXiv   pre-print
We propose a generalisation of the model that lifts this constraint and recovers the predictions of standard quantum field theory when the size of the temporal jump is much smaller than the coherence time  ...  The resulting model generalises and extends earlier work on the topic and can be tested experimentally using current technology.  ...  Is the power of CTCs unobservable?  ... 
arXiv:1401.0167v1 fatcat:djrphq5yuveenc3yeopkt7v6xq

Demonstrating NISQ Era Challenges in Algorithm Design on IBM's 20 Qubit Quantum Computer [article]

Daniel Koch, Brett Martin, Saahil Patel, Laura Wessing, Paul M. Alsing
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In this study we present results from experiments run on IBM's 20-qubit 'Poughkeepsie' architecture, with the goal of demonstrating various qubit qualities and challenges that arise in designing quantum  ...  As superconducting qubits continue to advance technologically, the realization of quantum algorithms from theoretical abstraction to physical implementation requires knowledge of both quantum circuit construction  ...  We would also like to thank the IBM Quantum Experience team and all of their support.  ... 
arXiv:2003.01009v3 fatcat:qngpda622vg6dgv6haelrx6y4u

Guest Column: NP-complete problems and physical reality

Scott Aaronson
2005 ACM SIGACT News  
While I do not believe that any of the proposals will let us solve NP-complete problems efficiently, I argue that by studying them, we can learn something not only about computation but also about physics  ...  Can NP-complete problems be solved efficiently in the physical universe?  ...  Acknowledgments I thank Al Aho, Pioter Drubetskoy, Daniel Gottesman, David Poulin, John Preskill, and others who I have undoubtedly forgotten for enlightening conversations about the subject of this article  ... 
doi:10.1145/1052796.1052804 fatcat:xf2ugwf3hvhb3a6yznozwridwa

Circulating Tumor Cells as a Biomarker to Assist Molecular Diagnosis for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Yutong He, Jin Shi, Bernd Schmidt, Qingyi Liu, Gaofeng Shi, Xiaoli Xu, Congmin Liu, Zhaoyu Gao, Tiantian Guo, Baoen Shan
2020 Cancer Management and Research  
Genetic mutation of TP53, ERBB2, PDGFRA, CFS1R and FGFR1 in the CTC revealed 71.6% of the mutation sites similar to the tumor tissues of 13 patients.  ...  Fifteen out of twenty-four (stage I, n = 18; stage II, n = 6) early-stage lung cancer patients were found to be CTC-positive, whereas no CTC was found in the control group.  ...  Author Contributions All authors have made contributions to the concept and design, data acquisition and analysis, and interpretation of the study, as well as drafting and revision of the manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.2147/cmar.s240773 pmid:32104066 pmcid:PMC7008188 fatcat:cwobusa5kfcifg3jtnshlk4zyu

Reality, Causality, and Quantum Theory [article]

John-Mark A. Allen
2019 arXiv   pre-print
This thesis examines different ontological features in light of the success of quantum theory, what it requires, and what it rules out.  ...  While these investigations are primarily foundational, they also have relevance to quantum information, quantum communication, and experiments on quantum systems.  ...  linear number of CV qubits). is does not invalidate the above comments, which demonstrate that T-CTCs cannot perfectly simulate P-CTCs. is approximate simulation is, however, enough to show that T-CTCs  ... 
arXiv:1901.01618v1 fatcat:ursrdvglmjgjdcc23xrdy74ze4

Interplay between Quantumness, Randomness, and Selftesting [article]

Xiao Yuan
2017 arXiv   pre-print
Investigating quantumness, coherent superposition, and entanglement can shed light on the original of quantum advantages and lead to the design of new quantum protocols.  ...  The essence of quantum processing lies on the fundamental difference between classical and quantum states.  ...  Being a wonderful mentor in research and an intimate friend in life, it is Xiongfeng who, for the first time, makes me feel the pleasure of doing research.  ... 
arXiv:1703.00656v1 fatcat:hnd2agqu4vbmpngpcozqw5ghkm

Corallivory and the microbial debacle in two branching scleractinians

Yvan Bettarel, Sébastien Halary, Jean-Christophe Auguet, Thanh Chi Mai, Ngoc Van Bui, Thierry Bouvier, Patrice Got, Corinne Bouvier, Sonia Monteil-Bouchard, Desnues Christelle
2018 The ISME Journal  
In this study, we compared the main ecological traits of coral-associated bacterial and viral communities living in the mucus layer of Acropora formosa and Acropora millepora, of healthy and predated individuals  ...  Novel and abundant circular Rep-encoding ssDNA viruses (CRESS-DNA viruses) were detected and characterized in grazed corals and we propose that their occurrence may serve as indicator of the coral health  ...  We also sincerely thank Alexandre Portier, the manager of the Whale Island Resort who was of great logistical help during our stay. Compliance with ethical standards  ... 
doi:10.1038/s41396-017-0033-5 pmid:29339825 fatcat:cdnvaprkbzee7m5i3h3fcmql7y

Robust and accurate digital measurement for HER2 amplification in HER2 equivocal breast cancer diagnosis

Yuefeng Wang, Julia Y. S. Tsang, Yongmei Cui, Ji Cui, Ying Lin, Songli Zhao, Patrick T. W. Law, Sai Yin Cheung, Enders K. O. Ng, Gary M. K. Tse, Zunfu Ke
2017 Scientific Reports  
In addition, they are labor intensive and time consuming, especially for FISH. The manual and complicated procedure in FISH tests limit the number of patients that can be handled at any one time.  ...  Compared to routine assays, ddPCR gave a sensitivity and specificity of 82.8% and 97.3% respectively, with a kappa value of 0.833 (p < 0.001).  ...  Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Core Facilities of Cancer Genomics and Pathobiology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong for their assistance in HER2 FISH experiments  ... 
doi:10.1038/s41598-017-07176-x pmid:28754904 pmcid:PMC5533703 fatcat:qp36o4sohzcnbhfkruyhthhkkq

Lectures on faster-than-light travel and time travel

Barak Shoshany
2019 SciPost Physics Lecture Notes  
The lectures cover some of what is currently known about the possibility of superluminal travel and time travel within the context of established science, that is, general relativity and quantum field  ...  Previous knowledge of general relativity at the level of a standard undergraduate-level introductory course is recommended, but all the relevant material is included for completion and reference.  ...  Research at Perimeter Institute is supported in part by the Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada and by the Province of Ontario through the  ... 
doi:10.21468/scipostphyslectnotes.10 fatcat:mpvlit5wwbbq5bnmww3h5ccfyq

NP-complete Problems and Physical Reality [article]

Scott Aaronson
2005 arXiv   pre-print
While I do not believe that any of the proposals will let us solve NP-complete problems efficiently, I argue that by studying them, we can learn something not only about computation but also about physics  ...  Can NP-complete problems be solved efficiently in the physical universe?  ...  of this article.  ... 
arXiv:quant-ph/0502072v2 fatcat:s3e55ja2wfhirgfm2jbhr7isty

Quantum Tic-Tac-Toe: A Genuine Probabilistic Approach

Marius Nagy, Naya Nagy
2012 Applied Mathematics  
Papers 38 38 Interdependency of computational and dynamical properties of automata collective in discrete environment Oleksiy Kurganskyy 51 Computation and Spacetime Structure Mike Stannett 61 Decidability  ...  Madarász, István Németi 79 Quantum readout of optical memories under local energy constraint Gaetana Spedalieri, Cosmo Lupo, Stefano Pirandola 91 The continuous-variable Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm using realistic  ...  We have also responded to arguments presented on behalf of Davis and found them wanting.  ... 
doi:10.4236/am.2012.331243 fatcat:wsd7qixuojfrrpwamkhttx7uaa

Quantum Tic-Tac-Toe: A Genuine Probabilistic Approach

Marius Nagy
2012 Applied Mathematics  
Papers 38 38 Interdependency of computational and dynamical properties of automata collective in discrete environment Oleksiy Kurganskyy 51 Computation and Spacetime Structure Mike Stannett 61 Decidability  ...  Madarász, István Németi 79 Quantum readout of optical memories under local energy constraint Gaetana Spedalieri, Cosmo Lupo, Stefano Pirandola 91 The continuous-variable Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm using realistic  ...  We have also responded to arguments presented on behalf of Davis and found them wanting.  ... 
doi:10.4236/am.2012.311243 fatcat:ifj7pyn6mjdsxjxsrxnpu6qbby
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