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The Unwanted Sharing Economy: An Analysis of Cookie Syncing and User Transparency under GDPR [article]

Tobias Urban, Dennis Tatang, Martin Degeling, Thorsten Holz, Norbert Pohlmann
2018 arXiv   pre-print
and sharing personal data and by law users now have the right to gain access to the personal information collected about them.  ...  In a first step, we measure the impact of the legislation on the connections (regarding cookie syncing) between third-parties and show that the general structure how the entities are arranged is not affected  ...  Acknowledgment This work was partially supported by the Ministry of Culture and Science of the German State of North Rhine-Westphalia (MKW grant 005-1703-0021 "MEwM" and "NERD.NRW") and the German Federal  ... 
arXiv:1811.08660v1 fatcat:fefujj2xzra2pjbycsxraytnci

Cookies 'n' Consent: An empirical study on the factors influencing of website users' attitude towards cookie consent in the EU

Lakshmi Narayanan Jayakumar
2021 DBS Business Review  
The study aimed to understand user perception towards website cookie banners, which are mandatory under GDPR, and the influence of factors like awareness of cookies, user experience, consent banner design  ...  for Consent for Advertising Directive (CAD) to go beyond the existing Cookie Law, which will improve user data protection regardless of the tracking technology used, and help brands to improve transparency  ...  Source: Urban et al., 'The Unwanted Sharing Economy' Figure 3 : 3 Figure 3: Sample questions from the survey questionnaire Figure 4 : 4 Figure 4: Framework for Consent for Advertising Directive (CAD  ... 
doi:10.22375/dbr.v4i0.72 fatcat:tvc72fdod5erzic2ckyivmvmde

Are cookie banners indeed compliant with the law? Deciphering EU legal requirements on consent and technical means to verify compliance of cookie banners [article]

Cristiana Santos, Nataliia Bielova, Célestin Matte
2020 arXiv   pre-print
and implementation, specially under the current revision of the European Union e-Privacy framework.  ...  The definition of requirements emerges from a joint interdisciplinary analysis composed of lawyers and computer scientists in the domain of web tracking technologies.  ...  Greek DPA, 2020 Belgian DPA, 2020 Irish DPA, 2020 Recent audits on websites Recurrent audits on websites are aimed at information-gathering assessment of the state of cookie (and related technologies  ... 
arXiv:1912.07144v2 fatcat:4nkrmy3wrrbhpibatedfzixmee

A Survey on Web Tracking: Mechanisms, Implications, and Defenses

Tomasz Bujlow, Valentin Carela-Espanol, Beom-Ryeol Lee, Pere Barlet-Ros
2017 Proceedings of the IEEE  
Although many users are already aware of the privacy risks involved in the use of Internet services, the particular methods and technologies used for tracking them are much less known.  ...  Finally, we present the future trends in user tracking and show that they can potentially pose significant threats to the users' privacy. 4 HTTP sessions 1994 HTTP cookies [13] 2000 Embedding identifiers  ...  No cookies are generated and the user does not need to log in, so the tracking is transparent to the user and it works regardless if the browser accepts cookies or not.  ... 
doi:10.1109/jproc.2016.2637878 fatcat:vpykj2neezgebjhh5imvulenpq

Online Advertising Security: Issues, Taxonomy, and Future Directions [article]

Zahra Pooranian, Mauro Conti, Hamed Haddadi, Rahim Tafazolli
2021 arXiv   pre-print
It provides a simple and efficient way for advertisers to display their advertisements to specific individual users, and over the last couple of years has contributed to an explosion in the income stream  ...  Online advertising has become the backbone of the Internet economy by revolutionizing business marketing.  ...  The analysis of IPs and cookie IDs is more privacy-friendly than cryptographic methods. Commissioners can track users based on their cookie IDs and IPs.  ... 
arXiv:2006.03986v4 fatcat:vyxorsmo4rgdllv7lmntc5bv7i

Deliverable D3.7 Consolidated Projects Summary Report

Alasdair Reid, Matias Barberis Rami
2021 Zenodo  
This report is part of a project that has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No.825618  ...  The NGI Trust project aims to support the development of a human- centric Internet, by developing a stronger European ecosystem of researchers, innovators and technology developers in the field of privacy  ...  The validation activities in the frame of TRUSTRULES focused on the themes of Privacy, AI Accountability under the light of GDPR.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.5767430 fatcat:w2lxzgxktretjcv7h4xotz7xaq

Are cookie banners indeed compliant with the law?

Cristiana Santos, Nataliia Bielova, Célestin Matte
designed and implemented to be compliant with the ePrivacy Directive and the GDPR, defining 22 legal requirements.  ...  With this approach, we aim to support policy makers assessing compliance in cookie banners, especially under the current revision of the EU ePrivacy framework.  ...  some of the requirements during the development of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.26116/techreg.2020.009 fatcat:gavmqoegkneyhc4a73b73n3sry

Tracking on the Web, Mobile and the Internet-of-Things [article]

Reuben Binns
'Tracking' is the collection of data about an individual's activity across multiple distinct contexts and the retention, use, or sharing of data derived from that activity outside the context in which  ...  Section 2 provides a short history of the major developments of tracking on the web. Section 3 presents research covering the detection, measurement and analysis of web tracking technologies.  ...  An in-depth study of cookie syncing in the wild, using a year-long weblog from 850 web users, found that 97% of them are exposed to cookie syncing, mostly within 1 week of web browsing [33] .  ... 
doi:10.48550/arxiv.2201.10831 fatcat:li2jzu3as5eo3g6p2opwoyffwe

The State of AI Ethics Report (June 2020) [article]

Abhishek Gupta
2020 arXiv   pre-print
These past few months have been especially challenging, and the deployment of technology in ways hitherto untested at an unrivalled pace has left the internet and technology watchers aghast.  ...  We cover a wide set of areas in this report spanning Agency and Responsibility, Security and Risk, Disinformation, Jobs and Labor, the Future of AI Ethics, and more.  ...  , much like the better established data protection impact assessment requirement under the GDPR.  ... 
arXiv:2006.14662v1 fatcat:q76dnqzh4ja5pofurjmpmyeyey

State of AI Ethics Report (Volume 6, February 2022) [article]

Abhishek Gupta
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Particular emphasis is placed on an "Analysis of the AI Ecosystem", "Privacy", "Bias", "Social Media and Problematic Information", "AI Design and Governance", "Laws and Regulations", "Trends", and other  ...  This report from the Montreal AI Ethics Institute (MAIEI) covers the most salient progress in research and reporting over the second half of 2021 in the field of AI ethics.  ...  for AI inventions under both the motivation test and the 'obvious to try' analysis.  ... 
arXiv:2202.07435v1 fatcat:wbalu3j3ynelfim7eqvxcpwu3q

Big Data: Privacy and Intellectual Property in a Comparative Perspective [article]

Sartore Federico
and transparent, to users and providers alike". 253 Id.  ...  such user's profile information -a practice referred to in the industry as "cookie syncing). a precise description for uses that are hidden in the folds of datasets 63 .  ... 
doi:10.15168/11572_142585 fatcat:qhm5jhsy7zh7fl3qyekuawerlq

Platform Privacy: The Missing Piece of Data Protection Legislation

Magnus Westerlund, Joachim Enkvist, Magnus Westerlund, Joachim Enkvist
As an example, current social network platforms all share a common data structure, based on messages, user IDs, and relationships.  ...  This consumer data is often said to be the commodity of the future, and is compared to the importance of oil in today's economy.  ... 

Personal data curation in the cloud age : individual differences and design opportunities

Francesco Vitale
We evaluated a prototype of the system with 18 participants and found that a personalized approach to data curation is promising, so long as it respects users' bou [...]  ...  Inspired by these results and using a taxonomy of data types and decluttering criteria based on the survey (n=349), we designed Data Dashboard, a tool that aggregates data from a user's multitude of devices  ...  We did both an inductive and deductive analysis (based on the "data economy" framework [288] ) .  ... 
doi:10.14288/1.0392427 fatcat:bi647khzq5f4vgqm2s5cmosiui

Wearable Technology in Football Further Education Settings in the United Kingdom

P Tierney
Educational settings have also witnessed an exponential rise in the application of wearable technology in formal learning environments.  ...  and help improve the performance of either the individual player or team.  ...  those that view it as an unwanted intrusion (Kotsios, 2015) .  ... 
doi:10.24377/ljmu.t.00015733 fatcat:aocsjq6g4vhf3jvbz7bfqgnn7y