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The symbol grounding problem

Stevan Harnad
1990 Physica D : Non-linear phenomena  
How can the meanings of the meaningless symbol tokens, manipulated solely on the basis of their (arbitrary) shapes, be grounded in anything but other meaningless symbols?  ...  The problem is analogous to trying to learn Chinese from a Chinese/Chinese dictionary alone.  ...  The Symbol Grounding Problem The Chinese Room Before defining the symbol grounding problem I will give two examples of it.  ... 
doi:10.1016/0167-2789(90)90087-6 fatcat:gpbq7jjwfrhuzkusf3vlvb6d6a

The physical symbol grounding problem

Paul Vogt
2002 Cognitive Systems Research  
doi:10.1016/s1389-0417(02)00051-7 fatcat:o4oescxmojc7xd2oi73crxlgoa

Semiotic Dynamics Solves the Symbol Grounding Problem

Luc Steels, Martin Loetzsch, Michael Spranger
2007 Nature Precedings  
Language requires the capacity to link symbols (words, sentences) through the intermediary of internal representations to the physical world, a process known as symbol grounding 1 .  ...  Here we study the Grounded Naming Game as a particular example of symbolic interaction and investigate a dynamical system that autonomously builds up and uses the semiotic networks necessary for performance  ...  Fourth, although an individual object may have grounded symbol system.  ... 
doi:10.1038/npre.2007.1234.1 fatcat:4biwkail35ad7dtjoqvnzn2qtq

A Praxical Solution of the Symbol Grounding Problem

Mariarosaria Taddeo, Luciano Floridi
2007 Minds and Machines  
This article is the second step in our research into the Symbol Grounding Problem (SGP).  ...  Thanks to their architecture, AM 2 s implement AbS, and this allows them to ground their symbols semantically and to develop some fairly advanced semantic abilities, including the development of semantically  ...  Filippo Menczer very kindly provided many suggestions about the use of ELSA and Local Selection in solving the Symbol Grounding Problem.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11023-007-9081-3 fatcat:h3phsxmtezcflaqsyskqznbr4q

The symbol grounding problem has been solved, so what's next? [chapter]

Luc Steels
2008 Symbols and EmbodimentDebates on meaning and cognition  
Our species stands before the unprecedented challenge to fundamentally change its ways in order to avoid the potential catastrophe that would make our world inhabitable and the dangerous tensions that  ...  These are distributed web-based information systems that help to raise awareness for the need of action and organise collective effort towards the fair and sustainable management of a commons.  ...  These meetings are necessary to create the kind of trust and common ground that is required to self-organise the group's activities.  ... 
doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199217274.003.0012 fatcat:m7qoxw4fqngxtjbu6vklodvqpm

Solutions and Open Challenges for the Symbol Grounding Problem

Angelo Cangelosi
2011 International Journal of Signs and Semiotic Systems  
This article discusses the current progress and solutions to the symbol grounding problem, indentify specifically which aspects of the problem have been already addressed, and which other issues and scientific  ...  In particular, the paper suggests that of the various aspects of the symbol grounding problems, the one that still require significant research is that on the transition from indexical representations  ...  Acknowledgements The author wishes to acknowledge the support of the EU FP7 projects ITALK and ROBOTDOC.  ... 
doi:10.4018/ijsss.2011010104 fatcat:gjwtnygfhfdrjifgip2ostirzu

Approaching the Symbol Grounding Problem with Probabilistic Graphical Models

Stefanie Tellex, Thomas Kollar, Steven Dickerson, Matthew R. Walter, Ashis Gopal Banerjee, Seth Teller, Nicholas Roy
2011 The AI Magazine  
In this article we describe several of our results that use probabilistic inference to address the symbol grounding problem.  ...  A solution to this symbol grounding problem (Harnad, 1990) would enable a robot to interpret commands such as "Drive over to receiving and pick up the tire pallet."  ...  This work was sponsored by the Robotics Consortium of the U.S Army Research Laboratory under the Collaborative Technology Alliance Program, Cooperative Agreement W911NF-10-2-0016, and by the Office of  ... 
doi:10.1609/aimag.v32i4.2384 fatcat:o52l2szpfvaxfkiphy5q7uv7x4

Equivalence of the Symbol Grounding and Quantum System Identification Problems

Chris Fields
2014 Information  
The symbol grounding problem is the problem of specifying a semantics for the representations employed by a physical symbol system in a way that is neither circular nor regressive.  ...  As the quantum system identification problem is demonstrably unsolvable by finite means, the symbol grounding problem is similarly unsolvable.  ...  Thanks also to the HESA Institute for financial support during part of this work.  ... 
doi:10.3390/info5010172 fatcat:73oscun4mnbrzblmbazs53nsqi

Dynamic symbol grounding, state construction and the problem of teleology [chapter]

Erich Prem
1995 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Symbol grounding has originated within the connectionist-symbolic debate so as to gap the bridge between the two approaches.  ...  If this diagnosis is true, the necessary next question must be which sort of models are generated in symbol grounding systems.  ...  1 Symbol Grounding The Symbol Grounding Problem Based on a fundamental criticism of symbolic models and Searles \Chinese room" argument Searle 80], Stevan Harnad introduced \The Symbol Grounding Problem  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-59497-3_230 fatcat:tcpvchuwwfe4hhx2qnk55nbyve

The Symbol Grounding Problem Revisited: A Thorough Evaluation of the ANS Mapping Account and the Proposal of an Alternative Account Based on Symbol–Symbol Associations

Bert Reynvoet, Delphine Sasanguie
2016 Frontiers in Psychology  
Because numerical symbols are so important for mathematics achievement, many researchers want to provide an answer on the 'symbol grounding problem,' i.e., how does a symbol acquires its numerical meaning  ...  the same brain regions which are also involved in more advanced calculation and (4) non-symbolic comparison is related to the performance on symbolic mathematics achievement tasks.  ...  FUNDING DS is a postdoctoral research fellow of the Research Fund Flanders ( This research was also supported by the Research Fund KU Leuven.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01581 pmid:27790179 pmcid:PMC5061812 fatcat:krdfoqzfrbaipisiqnpdacj5qi

Deciding the Word Problem for Ground Identities with Commutative and Extensional Symbols [chapter]

Franz Baader, Deepak Kapur
2020 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The word problem for a finite set of ground identities is known to be decidable in polynomial time, and this is also the case if some of the function symbols are assumed to be commutative.  ...  In addition, we investigate a variant of extensionality that is more appropriate for commutative function symbols, but which raises the complexity of the word problem to coNP.  ...  The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their careful reading of the paper and their useful comments, which helped to improve the presentation of the paper.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-51074-9_10 fatcat:7o3g6hd3wvejzbelngkci4dzyq

Solving the symbol grounding problem: a critical review of fifteen years of research

Mariarosaria Taddeo, Luciano Floridi
2005 Journal of experimental and theoretical artificial intelligence (Print)  
For all Italian legal requirements, Mariarosaria Taddeo must be considered the first author of the article and the author of sections 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.  ...  10 Research for this paper has been supported by a grant awarded to Mariarosaria Taddeo by the Università degli Studi di Bari.  ...  the symbol grounding problem."  ... 
doi:10.1080/09528130500284053 fatcat:q5di5ymwmvg77cibvwsxibjvvu

A formal framework for the symbol grounding problem

Benjamin Johnston, Mary-Anne Williams
2009 Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Artificial General Intelligence (2009)   unpublished
A great deal of contention can be found within the published literature on grounding and the symbol grounding problem, much of it motivated by appeals to intuition and unfalsifiable claims.  ...  This framework offers utility not only in enriching our understanding of symbol grounding and the literature, but also in exposing crucial assumptions to be explored by the research community.  ...  Our objective is not to argue a specific position on the symbol grounding problem, but rather, to provide the first formal framework for the symbol grounding problem.  ... 
doi:10.2991/agi.2009.12 fatcat:bfg33ngodva6tlbafyc5juo324

Symbol Emergence Problem : Solution to the Root of the Symbol Grounding Problem Based on Symbol Emergence in Robotics(Cognitive Science and Symbol Emergence in Robotics: Towards Constructive Understanding of Perceptual Symbol System Based on Real-World Information)
記号創発問題 : 記号創発ロボティクスによる記号接地問題の本質的解決に向けて(<特集>認知科学と記号創発ロボティクス: 実世界情報に基づく知覚的シンボルシステムの構成論的理解に向けて)

Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence  
例えば,Roy はこの説明のために Webster 辞書から 一つの例を引用している [Roy 05].Webster 辞書による と Force は"Energy or strength"であり,Energy は "Strength of force"である.では"Strength"が何か というと "The power to resist force"The symbol grounding problem  ...  ""本研究の一部は 能 31 巻 1 号(2016 年 1 月) Harnad は記号接地問題(Symbol Grounding Problem) を唱え,物理記号仮説に基づく記号系だけでは,現実の 事象は表現できず, 計算機上の表現としての 「記号」 と 「記 号」の関係性から抜け出せないといった主張をしたので ある [Harnad 90].  ... 
doi:10.11517/jjsai.31.1_74 fatcat:an7golklgvetlb66rxhte4h72y

Acquisition of Abstract Words for Cognitive Robots

Nadia Rasheed, Shamsuddin H.M. Amin, Abdul Hafeez, Abdur Raheem, Rabia Shakoor
2015 Jurnal Teknologi  
There are many issues like symbol grounding problem and sensory motor processing within grounded cognition framework and conceptual knowledge representation methods that have to be addressed and solved  ...  In this paper, first symbol grounding problem is discussed, and after that an overview of grounded cognition be given along with detail of methods/ideas that suggest how abstract word representation could  ...  Acknowledgement The authors are thankful to Universiti Teknologi Malaysia for the state of the art laboratory.  ... 
doi:10.11113/jt.v72.3878 fatcat:7qfku5vbsfhvjplrjzllachmga
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