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The Stability and the Security of the Tangle

Quentin Bramas, Sara Tucci-Piergiovanni, Julien Prat, Maria Potop-Butucaru, Maurice Herlihy, Vincent Danos
2020 International Conference on Blockchain Economics, Security and Protocols  
In this paper we study the stability and the security of the distributed data structure at the base of the IOTA protocol, called the Tangle. The contribution of this paper is twofold.  ...  First, we present a simple model to analyze the Tangle and give the first discrete time formal analyzes of the average number of unconfirmed transactions and the average confirmation time of a transaction  ...  (the number of owned tokens in PoS) instead of simply the number 8:2 The Stability and the Security of the Tangle of nodes it controls.  ... 
doi:10.4230/oasics.tokenomics.2019.8 dblp:conf/tokenomics/Bramas19 fatcat:q665hxkcjzhnpfwtvhclulgx3q

Page 44 of The Eclectic Review Vol. 1, Issue [page]

1859 The Eclectic Review  
This tangle grows on the solid impenetrable surface of the rock; and the problem is, how to impart to it stability of attachment.  ...  Stability is secured to the forest-tree by the repeated subdivision and wide ramification of its roots, which penetrate into the soil; the sea-weeds, on the other hand, do not penetrate the soil, and have  ... 

A Scalable IoT Protocol via an Efficient DAG-Based Distributed Ledger Consensus

Bumho Son, Jaewook Lee, Huisu Jang
2020 Sustainability  
The Internet of Things (IoT) suffers from various security vulnerabilities.  ...  Experimental results have confirmed that the performance of the proposed methodology is similar to that of the existing methodology, and the proposed methodology enables a faster computation time.  ...  the main Tangle and the main Tangle does not) .  ... 
doi:10.3390/su12041529 fatcat:gvmbab7tdffelg3vnxy4sui2xm

Security Analysis on Tangle-based Blockchain through Simulation [article]

Bozhi Wang and Qin Wang and Shiping Chen and Yang Xiang
2020 arXiv   pre-print
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to provide a comprehensive security analysis of Tangle-based blockchains.  ...  To achieve that, we deconstruct the Tangle-based projects (e.g. IOTA) and abstract the main components to rebuild a simple but flexible network for the simulation.  ...  At present, Tangle-based blockchain maximally inherent the property of scalability. The security analyses on such models are educational. Myth 2.Does the simulation benefit for the real scenario?  ... 
arXiv:2008.04863v2 fatcat:57x4a2mtufc77mwcwge3hmcj3m

Function of the upper tangle in webs of young Leucauge argyra (Araneae: Tetragnathidae)

Emilia Triana-Cambronero, Gilbert Barrantes, Erica Cuyckens, Andrés Camacho
2011 The journal of arachnology  
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank William Eberhard, Linden Higgins, and two anonymous reviewers for their comments on previous versions of this manuscript.  ...  We also thank Diana Galindo for lending us the fan for the field experiments, the Organization for Tropical Studies for logistic support, and Don Pedro Gaspar for kindly allowing us to work in his plantation  ...  A possible advantage of the stabilization of the web provided by the upper tangle is the reduction in radial stress and damage.  ... 
doi:10.1636/hi11-36.1 fatcat:swrfgsx5m5b4ri7jcxa4xlqkqe

Page 74 of The Dublin Review Vol. 216, Issue 432 [page]

1945 The Dublin Review  
In the past the menace has always been that a great land Power should obtain secure and permanent possession of the Low Countries, but today, when England’s lifelines extend all over the world and upon  ...  This policy of achieving stability in Europe used to be called the Balance of Power, and the idea has become somewhat discredited since it has been confused with the division of Europe into two hostile  ... 

Page 63 of Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science Vol. 88, Issue 177 [page]

1920 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science  
These include periods of financial and franchise abuses; cut-throat, competi- tive periods; the legal tangles of con- solidation and merger; the operating problems involved by the continuous improvement  ...  in the art; the change from a public-be-damned to a public- be-pleased policy; problems of finance and of educating the bankers and the public regarding their securities; op- pression at the hands of  ... 

Page 16 of Our World Vol. 2, Issue 6 [page]

1923 Our World  
Our sole contribution to the world tangle has been the ostentatious with- drawal of the few remaining American troops from Coblenz, apparently as a rebuke for the French advance into the Ruhr, and a concession  ...  Political conditions must be stabilized be- fore economic conditions can be stabilized, and I am satisfied in my own mind, though I may be called a heretic, that if we had entered the League of Nations  ... 

Improving the Software Quality using AOP

B Vasundhara, Associate Professor, Computer Science Department, AMS School of Informatics, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2013 CVR Journal of Science & Technology  
Concerns exist at every level of the system development process. The goal of modularization is to build application software that is maintainable and reusable.  ...  AOSD additionally also classifies each of the concerns identified. Concerns in a system are of two types, core concerns and cross-cutting concerns.  ...  If we use the OOP approach to implement the security concern, it will result in code scattering and code tangling, and its implementation will be weak.  ... 
doi:10.32377/cvrjst0503 fatcat:sl6stypsyzfjdappy3jb3vdbei

Page 72 of Edinburgh Review: Critical Journal Vol. 200, Issue 409 [page]

1904 Edinburgh Review: Critical Journal  
The purpose, setting aside problematical stellar influences, is to secure prolonged stability.  ...  It presupposes tranquillity and continuity; and it may be conceded that they are likely to be better secured in some sections of the sidereal system than in others.  ... 

Page 72 of Edinburgh Review: Critical Journal Vol. 200, Issue 409 [page]

1904 Edinburgh Review: Critical Journal  
The purpose, setting aside problematical stellar influences, is to secure prolonged stability.  ...  It presupposes tranquillity and continuity; and it may be conceded that they are likely to be better secured in some sections of the sidereal system than in others.  ... 

Page 126 of Everybody's Magazine Vol. 59, Issue 2 [page]

1928 Everybody's Magazine  
It had been caught in the space between elevators and horizontal stabilizer, and other sections of it were very thoroughly wrapped around vertical fin and cabane struts.  ...  Working carefully and keeping the free sections of the ’chute folded so that the wind could not whisk it away, he suc¬ ceeded in freeing it and attaching it fairly securely to the vertical fin, bound with  ... 

IOTA-based Directed Acyclic Graphs without Orphans [article]

Pietro Ferraro, Christopher King, Robert Shorten
2018 arXiv   pre-print
In order to demonstrate these results we derive a fluid approximation for the Tangle (in the limit of infinite arrival rate) and prove that this fluid model exhibits the desired behavior.  ...  This modification ensures that all transactions are validated in finite time, and preserves essential features of the popular Monte-Carlo selection algorithm.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The work is partly supported by the Danish ForskEL programme (now EUDP) through the Energy Collective project (grant no. 2016-1-12530) and by by SFI grant 16/IA/4610.  ... 
arXiv:1901.07302v1 fatcat:2wnwkkcgofdblm2imn7u5yyzx4

Orchestrating Product Provenance Story: When IOTA ECOSYSTEM Meets The Electronics Supply Chain Space [article]

Sabah Suhail, Rasheed Hussain, Choong Seon Hong, Abid Khan
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Furthermore, we evaluate the secure provenance data construction time for varying payload size.  ...  Nevertheless, the challenging constraints of blockchain including scalability, accessing off-line data, fee-less microtransactions and many more lead to the third wave of blockchain called IOTA.  ...  Outstanding Issues and Challenges in IOTA Ledger Analogous to the blockchain, IOTA also faces security and stability issues.  ... 
arXiv:1902.04314v3 fatcat:oms3noq6ujedrh7vphipgx3rtu

Distributed Ledger Technology, Cyber-Physical Systems, and Social Compliance [article]

Pietro Ferraro, Christopher King, Robert Shorten
2018 arXiv   pre-print
After presenting an illustrative example, we analyze the control system and provide sufficient conditions for the stability of the network.  ...  In this setting we propose a set of delay differential equations to describe the dynamical behaviour of the Tangle, an IoT-inspired Directed Acyclic Graph designed for the cryptocurrency IOTA.  ...  The work is partly supported by the Danish ForskEL programme (now EUDP) through the Energy Collective project (grant no. 2016-1-12530) and by SFI grant 16/IA/4610.  ... 
arXiv:1807.00649v2 fatcat:dzwywfsqbrbvlemb3q4if3liuq
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