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The Sky Above The Clouds [article]

Sarah Chasins, Alvin Cheung, Natacha Crooks, Ali Ghodsi, Ken Goldberg, Joseph E. Gonzalez, Joseph M. Hellerstein, Michael I. Jordan, Anthony D. Joseph, Michael W. Mahoney, Aditya Parameswaran, David Patterson (+5 others)
2022 arXiv   pre-print
This white paper presents our view on how the cloud ecosystem, barely over fifteen years old, could evolve as it matures.  ...  For example, telephony, the Internet, and PCs all started with a single provider, but in the United States each is now served by a competitive market that uses comprehensive and universal technology standards  ...  We would like to thank our many colleagues who have generously read the early versions of this paper and provided insightful feedback: Dirk Bergemann, Adrian Cockcroft, David Culler, Ian Foster, Mark Russinovich  ... 
arXiv:2205.07147v1 fatcat:mpn7ivg4arghdbkyj42kii6x3a

Book Review: The Battleship Boys on the Sky Patrol. or Fighting the Hun above the Clouds

1919 Journal of Education  
A number of pleasing line draw- ings illustrative of the text complete an attractive book. — THE BATTLESHIP BOYS ON THE SKY PATROL, OR FIGHTING THE HUN ABOVE THE CLOUDS.  ...  Judging by the calibre of the books already issued in the New- World Spanish Series, the hope is not a vain one. Mr.  ... 
doi:10.1177/002205741908901211 fatcat:yv7hr2hspjacdg37vsu4brv5cm

Yang Fudong : the white cloud drifting across the sky above the scene of an earthquake = die weisse Wolke am Himmel, die über den Schauplatz des Erdbebens gleitet

Yuko Hasegawa, Suzanne Schmidt, Pamela Miki
2006
The characters' various problems and misunderstandings seem to scatter and dissolve in the wind, and the way the clouds appear in the sky seems to symbolize Yang's Taoist point of view.  ...  Yang adopts a similar approach to the creation of his art. The characters on screen are often shown gazing up at the sky.  ... 
doi:10.5169/seals-680112 fatcat:pnhq3ie5wjgwxjukh56iah457e

A study of the shortwave direct aerosol forcing using ESSP/CALIPSO observation and GCM simulation

Eiji Oikawa, Teruyuki Nakajima, Toshiro Inoue, David Winker
2013 Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres  
We investigate four scenarios for evaluating the DARF: clear-sky, the case that aerosols exist above clouds, the case that aerosols exist below high-level clouds, and the case that aerosols are not detected  ...  The cloudy-sky DARF is estimated by the latter three scenarios. The all-sky DARF is the combination of clear-sky and cloudy-sky DARF weighted by the cloud occurrence.  ...  Goto for providing the SPRINTARS simulation results and T. Nishizawa for discussing the SSA calculation and valuable comments.  ... 
doi:10.1002/jgrd.50227 fatcat:fx24m77rwvc4zoyrttxgrupjfm

An Evaluation of the Shortwave Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing Using CALIOP and MODIS Observations

Eiji Oikawa, Teruyuki Nakajima, David Winker
2018 Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres  
In addition, above-cloud aerosols, which cause positive SWDARF, are less frequently detected and below-cloud aerosols are more frequently detected in the V3 product than in the V2 product, so that cloudy-sky  ...  Considering the uncertainties of aerosol and cloud measurements, annual zonal averages of clear-sky, cloudy-sky, and all-sky SWDARFs from 60°S to 60°N are estimated as À4.0 ± 0.2, À1.1 ± 0.3, and À2.1  ...  Parts of the research were supported by funds from the GOSAT-2 project of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and the Ministry of the Environment, Japan (MOEJ), the EarthCARE and GCOM-C  ... 
doi:10.1002/2017jd027247 fatcat:u6iawtrzufbpth5dspukrdjaym

Page 2126 of Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences Vol. 65, Issue 7 [page]

2008 Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences  
The existence of upper-level clouds results in the cooling above and warming below (dotted lines in the middle panel of Fig. 19) because the flux above clouds is larger than that within clouds.  ...  While the clear-sky SW heating decreases with height above 6 km and tends to desta- bilize the upper troposphere, the cloudy-sky SW heat- ing with a peak around 9 km tends to stabilize the layer below  ... 

Relationship between low-cloud presence and the amount of overlying aerosols

Chul E. Chung, Anna Lewinschal, Eric Wilcox
2016 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions  
Aerosols are often advected above cloud decks, and the amount of aerosols over cloud has been assumed to be similar to those at the same heights in nearby clear sky.  ...  <br><br> The CALIPSO data reveal that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) above low cloud tends to be smaller than in nearby clear sky during the daytime and the opposite is true during the nighttime.  ...  We thank the ICARE Data and Services Center for providing access to data used in this study. Edited by: J. Huang  ... 
doi:10.5194/acp-2016-127 fatcat:jcpjppfvlbeidh7jmzdxzjfz3i

Relationship between low-cloud presence and the amount of overlying aerosols

Chul Eddy Chung, Anna Lewinschal, Eric Wilcox
2016 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics  
</strong> Aerosols are often advected above cloud decks, and the amount of aerosols over cloud has been assumed to be similar to that at the same heights in nearby clear sky.  ...  <br><br> The CALIPSO data reveal that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) above low cloud tends to be smaller than in nearby clear sky during the daytime, and the opposite is true during the nighttime.  ...  We thank the ICARE Data and Services Center for providing access to data used in this study. Edited by: J. Huang  ... 
doi:10.5194/acp-16-5781-2016 fatcat:qacmudodvbeklls63w5nl4qj5q

A new method for evaluating the impact of vertical distribution on aerosol radiative forcing in general circulation models

M. R. Vuolo, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, T. Takemura
2013 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions  
The different amount of BC above but also within clouds is revealed to play a major role on the differences of cloudy-sky forcings between the two models, which can exceed 100 % regionally.  ...  BC above clouds accounts for only about 30 % of the total BC optical depth but for 55 % of the forcing, while forcing efficiency increases by a factor of 7.5 when passing from below to above clouds.  ...  We would also like to thank Brigitte Koffi for fruitful discussions about clouds and aerosol vertical profiles.  ... 
doi:10.5194/acpd-13-18809-2013 fatcat:viwe2fd2qnds5g2be3nuhlujqe

Remarks on the Weather. May-December, 1842

1845 Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh  
Heavy rain : clouds moving rapidly : occasional pieces of sky. 20 h . Sky in N. and W. horizon : cumuli, &c. : linear cirri above stationary. 23 h -5 h . Cumuli. 20 h .  ...  Cumuli: clouds opening to S. 2 h . Cumuli: linear cirri above stationary : clouds looking electric. 5 h .  ...  . ^:: r 'i rji : B Scud, very low and moving quickly: hazy clouds : sky stormy-like: a cloud like black cirrus is i f oam-spread over much of the sky, it moves very little. Scud: haze above ? 2 3 h .  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0080456800039442 fatcat:yu54bzjpofghxcgatyjyabqzbe

A new method for evaluating the impact of vertical distribution on aerosol radiative forcing in general circulation models

M. R. Vuolo, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, T. Takemura
2014 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics  
The different amount of BC above but also within clouds is revealed to play a major role on the differences of cloudy-sky forcings between the two models, which can exceed 100% regionally.</p>  ...  BC above clouds accounts for only about 30% of the total BC optical depth but for 55% of the forcing, while forcing efficiency increases by a factor of 7.5 when passing from below to above clouds.  ...  We would also like to thank Brigitte Koffi for fruitful discussions about clouds and aerosol vertical profiles.  ... 
doi:10.5194/acp-14-877-2014 fatcat:t32g36oukjadtl4y64pg7miyaq

Investigating the frequency and trends in global above-cloud aerosol characteristics with CALIOP and OMI

R. Alfaro-Contreras, J. Zhang, J. R. Campbell, J. S. Reid
2015 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions  
For the first time, baseline above-cloud aerosol optical depth (ACAOD) and AI thresholds are derived and examined (AI = 1.0, ACAOD = 0.015) for each sensor.  ...  OMI) Aerosol Index (AI) data and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud products, to investigate variability in estimates of bi-annual and monthly above-cloud aerosol (ACA) events  ...  This research is funded through the support of the Office of Naval Re-  ... 
doi:10.5194/acpd-15-4173-2015 fatcat:aw7dxvowbjctzpf4udxgtvs2ou

Mean radiative energy balance and vertical mass fluxes in the equatorial upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

T. Corti
2005 Geophysical Research Letters  
The resulting mean heating rate profiles show that the transition from radiative cooling to heating occurs significantly lower in the full sky case than in the clear sky case, demonstrating the importance  ...  The influence of clouds is examined using data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and the Lidar-In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE).  ...  UKMO temperature data were provided through the SPARC Data Center at http://www.sparc.sunysb.edu/. TC thanks KA Powell for helpful comments on the LITE data.  ... 
doi:10.1029/2004gl021889 fatcat:grpjlq3fyfch5c6sg4gzhgxvqa

Satellite-based estimate of aerosol direct radiative effect over the South-East Atlantic

L. Costantino, F.-M. Bréon
2013 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions  
In case of cloudy-sky and aerosol located only above the cloud top, a SSA larger than 0.91 and cloud optical thickness larger than 4 can be considered as threshold values, beyond which the resulting radiative  ...  In good agreement with previous estimates, statistics show that a cloud fraction larger than 0.5 is generally associated with positive all-sky DRF.  ...  To this purpose, we only consider cloud-sky DRF estimates, in the specific case of aerosol located above the cloud layer.  ... 
doi:10.5194/acpd-13-23295-2013 fatcat:xyeh46qqqba7jolixpbsmcznqa

Investigating the frequency and interannual variability in global above-cloud aerosol characteristics with CALIOP and OMI

R. Alfaro-Contreras, J. Zhang, J. R. Campbell, J. S. Reid
2016 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics  
For the first time, baseline above-cloud aerosol optical depth (ACAOD) and AI thresholds are derived and examined (AI<span class="thinspace"></span> = <span class="thinspace"></span>1.0, ACAOD<span class  ...  Instrument (OMI) aerosol index (AI) data and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud products in order to investigate variability in estimates of biannual and monthly above-cloud  ...  CALIOP cloud and aerosol layer data were obtained from the Atmospheric Science Data Center.  ... 
doi:10.5194/acp-16-47-2016 fatcat:tpzeeaigm5dgnhmpqp4zeryzv4
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