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allowing negation as failure to be applied to nonground negative literals. ... Mints (1986) has given a deductive calculus, a set of proof rules, for pure Prolog such that the goalX=A"..., A" succeeds in Prolog iff X is derivable in this calculus and X fails in Prolog iff (-)X is ... Mints for his comments and corrections, and to a referee of an earlier version for corrections and substantial improvements. ...doi:10.1016/0168-0072(92)90065-8 fatcat:lhkjl5azyrhwhffph6qxzhzi5m
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
In this paper I argue that, like in several basic computational languages, such as OCL and SQL, two kinds of negation are also needed in the Semantic Web. ... In natural language, and in some knowledge representation systems, such as extended logic programs, there are two kinds of negation: a weak negation expressing non-truth, and a strong negation expressing ... a negation-as-failure in a similar way as the isEmpty operator of OCL and the IS NULL operator of SQL. 3 Negations in UML/OCL, SQL, CLIPS/Jess and Prolog UML/OCL, SQL, CLIPS/Jess and Prolog may be viewed ...doi:10.1007/978-3-540-24572-8_3 fatcat:nsernefakvdwlknmx7dkbhm7de
We shall also introduce negation as failure into N-PROLOG. ... INTRODUCTION This continuation paper investigates the logical properties of N-PROLOG and the way it relates to classical logic and the classical quantifiers. ... D NEGATION AS FAILURE IN N-PROLOG It is possible, natural, and very useful to add negation as failure to N-PROLOG. ...doi:10.1016/s0743-1066(85)80003-0 fatcat:rrivl5ddsncxldghsnwsmnyn4e
regard negation as failure as a kind of induction schema. ... It is possible to express many properties of programs in the framework of the usual flrst order logic. Clark and Tarnlund proposed to use the first order predicate logic. ... Plain productions are enough for the so-called pure Prolog, but, as was discussed in 4.1, the usual Prolog interpreter can actually treat negations of predicates by negation as failure and in fact a predicate ...doi:10.1007/bf03037052 fatcat:umf2jfetg5azxpulzct5ova7me
predicates and functions to the language. ... This machine represents the knowledge base in a strategy independent fashion as a predicate connection graph which encodes potential unifications between predicates. ... Domains where the open world assumption is in effect require that we express and use negated literals in our rule base, since the Prolog technique of negation as failure is inadequate and logically incorrect ...dblp:conf/ijcai/WhitneyBMKHD85 fatcat:bd34rxbabba3zbde7uyep5a6nq
The conditions (a) and (b) can be easily implemented using the predicate stselect and negation as failure in Prolog. If Q is not ground, then Q may have multiple answers with different head atoms. ... Operationally, the computational model in Prolog is based upon SLD resolution with negation as failure (SLDNF), which is a top-down depth-first strategy. ...doi:10.1016/0743-1066(95)00151-4 fatcat:qxjtfwogargabg235cf4upjfyq
, and negation. ... After giving a first example of a Prolog database, query and search tree, the art of drawing search trees is systematically introduced giving guidelines for queries with variables, conjunction, disjunction ... An example using cut Consider the following Prolog database: 1 Negation as failure In Prolog, a negated query Q is written as not(Q) or \+ Q. ...arXiv:2001.08133v1 fatcat:tycggjgrmbdgrazfv4kfxe7dpi
Negation has traditionally been a difficult issue in Logic Programming. Most of Prolog programmers have been restricted to use just a weak negation technique, like negation as failure. ... We provide details about the semantics and the implementation in our approaches of classical, finite constructive, and intensional negation. ... checked by compilers) which is a built-in in most Prolog compilers (Quintus, SICStus, Ciao, BinProlog, etc.), and the "delay technique" (applying negation as failure only when the variables of the negated ...doi:10.1016/j.entcs.2009.07.022 fatcat:mkprxv4cg5bfphigwd5brecvcy
The article shows the usefulness of a few key Prolog features. In particular, it discusses how to deal with negation at the level of the object programs being verified or analysed. ... This article examines the use of the Prolog language for writing verification, analysis and transformation tools. ... Acknowledgements I would like to thank Laurent Fribourg for his useful feedback on an earlier version of the article. ...doi:10.4204/eptcs.320.6 fatcat:4ptzbt4pyfcirbfq6r7luzt6uq
next x return x 0 To ensure that the answers returned by evaluating a goal G, using the original and introduced rules, are. correct, it is necessary to implement negation as failure by a safe computation ... This phase causes new predicates and rules to be introduced into the database. ...
Negation as failure is introduced to N-Prolog and its peculiarities are investigated. ... As a result of this, the soundness of SLDNF resolution and the negation-as-failure rule are established. Necessary and sufficient conditions for completeness are presented, as well. P. ...
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
We present HYPROLOG, a novel integration of Prolog with assumptions and abduction which is implemented in and partly borrows syntax from Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) for integrity constraints. ... The implementation is straightforward and seems to provide for abduction, the most efficient of known implementations; the price, however, is a limited use of negations. ... Acknowledgements The authors want to thank Michael Cheng for experimentation with an early version of the methods and for helpful discussions, and Dulce Aguilar-Solis for help with benchmark testing. ...doi:10.1007/11562931_14 fatcat:ryrnilnr5ndgzffhi45gv7w7hq
Prolog tutorialLearn Prolog ... • This attitude of negating everything that is not explicitly in the program (or can be concluded from the information provided by the program) is often referred to as the closed world assumption • Prolog ... A No then really mean no • Facts and rules are also called clauses • A fact is a predicate followed by a full stop • A rule consists of a head (a predicate) and a body. ...doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.4789897.v1 fatcat:xx52ts65dzdwtk5cbuuevpvrbq
This is an expository article about the solution to the frame problem proposed in 1980 by Raymond Reiter. For years, his "frame default" remained untested and suspect. ... But developments in some seemingly unrelated areas of computer science-logic programming and satisfiability solvers-eventually exonerated the frame default and turned it into a basis for important applications ... This syntax allows a rule to contain two kinds of negation: negation as failure not, familiar from traditional Prolog, and "strong" (or "classical") negation ¬, found within a negative literal. ...doi:10.1007/s10992-014-9332-8 fatcat:orziuuqonzaidowoflanykcgy4
In this paper we present the main features and implementation details of a programming language that we call Bousi∼Prolog. ... It can be seen as an extension of Prolog able to deal with similarity-based fuzzy unification ("Bousi" is the Spanish acronym for "fuzzy unification by similarity"). ... Also by providing us the structural analogy and the input text used in Example 2.4. ...doi:10.1016/j.entcs.2009.07.064 fatcat:v3dylwt5v5eqpjd53s6hrpv3oi
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