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The peloton bicycling simulator

Gianpaolo U. Carraro, Mauricio Cortes, John T. Edmark, J. Robert Ensor
1998 Proceedings of the third symposium on Virtual reality modeling language - VRML '98  
The simulator changes the incline of the treadmill or alters the pedaling resistance to create this feedback. This paper describes the bicycling simulations enabled by Peloton.  ...  Peloton is a sports simulator that uses the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) to create virtual environments for athletic training and competition.  ...  In the remainder of this paper, Peloton is described primarily as a bicycle ride simulator.  ... 
doi:10.1145/271897.274372 dblp:conf/vrml/CarraroCEE98 fatcat:c36lneok7jcslnqvas3uk64jye

A deceleration model for bicycle peloton dynamics and group sorting

Hugh Trenchard, Erick Ratamero, Ashlin Richardson, Matjaž Perc
2015 Applied Mathematics and Computation  
Extending earlier computer models of bicycle peloton dynamics, we add a deceleration parameter by which deceleration magnitude varies as a function of cyclist strength.  ...  Keeping constant the speed variation profile from the mass-start race as introduced into the simulation, a set of simulation experiments were run, including: varying the number of cyclists; varying the  ...  was coded into the algorithm as a constant parameter.Fig. 4. Three typical end states from simulated bicycle peloton dynamics.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.amc.2014.11.031 fatcat:h3m2dwfxjngujohon36tzntopi

Aerodynamic drag in cycling pelotons: New insights by CFD simulation and wind tunnel testing

Bert Blocken, Thijs van Druenen, Yasin Toparlar, Fabio Malizia, Paul Mannion, Thomas Andrianne, Thierry Marchal, Geert-Jan Maas, Jan Diepens
2018 Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics  
The simulations are validated by four windtunnel tests, including one with a peloton of 121 models.  ...  This paper systematically investigates the drag reductions in two pelotons of 121 cyclists. High-resolution CFD simulations are performed with the RANS equations and the Transition SST-k-ω model.  ...  The authors gratefully acknowledge the collaboration with ANSYS (Wim Slagter, Rongguang Jia, Shriram Jagannathan) and CRAY (Jef Dawson, David Whitaker) for running the peloton simulation jobs.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jweia.2018.06.011 fatcat:mfsnkdhwnrcw7mgu5nesp4f7ki

Techniques for handling video in virtual environments

Gianpaolo U. Carraro, John T. Edmark, J. Robert Ensor
1998 Proceedings of the 25th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques - SIGGRAPH '98  
It focuses on the virtual worlds created by a distributed multi-user simulator. Still images or video streams represent spaces within these three-dimensional worlds.  ...  Pyramidic panels provide a means of dealing with viewpoint changes so that two-dimensional images and video clips can successfully simulate threedimensional spaces.  ...  Simulating Bicycle Rides A few bicycle simulation programs are commercially available.  ... 
doi:10.1145/280814.280933 dblp:conf/siggraph/CarraroEE98 fatcat:qhiukbswfvbarozhbrdl3xiaiu

The peloton superorganism and protocooperative behavior

Hugh Trenchard
2015 Applied Mathematics and Computation  
Further, the tension between intra-group cooperation and inter-group competition is consistent with superorganism properties.  ...  A theoretical framework for protocooperative behavior in pelotons (groups of cyclists) is proposed.  ...  A mechanism determining a threshold for self-organized cooperative and free-riding behavior is modeled in bicycle pelotons.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.amc.2015.08.006 fatcat:dcq4ms2o2vhbljzjbbkl5ri7oi

Modelling Peloton Dynamics in Competitive Cycling: A Quantitative Approach [chapter]

Erick Martins Ratamero
2015 Communications in Computer and Information Science  
We quantify energy expenditure and recovery in relation to cyclists' positions in the peloton. Finally, we analyse the results and try to compare them to real-life behaviour of competitive pelotons.  ...  We propose an agent-based model for peloton dynamics in competitive cycling.  ...  Thanks to James Newling, for the insightful discussions during the development of the model. This work was supported by an Erasmus Mundus Masters scholarship for the Complex Systems Science program.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-17548-5_4 fatcat:wbuhtzt53faw5eb22igzcl67iy

MOPED: An Agent-based Model for Peloton Dynamics in Competitive Cycling

Erick Ratamero
2013 Proceedings of the International Congress on Sports Science Research and Technology Support  
Members of a peloton try to minimize the average energy expenditure by riding behind other cyclists, in a behaviour known as drafting.  ...  Finally, we analyse the results and try to compare them to real-life behaviour to validate the model. 134 Martins Ratamero E.. MOPED: An Agent-based Model for Peloton Dynamics in Competitive Cycling.  ...  To James Newling, many thanks for the insightful discussions during the development of the model. This work was supported by an Erasmus Mundus Masters scholarship.  ... 
doi:10.5220/0004617501340143 dblp:conf/icsports/Ratamero13 fatcat:ufyazdvvb5e2xp642rzvwbriva

Collective behavior and the identification of phases in bicycle pelotons

Hugh Trenchard, Ashlin Richardson, Erick Ratamero, Matjaž Perc
2014 Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications  
[15] a speed-density model for bicycles, and mixed electric bicycle and bicycles was investigated.  ...  Here we wish to extend the scope of this theory to the collective behavior in bicycle pelotons, which to the avid cyclists among the readers will be familiar as the stage for intriguing tactical and positional  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.physa.2014.03.002 fatcat:ug7l45rakbboxkourbspxxjn5e

Aerodynamic drag in cycling team time trials

Bert Blocken, Yasin Toparlar, Thijs van Druenen, Thomas Andrianne
2018 Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics  
A total of 47 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed with the 3D RANS equations, standard k-ε model and scalable wall functions and validated with wind-tunnel measurements.  ...  However, for much longer theoretical single pacelines, a staggered peloton configuration can yet be about two times more drag efficient.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors thank the technical support team of the Department of the Built Environment at Eindhoven University of Technology, Ing.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jweia.2018.09.015 fatcat:kmcyfotkfzbrtmdvcwqosuxmne

Cyclist aerodynamics through time: Better, faster, stronger

Fabio Malizia, Bert Blocken
2021 Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics  
The last decades have seen an increasing interest in cycling aerodynamics, with the design of more aerodynamic bicycles and wearable equipment such as helmets and skinsuits and the development and application  ...  However, some knowledgealbeit mainly empiricalof the impact of aerodynamics on cycling performance was already known in late 1800s and early 1900s; as shown by the design of recumbent bicycles and aerodynamic  ...  The authors also thank the Groupama-FDJ cycling team and Lapierre bikes for the collaboration that has equally inspired parts of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jweia.2021.104673 fatcat:imfffapcl5bldbazxj644r2h7q

Cell pelotons: a model of early evolutionary cell sorting, with application to slime mold D. discoideum

Hugh Trenchard
2019 Journal of Theoretical Biology  
The simulation relies on an existing simulation of bicycle peloton dynamics which is modified to incorporate a limited range of cell metabolic capacities among heterogeneous cells, along with a tunable  ...  The model involves an energy-saving mechanism and principles of collective self-organization analogous to those observed in bicycle pelotons (groups of cyclists).  ...  Acknowledgments: The author acknowledges the comments of an anonymous referee and the editing assistance of Demian Seale, whose input helped to improve this manuscript substantially.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2019.02.011 pmid:30794840 fatcat:iql77dq3f5dxvp3shpijh426ku

Surprises in cycling aerodynamics

Bert Blocken, Thijs Defraeye, Erwin Koninckx, Jan Carmeliet, Peter Hespel
2013 EurophysicsNews  
This is certainly the case for a chaotic peloton sprint. However, team time trials are much more organised than peloton sprints.  ...  , from the total experimental drag area of the cyclist body, bicycle and platform.  ... 
doi:10.1051/epn/2013102 fatcat:kachnra6sbhufajqrt2vsvhh64

Swimming across the Pacific

Tzu-Pei Grace Chen, Yuichiro Kinoshita, Yasufumi Takama, Sidney Fels, Kenji Funahashi, Ashley Gadd
2004 ACM SIGGRAPH 2004 Emerging technologies on - SIGGRAPH '04  
It is a locomotion interface comparable to Sarcos Treadport [Hollerbach et al. 2000 ], Trike [Allison et al. 2000 ] and Peloton Bicycling Simulator [Carraro et al. 1998 ].  ...  If the height is over a pre-defined threshold value and/or the swimming avatar's motion interferes with waves, some particles are made in the air to simulate splashing.  ...  It is a locomotion interface comparable to Sarcos Treadport [Hollerbach et al. 2000 ], Trike [Allison et al. 2000 ] and Peloton Bicycling Simulator [Carraro et al. 1998 ].  ... 
doi:10.1145/1186155.1186183 dblp:conf/siggraph/ChenKTFFG04 fatcat:zqgvjoqj6bavffqd7e2nyhn4ey

Virtual Training of Endurance Cycling - A Summary of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

Benjamin McIlroy, Louis Passfield, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Billy Sperlich
2021 Frontiers in Sports and Active Living  
Virtual online training has emerged as one of the top 20 worldwide fitness trends for 2021 and continues to develop rapidly.  ...  Threats are present in the form of cheating during competition, and a lack of uptake and acceptance by a broader community.  ...  use of analogous simulations for running (Zwift, NordicTrack, Peloton) is expanding.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fspor.2021.631101 pmid:33748754 pmcid:PMC7969501 fatcat:r2vvkstolnduzcevguwmeqauxy

Driver Behavior When Overtaking Cyclists Riding in Different Group Configurations on Two-Lane Rural Roads

Ana María Pérez-Zuriaga, Sara Moll, Griselda López, Alfredo García
2021 International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health  
To study this, instrumented bicycles were used to ride along five road segments with different geometric and traffic characteristics. Cyclists rode individually and in groups.  ...  In rural environments, the risk of a crash is higher than in rural areas. The main cause is the higher speed of motor vehicles during overtaking manoeuvres.  ...  Additionally, the level of non-compliance with the 1.5 m of lateral clearance of the Spanish traffic rules was analyzed. The level of non-compliance has decreased in recent years.  ... 
doi:10.3390/ijerph182312797 pmid:34886522 pmcid:PMC8657691 fatcat:ydea56j6pzfthncjldc4evcary
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