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The Pairing of Contracts and Session Types [chapter]

Cosimo Laneve, Luca Padovani
2008 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We pair session types and contracts using two encodings. The encoding of session types accommodates width and depth subtyping, two properties that partially hold in contracts.  ...  The encoding of contracts accommodates complex synchronization patterns, since session types own a simple control protocol.  ...  Sections 4 and 5 present the encoding from session types to contracts and from contracts to session types, respectively.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-68679-8_42 fatcat:stpcuo6vxbgi5cu6vi5we67dqe

Chaperone contracts for higher-order sessions

Hernán Melgratti, Luca Padovani
2017 Proceedings of the ACM on Programming Languages  
Guided by the calculus, we describe a lightweight implementation of monitored sessions as an OCaml module with which programmers can benefit from static session type checking and dynamic contract monitoring  ...  We give a characterization of a correct module, one that honors the contracts of the sessions it uses, and prove a blame theorem.  ...  The first author has been partially supported by World Wide Style project of the University of Torino (second edition) and Fondazione CRT.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3110279 dblp:journals/pacmpl/MelgrattiP17 fatcat:jwgueo5ltjedxd42yhdhkxniga

What Spaced Learning is Effective for Long-Term L2 Vocabulary Retention?

2017 Zenkoku Eigo Kyoiku Gakkai kiyo  
The present study aims to compare the effects of expanding, equally-spaced, and contracting retrieval practice on L2 vocabulary learning.  ...  Group A (n = 34) learned 20 English and Japanese word pairs (e.g., ligament-jintai) under the expanding schedule (Day 1, 1, 8, and 22).  ...  Therefore, this study did not show the advantages of contracting retrieval practice over the other two types of relative spacing for longer retention.  ... 
doi:10.20581/arele.28.0_113 fatcat:gz7rmd4azrggbgwa3nqpacvjgu

Choreography Synthesis as Contract Agreement

Julien Lange, Alceste Scalas
2013 Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science  
Our framework is based on the CO2 calculus for contract-oriented computing, and borrows concepts and results from the session type literature.  ...  We show that we have progress and session fidelity in CO2, as a result of the honesty of participants - i.e., their ability to always adhere to their contracts.  ...  Region of Sardinia under grants L.R.7/2007 CRP-17285 (TRICS), P.I.A. 2010 Project "Social Glue", and by MIUR PRIN 2010-11 project "Security Horizons".  ... 
doi:10.4204/eptcs.131.6 fatcat:357cr3ozpjggpjsq2so7jpfdiy

Competition in Lending: Theory and Experiments*

Elena Asparouhova
2006 Review of Finance  
equilibrium pair.  ...  If equilibrium exists, it predicts that the loan contracts offered and taken separate the projects being financed by quality. When equilibrium exists, we confirm the theory.  ...  In all sessions nine of the buyers were Red-type and eight were Blue-type (i.e., for the Non-existence environment we had λ = 9/17 in all sessions).  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10679-006-8280-8 fatcat:ipsyqklhvrefhemp3bbet3axwq

Retractable and Speculative Contracts [chapter]

Franco Barbanera, Ivan Lanese, Ugo de'Liguoro
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Behavioral contracts are abstract descriptions of the communications that clients and servers perform.  ...  We study two extensions of contracts, dealing respectively with backtracking and with speculative execution. We show that the two extensions give rise to the same notion of compliance.  ...  Because of the relevance of higher-order features in type systems, and of session delegation in type systems with sessions in particular, also higher-order session contracts, i.e. session contracts with  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-59746-1_7 fatcat:oqd264xqjndhtktj4j24yecfuq

Contracting, equal, and expanding learning schedules: The optimal distribution of learning sessions depends on retention interval

Carolina E. Küpper-Tetzel, Irina V. Kapler, Melody Wiseheart
2014 Memory & Cognition  
In laboratory and applied learning experiments, researchers have extensively investigated the optimal distribution of two learning sessions (i.e., initial learning and one relearning session) for the learning  ...  However, research has not yet provided a satisfying and conclusive answer to the optimal scheduling of three learning sessions (i.e., initial learning and two relearning sessions) across educationally  ...  Acknowledgments The first author acknowledges support from the Ontario/Baden-Württemberg Faculty Mobility Contracting, Equal, and Expanding Learning Schedules 27  ... 
doi:10.3758/s13421-014-0394-1 pmid:24500777 fatcat:7y5yk523c5amxcycy7kllxbq7m

Contract-based synchronization of IP telecommunication services

Yi Huang, Laura K. Dillon, R. E. K. Stirewalt
2011 Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Communication System Software and Middleware - COMSWARE '11  
The case study demonstrates the extent to which contract-based synchronization facilitates refinement of a finite-state design to code and improves design transparency.  ...  A conclusion of the case study is that contract-based synchronization could provide a foundation for automatic generation of IPT services from finite-state designs.  ...  ., and AT&T Research Laboratory. The authors also thank G. Bond, E. Cheung, H. Purdy, T. Smith, V. Subramonian, and P. Zave for indispensable explanations, feedback and guidance.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2016551.2016556 dblp:conf/comsware/HuangDS11 fatcat:a6yt2sllkfcollzvg2adfdqxgy

Choreographies in the wild

Massimo Bartoletti, Julien Lange, Alceste Scalas, Roberto Zunino
2015 Science of Computer Programming  
We show that systems of honest participants (which always adhere to their contracts) enjoy progress and session fidelity.  ...  We investigate the use of choreographies in distributed scenarios where, as in the real world, mutually distrusting (and possibly dishonest) participants may be unfaithful to their expected behaviour.  ...  We would like to thank Emilio Tuosto for his (in)valuable advice, and the anonymous reviewers of ICE 2013 for their comments and suggestions.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.scico.2014.11.015 fatcat:qgy4mgxf2jh53p7o444ovgrrem

Asynchronous session subtyping as communicating automata refinement

Mario Bravetti, Gianluigi Zavattaro
2021 Journal of Software and Systems Modeling  
We show the existence of a fully abstract interpretation of session types into a fragment of contracts that maps session subtyping into binary compliance-preserving CFSMs/behavioural contract refinement  ...  In this way, on the one hand, we enrich the theory of session types with an operational characterization and, on the other hand, we use recent undecidability results for asynchronous session subtyping  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to thank the anonymous reviewers who provided us with many extremely useful and insightful suggestions.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10270-020-00838-x fatcat:whytw3uuvzfr3of3u7qg5xcwlm

Resistant Against De-depression: LTD-Like Plasticity in the Human Motor Cortex Induced by Spaced cTBS

Mitchell R. Goldsworthy, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Michael C. Ridding, Ulf Ziemann
2014 Cerebral Cortex  
Within each experimental session, 3 blocks were recorded at baseline (B1, B2, and B3), and a total of 9 postintervention blocks were recorded following the first stimulation protocol.  ...  We investigated whether the neuroplastic effects of paired cTBS trains were resistant to dedepression by a sustained, submaximal voluntary contraction of the hand muscles.  ...  The same type of stimulator was used for each session of an experiment for each subject.  ... 
doi:10.1093/cercor/bht353 pmid:24488942 fatcat:rvzlxcdutbcw7oieb2krc6jhoe

Two notions of sub-behaviour for session-based client/server systems

Franco Barbanera, Ugo de'Liguoro
2010 Proceedings of the 12th international ACM SIGPLAN symposium on Principles and practice of declarative programming - PPDP '10  
We propose a refinement and a simplification of the behavioural semantics of session types, based on the concepts of compliance and sub-behaviour from the theory of web contracts.  ...  We show that a proper subclass of behaviours, called "session behaviors", and the sub-behaviour relations model session types and subtyping, clarifying the otherwise problematic extension of session type  ...  Acknowledgments We are grateful to Cosimo Laneve and Luca Padovani for discussions and comments on previous versions of this work.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1836089.1836109 dblp:conf/ppdp/Barbanerad10 fatcat:iv4ggo3gmvd43kc4sk5jxxnagq

A theory of retractable and speculative contracts

Franco Barbanera, Ivan Lanese, Ugo de'Liguoro
2018 Science of Computer Programming  
We study two extensions of behavioral contracts, retractable contracts dealing with backtracking and speculative contracts dealing with speculative execution.  ...  We show that the two extensions give rise to the same notion of compliance.  ...  The first and third authors were partially supported also by the COST Action EUTYPES CA-15123 and, respectively, Project "Chance" of the University of Catania and Project FORMS 2015 of Turin.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.scico.2018.06.005 fatcat:5smldawixfcbvlesbtg3w35dta

Level of initial training moderates the effects of distributing practice over multiple days with expanding, contracting, and uniform schedules: Evidence for study-phase retrieval

Thomas C. Toppino, Heather-Anne Phelan, Emilie Gerbier
2018 Memory & Cognition  
Inconsistent results have been obtained in experiments comparing the effects on retention of expanding, contracting, and uniform practice schedules, in which the spacing between successive practice sessions  ...  College students studied pseudocword-word pairs in multiple practice sessions distributed over a 13-day period according to expanding, contracting, and uniform schedules.  ...  The numbers of days separating the first and second and the second and third study sessions were 1 and 11, 11 and 1, and 6 and 6, for the expanding, contracting, and uniform schedules, respectively.  ... 
doi:10.3758/s13421-018-0815-7 pmid:29728945 fatcat:h34mgrwh6vf4bjdzvtibgdk4yu

Screening equilibria in experimental markets

Lisa L. Posey, Abdullah Yavas
2007 The Geneva Risk and Insurance Review  
It has also been used to study multi-period insurance contracts (Cooper and Hayes, 1987; Hosios and Peters, 1989) , and has been extended to include uncertainty about the size of losses (Doherty and Schlesinger  ...  this new type of behavior an equilibrium always exists. It is either the Rothschild-Stiglitz equilibrium or a pooling equilibrium.  ...  In this equilibrium the price-quantity pairs allow insurers to deduce policyholder risk types by their contract choices.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10713-007-0007-z fatcat:abyhsvc5wrhstpeyavx4xusjhe
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