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The nature of information in the twenty‐first century

George Macgregor
<span title="">2005</span> <i title="Emerald"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/oqlwppyho5bupbfvxii7du47ya" style="color: black;">Library Review</a> </i> &nbsp;
What is original/value of paper The paper is a contribution to the debate on the precise nature of information and offers new perspectives on how the informatics community should view information in the  ...  Design/methodology / approach The paper begins by revisiting and refreshing the unique characteristics of information via a reappraisal of the relevant literature.  ...  As the value of information as a resource becomes paramount in our New Economy, so does our need to valuate it.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1108/00242530510574129">doi:10.1108/00242530510574129</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/pygd36tfijhi5mrnof7l3yxx2u">fatcat:pygd36tfijhi5mrnof7l3yxx2u</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170930114537/https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/9015447.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/56/05/560586b0f323fb7a0525bcb7c73756e0386303a6.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1108/00242530510574129"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

External Benefit Assessment of Urban Utility Tunnels Based on Sustainable Development

Zi-Yun Zhang, Fang-Le Peng, Chen-Xiao Ma, Hui Zhang, Su-Juan Fu
<span title="2021-01-17">2021</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/oglosmy3gbhuzobyjit4qalakq" style="color: black;">Sustainability</a> </i> &nbsp;
This paper proposes a composite market price method to carry out a simple but systematic evaluation of the positive externalities of UUTs in monetary terms.  ...  , the feasibility of the valuation methodology and the comprehensiveness of external categories.  ...  Informed Consent Statement: Not applicable. Data Availability Statement: Not applicable. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020900">doi:10.3390/su13020900</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/pew72gqz75fmvdy452td6h5lkm">fatcat:pew72gqz75fmvdy452td6h5lkm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210202201932/https://res.mdpi.com/d_attachment/sustainability/sustainability-13-00900/article_deploy/sustainability-13-00900-v2.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/c4/64/c4649557c831bf9bd1330f02efda0981e61d8873.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020900"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a>

Information sharing through informal interaction in low-tech clusters

Anant Kamath
<span title="2015-01-02">2015</span> <i title="Informa UK Limited"> Innovation and Development </i> &nbsp;
a bunch of young princes being taught archery by a great teacher, who puts up a clay-bird on the branch of a tree and asks each prince to aim for its eye.  ...  If I have been successful in getting a good shot of an eye, it is this approach that has helped me succeed.  ...  But the response to this mechanisation has been negative for most of these decades; Rammohan (1999) even likening the resistance to a Luddite kind. 39 The resistance to mechanisation and large-firm entrepreneurships  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/2157930x.2015.1007570">doi:10.1080/2157930x.2015.1007570</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/sknsjoxsajcqlpilldd3skjzn4">fatcat:sknsjoxsajcqlpilldd3skjzn4</a> </span>
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Why the Mainstream Economic Paradigm Cannot Inform Sustainability Transformations [chapter]

Maja Göpel
<span title="">2016</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> The Great Mindshift </i> &nbsp;
While adhering to a monetary valuation of progress, these indicators make an effort to identify the 'use value' created or depleted in the course of a particular path of development.  ...  Of course it entitles its owner to a share of the generated surplus value.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-43766-8_3">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-43766-8_3</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/wcweovexw5conouym4i3mi6e24">fatcat:wcweovexw5conouym4i3mi6e24</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20171014065938/http://publisher-connector.core.ac.uk/resourcesync/data/Springer-OA/pdf/6ff/aHR0cDovL2xpbmsuc3ByaW5nZXIuY29tLzEwLjEwMDcvOTc4LTMtMzE5LTQzNzY2LThfMy5wZGY%3D.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/be/aa/beaafeb03ec3f1459cd5c1a85e8c5b9a0f572a0c.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-43766-8_3"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Papua New Guinea: 2006 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; and Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion for Papua New Guinea

International Monetary Fund
<span title="">2007</span> <i title="International Monetary Fund (IMF)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/mse4h6ghqbf2rhrkswseiou6ke" style="color: black;">IMF Staff Country Reports</a> </i> &nbsp;
To assist the IMF in evaluating the publication policy, reader comments are invited and may be sent by e-mail to publicationpolicy@imf.org.  ...  mineral revenue inflows, the current managed floating exchange rate appropriately allows a build-up of reserves while protecting nonmineral sector competitiveness by resisting rapid appreciation of the  ...  The views expressed in the staff report are those of the staff team and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Board of the IMF; and • a Public Information Notice (PIN) summarizing the views  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5089/9781451831726.002">doi:10.5089/9781451831726.002</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/pjdrorvfdzairkt3tspvqbpitm">fatcat:pjdrorvfdzairkt3tspvqbpitm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210427213137/https://www.imf.org/-/media/Websites/IMF/imported-full-text-pdf/external/pubs/ft/scr/2007/_cr07111.ashx" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/f0/0e/f00e7a4f8cbb05a65c16cf0e65ba6472c94c5da4.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5089/9781451831726.002"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Ukraine: 2008 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Ukraine

International Monetary Fund
<span title="">2008</span> <i title="International Monetary Fund (IMF)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/mse4h6ghqbf2rhrkswseiou6ke" style="color: black;">IMF Staff Country Reports</a> </i> &nbsp;
Monetary conditions have tightened somewhat, but the de facto peg to the dollar has limited the ability of monetary policy to combat inflation.  ...  The authorities see less scope for spending restraint, but envisage a deficit below 1 percent of GDP via buoyant revenues.  ...  The mission noted that data on trade in goods remain considerably understated and a detailed study of errors in coverage and valuation of goods need to be conducted.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5089/9781451839128.002">doi:10.5089/9781451839128.002</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/4xhibtwakrhw7bquv6cbclbcie">fatcat:4xhibtwakrhw7bquv6cbclbcie</a> </span>
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Asymmetric Information, Trading Volume, and Portfolio Performance

Antony Jackson
<span title="">2013</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/tol7woxlqjeg5bmzadeg6qrg3e" style="color: black;">Social Science Research Network</a> </i> &nbsp;
With such a philosophy, internal auditors will increase their functional values at a time when the valuation and risk management have become the key concerns of interested parts.  ...  Due to the lack of replacement cost data, we gauge it as the market value of the assets divided by the book value of the assets (for a similar approach, see Lehn et al., 1990 and Yeh, 2005) .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2269008">doi:10.2139/ssrn.2269008</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ayzni5rn7fguvjf4x7lytnlmca">fatcat:ayzni5rn7fguvjf4x7lytnlmca</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180721031432/https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/47350/1/COC_Volume_11_Issue_1_Fall_2013_.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/d2/5c/d25c4b986fa56cc946b5646518b7b172ce060c87.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2269008"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ssrn.com </button> </a>

Examples of Risk Information Concealment Practice [chapter]

Dmitry Chernov, Didier Sornette
<span title="">2016</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> Man-made Catastrophes and Risk Information Concealment </i> &nbsp;
A general plan was proposed for the erection of seven dams in Piave valley, but from the beginning of the Vajont dam development, the project met with fierce resistance from local communities protesting  ...  In March 1959 in the nearby Pontesei dam reservoir (owned by SADE), a landslide of 10 million m 3 of rock occurred (equivalent of cube with a 220 m side), resulting in the death of one worker, killed by  ...  There was a lot of resistance. Alexandrov was against it. The Academy of Sciences too.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24301-6_2">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-24301-6_2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/w42ofgavczhvvbppbdkxzsin7m">fatcat:w42ofgavczhvvbppbdkxzsin7m</a> </span>
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Ghana: 2009 Article IV Consultation and Request for a Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility: Staff Report; Staff Supplement; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice and Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Ghana

International Monetary Fund
<span title="">2009</span> <i title="International Monetary Fund (IMF)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/mse4h6ghqbf2rhrkswseiou6ke" style="color: black;">IMF Staff Country Reports</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this regard the following areas require action: (i) design and building a business register that have a minimum of information on output values, if possible input values, and the number of employees  ...  The DSA is also sensitive to currency valuation, with a 30 percent depreciation raising the present value of debt-to-GDP ratio by 25 percentage points by the end of the projection period. 16.  ...  The increase would be somewhat larger in net present value terms (from 18 to 31 percent of GDP), reflecting an assumed increase in nonconcessional borrowing.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5089/9781451815047.002">doi:10.5089/9781451815047.002</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/vsvh7iz76jdmjkilkzvruvcchm">fatcat:vsvh7iz76jdmjkilkzvruvcchm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210716092558/https://www.imf.org/-/media/Websites/IMF/imported-full-text-pdf/external/pubs/ft/scr/2009/_cr09256.ashx" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/96/d1/96d126325c31571c26f24c53473ffd65bfaedc08.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5089/9781451815047.002"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Republic of Montenegro: 2007 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Republic of Montenegro

International Monetary Fund
<span title="">2008</span> <i title="International Monetary Fund (IMF)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/mse4h6ghqbf2rhrkswseiou6ke" style="color: black;">IMF Staff Country Reports</a> </i> &nbsp;
The CBM does not yet report monetary data in the format of Standardized Report Forms (SRFs).  ...  Monetary and financial statistics are compiled by the CBM, broadly following the institutional coverage, classification, and valuation methodology set forth in the Monetary and Financial Statistics Manual  ...  Preliminary data suggest a stronger budgetary outturn in 2007 by about 1 percent of GDP, due to strong revenues. 5.  ... 
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Novel Coronavirus in Cape Town Informal Settlements: Feasibility of using informal dwelling outlines to identify high risk areas for COVID-19 transmission from social distancing perspective. (Preprint)

Lesley Gibson, David Rush
<span title="2020-03-23">2020</span> <i title="JMIR Publications Inc."> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/l4d2cstvknamhpnofbe3dxtlpe" style="color: black;">JMIR Public Health and Surveillance</a> </i> &nbsp;
Dwellings in the settlements of Masiphumelele and Klipfontein Glebe were extracted from a geographic information system data set of outlines of all informal dwellings in Cape Town.  ...  This paper uses dwelling outlines for informal settlements in the city of Cape Town to demonstrate that with a 2 m measure, effective social distancing will be challenging.  ...  It is also being included in the transport authority management system, which consists of a central data repository and integrated information management systems that use transport data to enable informed  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2196/18844">doi:10.2196/18844</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32250283">pmid:32250283</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/pd3xoyfopndqniwty4hnkmwi5i">fatcat:pd3xoyfopndqniwty4hnkmwi5i</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180219211745/http://resource.capetown.gov.za:80/documentcentre/Documents/City%20research%20reports%20and%20review/Annual%20Report%202016_17.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/29/c1/29c1511e1ed683d1c7c0eb2b9c611cff507b9257.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2196/18844"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Chad: 2008 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Staff Supplement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Chad

International Monetary Fund
<span title="">2009</span> <i title="International Monetary Fund (IMF)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/mse4h6ghqbf2rhrkswseiou6ke" style="color: black;">IMF Staff Country Reports</a> </i> &nbsp;
The 2005 data ROSC mission found that the coverage of monetary statistics is limited to the central bank and commercial banks, whereas microfinance corporations, a growing source of finance in the country  ...  The monetary data on net credit to government frequently can not be reconciled with the fiscal data, owing to differences in the institutional coverage and grouping of units in general government and the  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5089/9781451836509.002">doi:10.5089/9781451836509.002</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/sg246ijtenffzjwqn2rd7dod5e">fatcat:sg246ijtenffzjwqn2rd7dod5e</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201103095520/https://www.imf.org/~/media/Websites/IMF/imported-full-text-pdf/external/pubs/ft/scr/2009/_cr0968.ashx" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/df/13/df13e63e1a678d69cff93707edcb3c65a11d416d.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5089/9781451836509.002"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Cape Verde: 2010 Article IV Consultation and Request for a 15-Month Policy Support Instrument-Staff Report; Public Information Notice and Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Cape Verde

International Monetary Fund
<span title="">2010</span> <i title="International Monetary Fund (IMF)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/mse4h6ghqbf2rhrkswseiou6ke" style="color: black;">IMF Staff Country Reports</a> </i> &nbsp;
SRF-based monetary data have been published in the IFS Supplement since June 2007. These data are fully aligned with the recommendations of the Monetary and Financial Statistics Manual.  ...  The indicative external debt burden thresholds for countries in this category are a present value (PV) of debt-to-exports ratio of 200 percent, a PV of debt-to-revenue ratio of 300 percent, a PV of debt-to-GDP  ...  Inflation is low and the real value of the escudo remains competitive.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5089/9781455212712.002">doi:10.5089/9781455212712.002</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/6gicdxjezbd5hg53v6dsgdmmz4">fatcat:6gicdxjezbd5hg53v6dsgdmmz4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200506085134/https://www.imf.org/~/media/Websites/IMF/imported-full-text-pdf/external/pubs/ft/scr/2010/_cr10349.ashx" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/75/fe/75fe1554f2fa0db8a88e453397625d98bca59c88.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5089/9781455212712.002"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Towards a method for the economic evaluation of environmental indicators for UK integrated arable farming systems

A.P Bailey, T Rehman, J Park, J.D.H Keatinge, R.B Tranter
<span title="">1999</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/7lqgoyu2gner3hihfkfkjmuk74" style="color: black;">Agriculture, Ecosystems &amp; Environment</a> </i> &nbsp;
13 Integrated Arable Farming Systems (IAFS), which involve a reduction in the use of off-farm inputs, 14 are attracting considerable research interest in the UK.  ...  To illustrate the results of this exercise, the methodology and 19 environmental indicators chosen are then applied to data from one of the LINK -Integrated Farming 20 Systems experimental sites.  ...  A final limitation of the 25 approach are the problems, highlighted by the information on invertebrates, regarding the provision, 26 measurement and valuation of data.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-8809(98)00171-6">doi:10.1016/s0167-8809(98)00171-6</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/tjmu3uj2grdonmszxwkre7mtku">fatcat:tjmu3uj2grdonmszxwkre7mtku</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190324003837/https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/359886.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/74/7b/747b7556f19a37f255b52f194ddf7b8e5e589c43.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-8809(98)00171-6"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> elsevier.com </button> </a>

Leverage, Linkage, and Leakage: Problems with the Private Pension System and How They Should Inform the Social Security Reform Debate

Norman P. Stein
<span title="">2001</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/tol7woxlqjeg5bmzadeg6qrg3e" style="color: black;">Social Science Research Network</a> </i> &nbsp;
The two most critical sources of leakage in such a system would be management of account investments at high cost, risk, and resistance to any mandatory annuity payout.  ...  For purposes of thinking about leakage from a retirement system, it makes more sense to project the future dollar value of a distribution to the retirement age of the distributee.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.282328">doi:10.2139/ssrn.282328</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ke363ld2vzfa7kdusxvy4zr3p4">fatcat:ke363ld2vzfa7kdusxvy4zr3p4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170922002959/http://scholarlycommons.law.wlu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1468&amp;context=wlulr" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/74/69/746989bbde73dc6ace40bccc732131c5520c4199.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.282328"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ssrn.com </button> </a>
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