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W.T. Liu
2015 Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences  
Synopsis The basics of scatterometry and air-sea turbulence transfer are discussed to bring out the capabilities of space sensors in measuring ocean surface stress and wind vectors.  ...  The scientific significance of wind and stress are described. Past knowledge of stress characteristics was based on those of wind, because of the lack of stress measurements.  ...  It was supported by the Ocean Vector Winds and the Physical Oceanography Programs of NASA. Xiaosu Xie and Wenqing Tang provided valuable assistance.  ... 
doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-382225-3.00359-5 fatcat:2zohy4i34rcn3fhkffaz725vme

Ocean Winds and Turbulent Air-Sea Fluxes Inferred From Remote Sensing

Mark Bourassa, Sarah Gille, Darren Jackson, J. Brent Roberts, Gary Wick
2010 Oceanography  
Turbulent fluxes are strongly dependent on wind speed; therefore, observations of wind speed are critical for the calculation of all turbulent surface fluxes.  ...  of surface turbulent fluxes.  ... 
doi:10.5670/oceanog.2010.04 fatcat:3epw7hf6ezcbrgibe272sby42y

Sea Surface Exchanges of Momentum, Heat, and Fresh Water Determined by Satellite Remote Sensing [chapter]

L. Yu
2009 Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences  
It is true that scatterometers measure the effects of small-scale roughness caused by surface stress, but the retrieval algorithms produce surface wind, not wind stress, because there are no adequate surface-stress  ...  above the sea surface T s temperature at the sea surface u zonal component of the wind speed v meridional component of the wind speed W wind speed r density of surface air r w density of  ... 
doi:10.1016/b978-012374473-9.00800-6 fatcat:eflbblrx2zhrvlddtwko7dmz3y

Ocean–Atmosphere Interaction over Agulhas Extension Meanders

W. Timothy Liu, Xiaosu Xie, Pearn P. Niiler
2007 Journal of Climate  
Distribution of ENW convergence implies ascending motion on the downwind side of local SST maxima and descending air on the upwind side and acceleration of surface wind stress over warm water (deceleration  ...  stability dependence of turbulent mixing but also the unique stress measuring capability of the scatterometer.  ...  William Rossow, Eric Fetzer, Hartmut Aumann, and Moustafa Chahine kindly reviewed and advised on the analyses of ISCCP and AIRS data.  ... 
doi:10.1175/2007jcli1732.1 fatcat:xu2lt3pceza3jj7643l3cjnpeu

Wind Power at Sea as Observed from Space [chapter]

W. Timothy, Wenqing Tang, Xiaosu Xie
2010 Wind Power  
Because stress is small-scale turbulence generated by buoyancy and wind shear, its magnitude should have strong spatial coherence with sea surface temperature and its direction should show influence by  ...  Liu and Large (1981) demonstrated, for the first time, the relation between measurements by a spacebased scatterometer and surface stress measured on research ships.  ...  Most of the results presented in to the book have already been published on international journals and appreciated in many international conferences.  ... 
doi:10.5772/8344 fatcat:jf6sggo7yfazti7thfw4pytwyi


J. A. Curry, A. Bentamy, M. A. Bourassa, D. Bourras, E. F. Bradley, M. Brunke, S. Castro, S. H. Chou, C. A. Clayson, W. J. Emery, L. Eymard, C. W. Fairall (+11 others)
2004 Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS)  
Coordination of the SEAFLUX project has been funded by a grant from NASA EOS IDS (PI: P. Webster).  ...  Analysis of SeaWinds scatterometer data (following Pegion | et al. 2000) for a 3-h period, centered on the same time, shows a closed tropical storm with surface wind stress reaching values an order of  ...  However, upon approaching the interface, turbulence is suppressed by the large density contrast between the air and ocean, and the interface is a strong barrier to the turbulent transport between the ocean  ... 
doi:10.1175/bams-85-3-409 fatcat:vgc5sdpqp5g6df4v7d7tgfs6um

Turbulent Heat Fluxes and Wind Remote Sensing [chapter]

Mark A. Bourassa, Paul J. Hughes
2018 New Frontiers in Operational Oceanography  
The exchange of heat and momentum through the air-sea surface are critical aspects of ocean forcing and ocean modeling.  ...  This chapter provides background on the calculation and application of air-sea fluxes, as well as the use of remote sensing to calculate these fluxes.  ...  Department of Commerce under award number NA11OAR432019 and NA16OAR4320199.  ... 
doi:10.17125/gov2018.ch10 fatcat:jzhnvrpvench7nnjw5thd46d3q

Estimating Wind Stress at the Ocean Surface From Scatterometer Observations

M. M. Ali, G. S. Bhat, D. G. Long, S. Bharadwaj, M. A. Bourassa
2013 IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters  
Since the fundamental scatterometer measurement is of the surface radar backscatter (sigma-0) which is related to surface roughness and, thus, stress, we develop a method to estimate wind stress directly  ...  Scatterometer calibration is designed to account for the assumption of neutral stability; however, the assumption of a particular sea state and negligible current often introduces an error in wind stress  ...  The air density required to calculate stress can be determined from in situ measurements of pressure, air temperature, and humidity.  ... 
doi:10.1109/lgrs.2012.2231937 fatcat:zfpr6o2wtvb4pffuhrhtglguay

Observations of SST-Induced Perturbations of the Wind Stress Field over the Southern Ocean on Seasonal Timescales

Larry W. O'Neill, Dudley B. Chelton, Steven K. Esbensen
2003 Journal of Climate  
The surface wind stress response to sea surface temperature (SST) over the latitude range 30Њ-60ЊS in the Southern Ocean is described from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's QuikSCAT scatterometer  ...  significant perturbations in the surface wind field near SST fronts that are distinct from the vertical turbulent transfer of momentum.  ...  throughout the course of this study.  ... 
doi:10.1175/2780.1 fatcat:f55i57qz5rfw3ha2mqvjywfxxe

Inferring Air‐Sea Carbon Dioxide Transfer Velocities from Sea Surface Scatterometer Measurements

M. Ghobadian, D. Stammer
2019 Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans  
The scatterometer measurements observed from a height of 25 m above the sea surface using a multifrequency scatterometer instrument of the University of Hamburg were obtained quasi-simultaneously with  ...  Applied to monthly mean satellite-based C-band ASCAT scatterometer data, the newly derived gas transfer velocity parameterization provides estimates of seasonal and annual mean global maps of air-sea transfer  ...  Their technical support during the scatterometer measurements and data processing is gratefully acknowledged. We also thank Stefan Kern for his support and advice regarding the use of satellite data.  ... 
doi:10.1029/2019jc014982 fatcat:4zlhihmjdzgl7ejslqhl3ljdwm

Remotely Sensed Winds and Wind Stresses for Marine Forecasting and Ocean Modeling

Mark A. Bourassa, Thomas Meissner, Ivana Cerovecki, Paul S. Chang, Xiaolong Dong, Giovanna De Chiara, Craig Donlon, Dmitry S. Dukhovskoy, Jocelyn Elya, Alexander Fore, Melanie R. Fewings, Ralph C. Foster (+22 others)
2019 Frontiers in Marine Science  
The observational needs for a wide range of wind and stress applications are provided. These needs strongly support a short list of desired capabilities of future missions and constellations.  ...  Strengths and weakness of remotely sensed winds are discussed, along with the current capabilities for remotely sensing winds and stress. Future missions are briefly mentioned.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank Roger Samelson, Dudley Chelton, Ted Strub, Eric Skyllingstad, and Larry O'Neill (all  ... 
doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00443 fatcat:mbket5dcjvaibhd2j5ngkyvvri

Wind Stress Curl and Wind Stress Divergence Biases from Rain Effects on QSCAT Surface Wind Retrievals

Ralph F. Milliff, Jan Morzel, Dudley B. Chelton, Michael H. Freilich
2004 Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology  
Blended QSCATϩNCEP surface winds ameliorate the rain-flag-induced biases in zonal averages of wind stress curl and wind stress divergence, while retaining high-wavenumber properties of the scatterometer  ...  The importance of realistic amplitude, high-wavenumber, surface wind forcing from scatterometer data has been demonstrated in a variety of ocean modeling applications.  ...  The authors are pleased to acknowledge research support from the NASA Ocean Vector Winds Science Team. We thank Dr. Barry Vanhoff for facilitating access to the OSU-NCEP-FNL product.  ... 
doi:10.1175/1520-0426(2004)021<1216:wscaws>;2 fatcat:h6hqbuhyafhtdolmmwgehh34qe

Satellite Air – Sea Fluxes [chapter]

Abderrahim Bentamy, Kristina B. Katsaros, Pierre Queffeulou
2011 Remote Sensing of the Changing Oceans  
of surface wind, air and sea temperature, and of air and near surface 14 humidity.  ...  An overview of the physics of remotely sensed data, of methods and algorithms used to retrieve surface fluxes is provided.  ...  The surface wind 19 retrievals are used to enhance the determination of turbulent flux components such as wind stress 20 and latent heat flux.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16541-2_8 fatcat:bpo64z2ribd65c2to6cmy5ny5e

Modification of surface winds near ocean fronts: Effects of Gulf Stream rings on scatterometer (QuikSCAT, NSCAT) wind observations

Kyung-Ae Park, Peter Cornillon, Daniel L. Codiga
2006 Journal of Geophysical Research  
A component of scatterometer wind approximately equal and opposite to the surface current vector is observed and attributed to the fact that scatterometers detect relative motion of water and air.  ...  Codiga (2006), Modification of surface winds near ocean fronts: Effects of Gulf Stream rings on scatterometer (QuikSCAT, NSCAT) wind observations,  ...  more faithful representation of the stress between moving air and moving sea surface is provided by substitution of the relative vector between wind and sea-surface currentũ into the expression for stress  ... 
doi:10.1029/2005jc003016 fatcat:qrrcjhikt5b33hmryuja4pznvy

On Scatterometer Ocean Stress

M. Portabella, A. Stoffelen
2009 Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology  
The results show that the uncertainty in the NWP dataset is generally larger than in the buoy and scatterometer wind/stress datasets, but it depends on the spatial scales of interest.  ...  This opens the door for the development of wind stress swath (level 2) and gridded (level 3) products for the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) on board Meterological Operation (MetOp) and for further geophysical  ...  We acknowledge the help and collaboration of our colleagues working at KNMI, and specifically the people from the scatterometer group.  ... 
doi:10.1175/2008jtecho578.1 fatcat:7h6u3lxnxfbrtbdk7abucinizq
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