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A Philosophy for Developing Trust in Self-driving Cars [chapter]

Michael Wagner, Philip Koopman
2015 Lecture Notes in Mobility  
For decades, our lives have depended on the safe operation of automated mechanisms around and inside us. The autonomy and complexity of these mechanisms is increasing dramatically.  ...  In this paper we survey existing methods and tools that, taken together, can enable a new and more productive philosophy for software safety that is based on Karl Popper's idea of falsificationism.  ...  How should the control system under test behave when subjected to the kinds of unexpected inputs that robustness testing gener-7 ates?  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-19078-5_14 fatcat:fewiud4pefeaxeq6cdpshivwba

Challenges in Autonomous Vehicle Testing and Validation

Philip Koopman, Michael Wagner
2016 SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety  
While significant challenges remain in safety-certifying the type of algorithms that provide high-level autonomy themselves, it seems within reach to instead architect the system and its accompanying design  ...  to separate the most complex autonomy functions from simpler safety functions, and fault injection as a way to perform more efficient edge case testing.  ...  [16] These requirements tend to be in the form of invariants that specify system states that are required for safety (both things that must be true to be safe, and things that must be false to be safe  ... 
doi:10.4271/2016-01-0128 fatcat:urfnntw3pfdwljp6ojdn6qw7hi

Safety Verification for Deep Neural Networks with Provable Guarantees (Invited Paper)

Marta Z. Kwiatkowska, Michael Wagner
2019 International Conference on Concurrency Theory  
This paper describes progress with developing automated verification techniques for deep neural networks to ensure safety and robustness of their decisions with respect to input perturbations.  ...  Computing systems are becoming ever more complex, increasingly often incorporating deep learning components.  ...  Global robustness is usually estimated as the expectation of local robustness over the test dataset weighted by the input distribution.  ... 
doi:10.4230/lipics.concur.2019.1 dblp:conf/concur/Kwiatkowska19 fatcat:tyy75rhfjrcyzhqjtle6c4jzju

Using Formal Methods for Autonomous Systems: Five Recipes for Formal Verification [article]

Matt Luckcuck
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Autonomous systems use software to make decisions without human control, are often embedded in a robotic system, are often safety-critical, and are increasingly being introduced into everyday settings.  ...  The recipes are examples of how Formal Methods can be an effective tool for the development and verification of autonomous systems.  ...  Because of the safety and security implications of an autonomous system failing, the most robust methods should be chosen for each system component and development phase.  ... 
arXiv:2012.00856v2 fatcat:hatdgqwbabbfdbngmjt4q2rroi

Implications of autonomy for the expressiveness of policy routing

Nick Feamster, Ramesh Johari, Hari Balakrishnan
2005 Proceedings of the 2005 conference on Applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications - SIGCOMM '05  
Because the Internet is composed of many independent, competing networks, the interdomain routing system should provide autonomy, allowing network operators to set their rankings independently, and to  ...  We discuss the implications of these results for the future of interdomain routing.  ...  Acknowledgments This work was supported by the NSF under Cooperative Agreement ANI-0225660 and a Cisco URP grant. Nick Feamster is partially supported by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1080091.1080096 dblp:conf/sigcomm/FeamsterJB05 fatcat:lec5z2o4ivgadm7egbav4lrtt4

Implications of autonomy for the expressiveness of policy routing

Nick Feamster, Ramesh Johari, Hari Balakrishnan
2005 Computer communication review  
Because the Internet is composed of many independent, competing networks, the interdomain routing system should provide autonomy, allowing network operators to set their rankings independently, and to  ...  We discuss the implications of these results for the future of interdomain routing.  ...  Acknowledgments This work was supported by the NSF under Cooperative Agreement ANI-0225660 and a Cisco URP grant. Nick Feamster is partially supported by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1090191.1080096 fatcat:67n6os2jtfc5foi25ilydhbi74

Implications of Autonomy for the Expressiveness of Policy Routing

Nick Feamster, Ramesh Johari, Hari Balakrishnan
2007 IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking  
Because the Internet is composed of many independent, competing networks, the interdomain routing system should provide autonomy, allowing network operators to set their rankings independently, and to  ...  We discuss the implications of these results for the future of interdomain routing.  ...  Acknowledgments This work was supported by the NSF under Cooperative Agreement ANI-0225660 and a Cisco URP grant. Nick Feamster is partially supported by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tnet.2007.896531 fatcat:sk5o3xqbn5edrhmllwh4faqwry

Sharpening the Scythe of Technological Change: Socio-Technical Challenges of Autonomous and Adaptive Cyber-Physical Systems

Daniela Cancila, Jean-Louis Gerstenmayer, Huascar Espinoza, Roberto Passerone
2018 Designs  
In spite of this disruptive landscape, however, deployment and broader adoption of ACPS in safety-critical scenarios remains challenging.  ...  In this paper, we address some challenges that are stretching the limits of ACPS safety engineering, including tightly related aspects such as ethics and resilience.  ...  Towards Robustness Validation Approach for Autonomy In the literature, one potential approach to deal with the inscrutability of AI-based systems is to identify the key elements of safety-related requirements  ... 
doi:10.3390/designs2040052 fatcat:pztqttdhuvenvfuyusa3ib4jka

On the autonomy requirements for space missions

Emil Vassev, Mike Hinchey
2013 16th IEEE International Symposium on Object/component/service-oriented Real-time distributed Computing (ISORC 2013)  
In this paper, we present initial results of our research and study on autonomy requirements for space systems.  ...  In that context, an autonomous system is able to monitor its behavior and eventually modify the same according to changes in the operational environment, thus being considered as selfadaption.  ...  ESA's software-intensive systems in terms of: 1) rigorous and unambiguous specification of autonomy requirements; 2) autonomy requirements traceability, verification and validation; 3) derivation of test  ... 
doi:10.1109/isorc.2013.6913242 dblp:conf/isorc/VassevH13 fatcat:uhyjvsv7xngiffppl74ajkskia

Monitor Based Oracles for Cyber-Physical System Testing: Practical Experience Report

Aaron Kane, Thomas Fuhrman, Philip Koopman
2014 2014 44th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks  
Interface robustness testing was useful to further exercise the monitors.  ...  Testing Cyber-Physical Systems is becoming increasingly challenging as they incorporate advanced autonomy features.  ...  All three types of robustness testing found similar robustness problems in the system under test.  ... 
doi:10.1109/dsn.2014.28 dblp:conf/dsn/KaneFK14 fatcat:g2b3b3ndxfdxtaf4b2iz7hz7zi

GOVERNMENT DECENTRALIZATION AS A DISINCENTIVE FOR TRANSNATIONAL TERROR? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS*

Axel Dreher, Justina A. V. Fischer
2010 International Economic Review  
These results are robust to the choice of control variables and method of estimation.  ...  Our results show that expenditure decentralization reduces the number of transnational terror events in a country, while political decentralization has no impact.  ...  We replace the (strong) local autonomy dummy used in Table 1 with this variable to test for the robustness of our results.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1468-2354.2010.00608.x fatcat:skiyuwzxozb3flunfkbgvpecrm

The structural validity and measurement invariance across gender of the Brief Corporate Entrepreneurship Assessment Instrument

Renier Steyn, G. P. De Bruin
2018 South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences  
Methods: Data on the BCEAI were captured and pairwise multi-group confirmatory factor analyses with robust maximum likelihood estimation were used to examine four levels of measurement invariance, as well  ...  Corporate entrepreneurial activity and innovation are presented as essential elements of organisational success, and gender diversity is often seen as an important variable in this context.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the MBL class of 2014 for collecting the data and the SBL-REC for allowing access to the data used in this study.  ... 
doi:10.4102/sajems.v21i1.1965 fatcat:u6vviqcj7nerjn3kdqsw2haxpy

Onboard Safety Guarantees for Racing Drones: High-speed Geofencing with Control Barrier Functions [article]

Andrew Singletary, Aiden Swann, Yuxiao Chen, Aaron D. Ames
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Additional benefits include safety and stability of the drone when losing line-of-sight or in the event of radio failure.  ...  To achieve this goal, we utilize the framework of control barrier functions (CBFs) which give guaranteed safety encoded as forward set invariance.  ...  The goal of forcing the system to remain in S at all time can be achieved through the concept of set invariance. Definition 1.  ... 
arXiv:2201.04331v1 fatcat:jhozwauixfdixcvctphedxs6au

Culture, innovation, and economic development

Pantelis C. Kostis
2021 Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship  
Using principal component analyses to capture the Schwartz's cultural values, as well as two ways fixed-effects analysis (FE), time dummies for each ESS wave included in the analysis and cluster—robust  ...  development, and (b) the main cultural dimensions that hinder innovation and economic development are the prevalence of hierarchy, affective autonomy, and mastery.  ...  Availability of data and materials The data used were gathered from free available sources. Declaration Competing interests The author declares no competing interests.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s13731-021-00163-7 fatcat:sztcxkowt5fjlmvhkyy25uxuse

Robust Gesture-Based Communication for Underwater Human-Robot Interaction in the context of Search and Rescue Diver Missions [article]

Arturo Gomez Chavez, Christian A. Mueller, Tobias Doernbach, Davide Chiarella, Andreas Birk
2018 arXiv   pre-print
We propose a robust gesture-based communication pipeline for divers to instruct an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) to assist them in performing high-risk tasks and helping in case of emergency.  ...  Experimental results under different environmental conditions in archaeological exploration and bridge inspection applications show that the system performs well in the field.  ...  , the safety of the user is top priority.  ... 
arXiv:1810.07122v1 fatcat:4bw43bkltzg7nkv6vanwzm2ipe
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