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The Gradual Verifier [chapter]

Stephan Arlt, Cindy Rubio-González, Philipp Rümmer, Martin Schäf, Natarajan Shankar
2014 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This is in particular problematic because of the inevitable incompleteness of static verifiers. To overcome this, we propose a gradual verification approach, GraVy.  ...  It either provides a proof that a piece of code meets a property, or a counterexample showing that the property can be violated. Hence, the progress of static verification is hard to measure.  ...  Non-gradual verification alone is able to verify between 30% and 40% of the procedures (excluding timeouts) for the desired property for all AUTs.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-06200-6_27 fatcat:oqnrlf7sdbgtdekwc4retoztve

GRADUAL ABSTRACT PROOF SEARCH

Tristan Cazenave
2002 ICGA Journal  
Gradual Abstract Proof Search (GAPS) is a new 2-player search technique.  ...  It has been used to prove that 11x11 Phutball is a win for the first player in 25 plies or less, that 6x6 Atari-Go with a crosscut in the center is a win for the first player in 15 plies or less.  ...  The solution is found at depth 10 where a gradual game of depth 5 is verified.  ... 
doi:10.3233/icg-2002-25102 fatcat:rpdrwqqo55hhbhntojwi2xptca

Adiabatic SRAM with a large margin of VT variation by controlling the cell-power-line and word-line voltage

S. Nakata, T. Kusumoto, M. Miyama, Y. Matsuda
2009 2009 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems  
For reading, a verifying operation is proposed for resolving the electromigration problem. The word line voltage is changed stepwise while the voltages of the bit lines are verified.  ...  The reading method enables a gradual current flow in the memory cell. We designed the cell layout and found that there is no area penalty.  ...  Then, the /BL voltage increases gradually from GND to VDD, while the BL voltage is set to GND. The FF node voltage of V2 increases gradually according to the /BL, while V1 stays low.  ... 
doi:10.1109/iscas.2009.5117768 dblp:conf/iscas/NakataKMM09 fatcat:kctu4mkolzalbogoce5l33iejy

Verification on Gradual Escalation Phenomenon of Violation Behavior—Using an Experimental Paradigm for Risk Diversification

Atsuo Murata
2015 Journal of Psychology Research  
In other words, it should be empirically verified whether the diversification of risk promotes the risk seeking behavior as compared with the risk taking at a time.  ...  When we face a situation under which we must weigh the ethics of safety rule and the efficiency (economic aspect) in the balance, we may pursuit efficiency by taking a risk gradually by diversifying the  ...  Exploring the relationship between the diversification of risk (accepting (taking) the total risk gradually by dividing it into a few trials) and the risk assessment, we empirically verified the tendency  ... 
doi:10.17265/2159-5542/2015.03.006 fatcat:oskceuizwbbmfcvgdn776ftbqm

Corpse Reviver: Sound and Efficient Gradual Typing via Contract Verification [article]

Cameron Moy and Phúc C. Nguyẽn and Sam Tobin-Hochstadt and David Van Horn
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Instead, we statically analyze the untyped portions of a gradually-typed program to prove that almost all of the dynamic checks implied by gradual type boundaries cannot fail, and can be eliminated at  ...  Gradually-typed programming languages permit the incremental addition of static types to untyped programs.  ...  Since all configurations fully verify, gradual typing imposes no overhead at all.  ... 
arXiv:2007.12630v1 fatcat:n7qoqveskvemjdtonenerramky

Wing Crack Propagation Simulation Using Scaled Boundary Finite Element Method

Chengbin Du, Peng Zhang
2019 International Conference on Computational & Experimental Engineering and Sciences  
Compared with related experimental and numerical simulation results, the correctness and effectiveness of the new SBFEM shape function in solving the wing crack propagation are verified.  ...  Wing cracks only have contact phenomena on the initial crack surface during crack propagation. The contact force gradually decreases from the centre to the sides of the initial crack.  ...  Compared with related experimental and numerical simulation results, the correctness and effectiveness of the new SBFEM shape function in solving the wing crack propagation are verified.  ... 
doi:10.32604/icces.2019.05397 fatcat:hxljv4572rbvhgii6emawakoju

Admissible Moves in Two-Player Games [chapter]

Tristan Cazenave
2002 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
They work well with depth-bounded search algorithms such as Gradual Abstract Proof Search that select moves based on the distance to the goal.  ...  We analyze the benefits of these admissible heuristics on moves for rules generation and search. We give experimental results that support our claim for the game of AtariGo.  ...  Currently, we do not use heuristics for move ordering when verifying the gradual games.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-45622-8_5 fatcat:hop6boee6rhkdajwlpywcfjjqe

Denial-of-service resistance in key establishment

Jason Smith, Suratose Tritilanunt, Colin Boyd, Juan M. Gonzalez Nieto, Ernest Foo
2007 International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Computing  
Ernest Foo is a lecturer in the School of Software Engineering and Data Communications at QUT and also a member of the Information Security Institute.  ...  protocol initiator, and to generate the cryptographic keying material that will subsequently be used to secure the communications between initiator and responder.  ...  The strategy of gradual authentication can be used to detect attacks (based on IP spoofing for example), verify the computational and memory commitments of the initiator, and link messages from the same  ... 
doi:10.1504/ijwmc.2007.013796 fatcat:vdk3bzxyabgypajyxjb65pc6k4

The effects of gradual dynamization on fracture healing

Péter Fröhlich
2010 Biomechanica Hungarica  
The verifi ed conditions of fracture healing are: vascularity of the injured bone, repositon of the fracture and proper casting.  ...  Opinions about casting and stabilization have been changed in the course of time.  ...  In my study I compared the effects of 3 different methods of casting/splinting (A: permanently stable, B: gradually dynamized, C: gradually stabilizing).  ... 
doi:10.17489/biohun/2010/1/10 fatcat:2inldersizaa5itxg2hqdf55ye

Confirmation And Chaos*

Maralee Harrell, Clark Glymour
2002 Philosophy of Science  
We suggest that the issues raised are better approached by considering whether chaotic data analysis methods allow for reliable inference from data.  ...  F gradually decides H in W iff F gradually verifies H in W and F gradually refutes H in W.  ...  exponent is positive is verifiable in the limit and gradually refutable.  ... 
doi:10.1086/341052 fatcat:iowyoosrurh7tffuf2bt5nibte

Gradual Verification of Recursive Heap Data Structures

Jenna Wise, Johannes Bader, Cameron Wong, Jonathan Aldrich, Éric Tanter, Joshua Sunshine
2020 Zenodo  
Current static verification techniques do not provide good support for incrementality, making it difficult for developers to focus on specifying and verifying the properties and components that are most  ...  The prior approach to gradual verification, however, was limited to programs without recursive data structures.  ...  Instead, the gradual verifier ensures at runtime that the new list after insertion is acyclic.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.4085933 fatcat:ms3i5evb7napfl6jgucf3um5ka

Gradual Verification of Recursive Heap Data Structures

Jenna Wise, Johannes Bader, Cameron Wong, Jonathan Aldrich, Éric Tanter, Joshua Sunshine
2020 Zenodo  
Current static verification techniques do not provide good support for incrementality, making it difficult for developers to focus on specifying and verifying the properties and components that are most  ...  The prior approach to gradual verification, however, was limited to programs without recursive data structures.  ...  Instead, the gradual verifier ensures at runtime that the new list after insertion is acyclic.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.4091690 fatcat:np4cjwd3rbhk7guyjvi5wo62xi

A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of gradual versus abrupt smoking cessation

Jixiang Tan, Lin Zhao, Hong Chen
2019 Tobacco Induced Diseases  
The result of 7-day smoking cessation rate was also lower in the gradual group (RR=0.76).  ...  The prolonged abstinence rate of the gradual cessation group was significantly lower than that of the abrupt group (relative risk, RR=0.77).  ...  Outcome The outcome measures were the prolonged and 7-day CO-verified abstinence rates, and other adverse events.  ... 
doi:10.18332/tid/100557 pmid:31582921 pmcid:PMC6752113 fatcat:rand7w3l75arbeimlmtar4bwhe

Page 169 of Journal of Accountancy Vol. 27, Issue 3 [page]

1919 Journal of Accountancy  
and repair charges, as well as the gradual extin- guishment of the effective life of the machine.  ...  A recent court decision points out that repairs and maintenance are no part of the allowance made for depreciation, but that depreciation repre- sents the loss, which is gradually reducing the value of  ... 

Fair Secure Two-Party Computation [chapter]

Benny Pinkas
2003 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
It is based on the use of gradual release timed commitments, which are a new variant of timed commitments, and on a novel use of blind signatures for verifying that the committed values are correct.  ...  The transformation adds additional steps before and after the execution of the original protocol, but does not change it otherwise, and does not use a trusted third party.  ...  We would like to thank Stuart Haber and Moni Naor, as well as the anonymous referees, for providing us with many helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-39200-9_6 fatcat:7eftspev35drdamlr6rlexawni
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