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The generalized universal law of generalization

Nick Chater, Paul M.B. Vitányi
2003 Journal of Mathematical Psychology  
We show that, nonetheless, the Universal Law of Generalization can be derived in the more complex setting of arbitrary stimuli, using a much more universal measure of distance.  ...  We show that the Universal Law of Generalization holds with probability going to one-provided the probabilities concerned are computable.  ...  We suggest the following viewpoint: (i) The new treatment marks the ultimate limits of the validity of the Universal Law of Generalization; (ii) the Universal Law arises from very general features of the  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0022-2496(03)00013-0 fatcat:dre4dxi2dbexhgzcmz3mdj5pzm

The Generalized Universal Law of Generalization [article]

Nick Chater
2001 arXiv   pre-print
We show that, nonetheless, the Universal Law of Generalization can be derived in the more complex setting of arbitrary stimuli, using a much more universal measure of distance.  ...  We show that the universal law of generalization holds with probability going to one-provided the confusion probabilities are computable. We also give a mathematically more appealing form  ...  Here, we generalize the "universal law of generalization" by essentially using Newton's maxim.  ... 
arXiv:cs/0101036v1 fatcat:pvamwtnizfbetmt6u56au5ayqy

Generalized entropies and the expansion law of the universe

Fatemeh Lalehgani Dezaki, Behrouz Mirza
2015 General Relativity and Gravitation  
We suggest that using the first law of thermodynamics is a convenient method to obtain a correct form of the expansion law of the universe T. Padmanabhan1.  ...  By using the expansion law for a Kodama observer, we can obtain the dynamic equation of the FRW universe for deformed Horava-Lifshitz gravity.  ...  of thermodynamic as a general method to obtain the expansion law of the universe.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10714-015-1910-8 fatcat:4iknk6vxdvf7dhdmmf33y2bc5q

General Law of the Universe and Unity of All Universal Forces

Jinzhong Yan
2016 Journal of Physical Science and Application  
The unity of all forces in the universe is the general law of the universe.  ...  This is the common feature of all life forms in the universe and the general law of the universe.  ...  form forces are subject to the general law of the universe.  ... 
doi:10.17265/2159-5348/2016.06.003 fatcat:ashlywx2xfccfhhmfoc75y2tdy

The generalized second law of thermodynamics in the accelerating universe

Jia Zhou, Bin Wang, Yungui Gong, Elcio Abdalla
2007 Physics Letters B  
We show that in the accelerating universe the generalized second law of thermodynamics holds only in the case where the enveloping surface is the apparent horizon, but not in the case of the event horizon  ...  The present analysis relies on the most recent SNe Ia events, being model independent. Our study might suggest that event horizon is not a physical boundary from the point of view of thermodynamics.  ...  The generalized second law of thermodynamics is one of the most general laws governing the nature. Requiring validity of the generalized second law leads to the limit b → 1.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2007.06.067 fatcat:asane5ncebeobc65bzltwq6nsy

Measurement invariance explains the universal law of generalization for psychological perception

Steven A. Frank
2018 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
Frank PNAS Latest Articles | 3 of 4  ...  The universal law of generalization describes how animals discriminate between alternative sensory stimuli.  ...  Previous explanations also generate the exponential pattern of the universal law (1, 2, 4) .  ... 
doi:10.1073/pnas.1809787115 pmid:30201714 pmcid:PMC6166795 fatcat:53rt7tikdzaq5agn7wba2pyi44

Efficient coding explains the universal law of generalization in human perception

Chris R. Sims
2018 Science  
In cognitive science, the "universal law of generalization" seeks to explain this ability and states that generalization between stimuli will follow an exponential function of their distance in "psychological  ...  Here, I challenge existing theoretical explanations for the universal law and offer an alternative account based on the principle of efficient coding.  ...  The result is a revised universal law of perceptual generalization, which subsumes Shepard's statement of the law as a special case.  ... 
doi:10.1126/science.aaq1118 pmid:29748284 fatcat:qhl7tvicizcdtccgpbwiafqguu

Measurement invariance explains the universal law of generalization for psychological perception [article]

Steven A. Frank
2018 bioRxiv   pre-print
The universal law of generalization describes how animals discriminate between alternative sensory stimuli.  ...  This article shows that the few inevitable invariances that must apply to any reasonable perceptual scale provide a sufficient explanation for the universal exponential law of generalization.  ...  I completed this work while on sabbatical in the Theoretical Biology group of the Institute for Integrative Biology at ETH Zürich.  ... 
doi:10.1101/341305 fatcat:wwzxqksyz5a3vefvaauvxbyusm

Milestones of general relativity: Hubble's law (1929) and the expansion of the universe

Malcolm A H MacCallum
2015 Classical and quantum gravity  
of the expanding universe up to the present day, and the part which General Relativity plays in that success.  ...  Hubble's announcement of the magnitude-redshift relation Hub29 brought about a major change in our understanding of the Universe.  ...  Acknowledgements I am indebted to the historical articles cited early in this review for many important references, to Thomas Buchert, Ruth Durrer and an anonymous referee for very helpful comments on  ... 
doi:10.1088/0264-9381/32/12/124002 fatcat:brhxtxlev5hlddu7bctqpfrvka

Emergent universe with interacting fluids and the generalized second law of thermodynamics

B C Paul, A Majumdar
2015 Classical and quantum gravity  
We further show that the generalized second law of thermodynamics is found to hold good in the emergent universe with interacting fluids.  ...  The non-linear equation of state (EoS) considered in the general theory of relativity for obtaining emergent universe is effectively a cosmological model with a composition of three fluids.  ...  Consistency of the interacting fluid emergent universe scenario with the generalized second law of thermodynamics is also shown.  ... 
doi:10.1088/0264-9381/32/11/115001 fatcat:oehvjbzaffgqdjz4ib4osbedb4

LAW ENFORCEMENT EQUIPMENT: GENERALLY-THEORETICAL CHARACTERISTIC

Vitaliy Kosovych, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv
2017 Visnyk of the Lviv University. Series Law  
The requirements are delineated on general (value, rule of law, justice, reasonableness, appropriateness) and logical (compliance (consistency), the sequence of the text statement, coherence, and identity  ...  just in the sixth section «Implementation of the normative-legal acts» the draft of the Law of Ukraine «About the normative-legal acts».  ... 
doi:10.30970/vla.2017.64.7290 fatcat:2m7v7a2jm5b2hprgfi7xyykh7q

General Theory of Law and State

Josef L. Kunz, Hans Kelsen
1946 The University of Chicago Law Review  
But the principal part, theGeneral Theory of Law and State” was written, in part in German, in this country and translated by Anders Wedberg of the University of Stockholm.  ...  BOOK REVIEWS 221 General Theory of Law and State (20th Century Legal Philosophy Series, Volume I). By Hans Kelsen. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1945. Pp. xxxiii, 516.  ... 
doi:10.2307/1597640 fatcat:7r6yxq7qkzhexlr4nm244hesiu

Viaggiu entropy and the generalized second law in a flat FLRW universe

Subhajit Saha
2019 International Journal of Modern Physics A  
Our aim, in this paper, is to study the generalized second law by considering the dynamical apparent horizon to be endowed with the Hawking temperature and the Viaggiu entropy introduced in a pioneering  ...  We have devoted our attention to a flat FLRW universe filled with a perfect fluid having a constant equation of state [Formula: see text].  ...  Now, since the laws of thermodynamics are considered to be universally true, it is generally believed that those cosmological models which are consistent with the laws of thermodynamics in addition to  ... 
doi:10.1142/s0217751x19501938 fatcat:gp47z27igrbono4r3e5e34wmba

The General Preventive Effects of Punishment

Johannes Andenaes
1966 University of Pennsylvania law review  
To the extent that these stimuli restrain citizens from socially undesired actions which they might otherwise have committed, a general preventive effect is secured. Law, University of Oslo.  ...  It is also possible, of course, that the very severity of the 966 UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA LAW REVIEW [Vol.114:949 penalty-the magnitude of the risk-may give the illegal action a special appeal, in  ...  GENERAL PREVENTION position of supremacy to which its natural advantages entitled it-all because of the mess of corruption, venality and general turbulence. 53 The Waterfront Commission has operated  ... 
doi:10.2307/3310845 fatcat:mm7z3zowizdhljn6saudeyoh6e

Generalities of the Fourth Amendment

Lloyd L. Weinreb
1974 The University of Chicago Law Review  
Ant Professor of Law, Harvard University. 1.  ...  THE FOURTH AMENDMENT The fourth amendment is one of the Constitution's richly generative texts. Its important terms are general.  ...  t Professor of Law, Harvard University. 1.  ... 
doi:10.2307/1599127 fatcat:fqnjimh3lnh4lcujmgfe7olvhm
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