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The Frequency Injection Attack on Ring-Oscillator-Based True Random Number Generators [chapter]

A. Theodore Markettos, Simon W. Moore
2009 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We have devised a frequency injection attack which is able to destroy the source of entropy in ring-oscillator-based true random number generators (TRNGs).  ...  A TRNG will lock to frequencies injected into the power supply, eliminating the source of random jitter on which it relies.  ...  Acknowledgements Markus Kuhn suggested the experiments with the secure microcontroller and provided many components of the experimental setup plus valuable feedback on the paper.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-04138-9_23 fatcat:fh4k7px5breyjhumarah7c7xhi

Fundamental study on non-invasive frequency injection attack against RO-based TRNG

Saki Osuka, Daisuke Fujimoto, Yu-ichi Hayashi, Naofumi Homma, Arthur Beckers, Joseph Balasch, Benedikt Gierlichs, Ingrid Verbauwhede
2018 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility and 2018 IEEE Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC/APEMC)  
In this study, we investigate the security threat of non-invasively degrading the randomness of true random number generators (TRNGs) by injecting disturbance waves and estimating the internal state of  ...  ring oscillators (ROs) using sidechannel information from outside the device.  ...  INTRODUCTION As a physical attack method that degrades the randomness of the ring oscillator (RO)-based true random number generators (TRNGs), frequency injection attacks that require direct access for  ... 
doi:10.1109/isemc.2018.8394008 fatcat:5u5a465nnbbslg57goeslz2hjq

16.3 A 23Mb/s 23pJ/b fully synthesized true-random-number generator in 28nm and 65nm CMOS

Kaiyuan Yang, David Fick, Michael B. Henry, Yoonmyung Lee, David Blaauw, Dennis Sylvester
2014 2014 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC)  
True random number generators (TRNGs) use physical randomness as entropy sources and are heavily used in cryptography and security [1] .  ...  Using an RF signal generator, up to 600mV pp noise is injected on the power supplies (after removing PCB decoupling caps) to test TRNG robustness against off-chip attack.  ...  Acknowledgments: The authors acknowledge STMicroelectronics for IC fabrication support.  ... 
doi:10.1109/isscc.2014.6757434 dblp:conf/isscc/YangFHLBS14 fatcat:cgapaqn5ujho5nib6smci5kmye

Producing Random Bits with Delay-Line-Based Ring Oscillators

Mieczysław Jessa, Łukasz Matuszewski
2013 International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications  
One of the sources of randomness for a random bit generator (RBG) is jitter present in rectangular signals produced by ring oscillators (ROs).  ...  It enables the construction of many high frequency ring oscillators with different nominal frequencies in the same field programmable gate array (FPGA).  ...  Ring-oscillator-based RBG can also be attacked with the use of frequency injection attack [37] .  ... 
doi:10.2478/eletel-2013-0005 fatcat:mshdgkxxcbhajhjdrnq7n7rzpm

A Random Number Generator Using Ring Oscillators and SHA-256 as Post-Processing

Szymon Łoza, Łukasz Matuszewski, Mieczysław Jessa
2015 International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications  
To hamper different attacks, the generators should be implemented in the same chip as a cryptographic system using random numbers.  ...  In this paper the hash function SHA-256 as post-processing of bits produced by a combined random bit generator using jitter observed in ring oscillators (ROs) is proposed.  ...  The ring oscillators must also have significantly different nominal frequencies to prevent the injection attack [40] .  ... 
doi:10.1515/eletel-2015-0026 fatcat:pacevahd5zd2baewjavppqqspq

True-Randomness and Pseudo-Randomness in Ring Oscillator-Based True Random Number Generators

Nathalie Bochard, Florent Bernard, Viktor Fischer, Boyan Valtchanov
2010 International Journal of Reconfigurable Computing  
The paper deals with true random number generators employing oscillator rings, namely, with the one proposed by Sunar et al. in 2007 and enhanced by Wold and Tan in 2009.  ...  Our simulation model shows that the generator, using more than 18 ideal jitter-free rings having slightly different frequencies and producing only pseudo-randomness, will let the statistical tests pass  ...  The research was partially supported by a Grant from the French National Research Agency-ANR-09-SEGI-013 and by the Rhone-Alpes Region and Saint-Etienne Metropole, France.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2010/879281 fatcat:lwv3ewrg6zherm6mmk63a64vdi

Contactless Electromagnetic Active Attack on Ring Oscillator Based True Random Number Generator [chapter]

Pierre Bayon, Lilian Bossuet, Alain Aubert, Viktor Fischer, François Poucheret, Bruno Robisson, Philippe Maurine
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
True random number generators (TRNGs) are ubiquitous in data security as one of basic cryptographic primitives.  ...  This paper presents a contactless and local active attack on ring oscillators (ROs) based TRNGs using electromagnetic fields.  ...  Acknowledgments The work presented in this paper was realized in the frame of the EMAISeCi project number ANR-10-SEGI-005 supported by the French "Agence Nationale de la Recherche" (ANR).  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-29912-4_12 fatcat:rxzmlnkbibgfrca2ex4mamkwq4

Temperature-Based Hardware Trojan For Ring-Oscillator-Based TRNGs [article]

Samaneh Ghandali, Daniel Holcomb, Christof Paar
2019 arXiv   pre-print
True random number generators (TRNGs) are essential components of cryptographic designs, which are used to generate private keys for encryption and authentication, and are used in masking countermeasures  ...  In this work, we present a mechanism to design a stealthy parametric hardware Trojan for a ring oscillator based TRNG architecture proposed by Yang et al. at ISSCC 2014.  ...  RING OSCILLATOR-BASED TRNG We consider the true random number generator (TRNG) design proposed in [21] .  ... 
arXiv:1910.00735v1 fatcat:cgrivjblrjev7gdq4orbb45yjq

A Worst-Case-Aware Design Methodology for Noise-Tolerant Oscillator-Based True Random Number Generator With Stochastic Behavior Modeling

Takehiko Amaki, Masanori Hashimoto, Yukio Mitsuyama, Takao Onoye
2013 IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security  
This paper presents a worst-case-aware design methodology for an oscillator-based true random number generator (TRNG) that produces highly random bit streams even under deterministic noise.  ...  The proposed model is validated by measuring prototype TRNGs fabricated with a 65-nm CMOS process. Index Terms-True random number generator, Markov chain, stochastic model, Jitter.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The VLSI chip in this study has been fabricated in the chip fabrication program of VLSI Design and Education Center (VDEC), the University of Tokyo in collaboration with STARC, e-Shuttle  ... 
doi:10.1109/tifs.2013.2271423 fatcat:mgz5x6u43nhtfnsi25rof6bade

True Random Number Generators Using Electrical Noise

Lishuang Gong, Jianguo Zhang, Haifang Liu, Luxiao Sang, Yuncai Wang
2019 IEEE Access  
True random number generators (TRNGs) are a fundamental resource in information security and can guarantee the absolute security of information in principle.  ...  This review discusses the different methods to harvest electrical noise in TRNGs, including the early amplify noise based on amplifier, phase jitter based on oscillator, the effect of electrical noise  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2019.2939027 fatcat:hcachxfl65bunhs5li7ucngf4e

Electromagnetic analysis and fault injection onto secure circuits

P. Maistri, R. Leveugle, L. Bossuet, A. Aubert, V. Fischer, B. Robisson, N. Moro, P. Maurine, J.-M. Dutertre, M. Lisart
2014 2014 22nd International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI-SoC)  
In this paper, we review the recent results obtained on this subject, with a particular focus on EM as a fault injection tool.  ...  These attacks exploit the correlation existing between the computed data and variables such as computation time, consumed power, and electromagnetic (EM) emissions.  ...  This locking phenomenon was highlighted by Bochard et al. in 2010 by manipulating the supply voltage of the RO-based true random number generator (TRNG) [3] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/vlsi-soc.2014.7004182 dblp:conf/vlsi/MaistriLBAFRMMDL14 fatcat:g4vl52eomfhinkcmag7mjxpkee

The Impact Of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fault Injection On True Random Number Generators

Maxime Madau, Michel Agoyan, Josep Balasch, Milos Grujic, Patrick Haddad, Philippe Maurine, Vladimir Rozic, Dave Singelee, Bohan Yang, Ingrid Verbauwhede
2018 Zenodo  
Within this context, this paper investigates the robustness of TRNGs based on Ring Oscillators (focusing on the delay chain TRNG) against pulsed electromagnetic fault injection.  ...  True Random Number Generators (TRNGs) thus become a relevant entry point for attacks that aim at lowering the security of integrated systems.  ...  The Delay Chain True Random Number Generator (DC-TRNG) [2] , [3] is one of these TRNGs.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.1434074 fatcat:3r2lv3ei3faknncaa77glhhasa

Experimental Study of Locking Phenomena on Oscillating Rings Implemented in Logic Devices

Ugo Mureddu, Nathalie Bochard, Lilian Bossuet, Viktor Fischer
2019 IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems Part 1: Regular Papers  
We then analyze the consequences of locking on different use cases based on oscillating rings and provide design recommendations to minimize its impact.  ...  This locking phenomenon can render a system based on a freely running oscillator non-functional.  ...  The authors are also grateful to Kamil Caglar for his experiments on the different rings.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tcsi.2019.2900017 fatcat:pkv3nocb6zdk3eulzrzwrrhqgy

Physical Unclonable Function Based on the Internal State Transitions of a Fibonacci Ring Oscillator

Łukasz Matuszewski, Jakub Nikonowicz, Paweł Kubczak, Wiktor Woźniak
2021 Sensors  
This approach ensures the reuse of the existing random number generator (RNG), rather than multiplying ring oscillators in a dedicated structure.  ...  This article introduces a new class of physical unclonable functions (PUFs) based on the Fibonacci ring oscillator (FIRO).  ...  Data Availability Statement: The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding authors, Ł.M. and J.N., upon reasonable request.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s21113920 fatcat:oc2pxgvusffinf56w7q3zwvfpe

Reliable Delay Based Algorithm to Boost PUF Security Against Modeling Attacks

Fathi Amsaad, Mohammed Niamat, Amer Dawoud, Selcuk Kose
2018 Information  
This paper presents an efficient and dynamic ring oscillator PUFs (d-ROPUFs) technique to improve sPUFs security against modeling attacks.  ...  Further, it is shown that the OTDA further efficiently enhances the d-ROPUF capability to generate a considerably large set of reliable secret keys to protect the PUF structure from new cyber-attacks,  ...  Recently, sPUF-based techniques have been proposed for true random number generation, security of IoT applications and smart systems, including the smart grid (i.e., AMI: advanced smart meriting infrastructures  ... 
doi:10.3390/info9090224 fatcat:lvwuenrpfvhdxamy5gkwwiee5e
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