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The First Winograd Schema Challenge at IJCAI-16

Ernest Davis, Leora Morgenstern, Charles L. Ortiz
<span title="2017-10-02">2017</span> <i title="Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/27wksbinzzhjfow2wuy6m2iefm" style="color: black;">The AI Magazine</a> </i> &nbsp;
The first Winograd Schema Challenge was held in New York, New York, as part of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence.  ...  The challenge was original conceived by Hector Levesque as an alternative to the Turing Test. This report details the results of this first challenge.  ...  The human subjects achieved better than 90 percent accuracy. The next Winograd Schema Challenge will take place at AAAI 2018.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1609/aimag.v38i4.2734">doi:10.1609/aimag.v38i4.2734</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/7gjdx2bl5vg3jc3bzr2pbjslia">fatcat:7gjdx2bl5vg3jc3bzr2pbjslia</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190430200626/https://aaai.org/ojs/index.php/aimagazine/article/download/2734/2654" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/2c/4d/2c4d32e72adf7d0e3a8aa0b1efd2ef6ea495ff61.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1609/aimag.v38i4.2734"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

The Defeat of the Winograd Schema Challenge [article]

Vid Kocijan, Ernest Davis, Thomas Lukasiewicz, Gary Marcus, Leora Morgenstern
<span title="2022-01-16">2022</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
In this paper, we review the history of the Winograd Schema Challenge and assess its significance.  ...  The Winograd Schema Challenge -- a set of twin sentences involving pronoun reference disambiguation that seem to require the use of commonsense knowledge -- was proposed by Hector Levesque in 2011.  ...  Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Alan Turing Institute under the EP-SRC grant EP/N510129/1, the AXA Research Fund, the EPSRC grant "Unlocking the Potential of AI for English Law", and the  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2201.02387v2">arXiv:2201.02387v2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/u66g2bunqjagvbjxpxgqws676i">fatcat:u66g2bunqjagvbjxpxgqws676i</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220120091235/https://arxiv.org/pdf/2201.02387v2.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/05/46/0546aeaed8fa229aa460390c84ae8e5b8d717431.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2201.02387v2" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

Emerging trends: A gentle introduction to fine-tuning

Kenneth Ward Church, Zeyu Chen, Yanjun Ma
<span title="2021-10-26">2021</span> <i title="Cambridge University Press (CUP)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ugfrgjxxffftblvvdh5ko6pyum" style="color: black;">Natural Language Engineering</a> </i> &nbsp;
Since fine-tuning is more challenging than inference, the examples in this paper will require modest programming skills, as well as access to a GPU.  ...  That paper focused on inference, the use of pre-trained models, as is, without fine-tuning. The goal of this paper is to make fine-tuning more accessible to a broader audience.  ...  There was a Winograd Schema Challenge at IJCAI-16, where no system did better than chance (Davis, Morgenstern, and Ortiz 2017) .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1017/s1351324921000322">doi:10.1017/s1351324921000322</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/7224vmdfqjcfllcxaamai6hw5a">fatcat:7224vmdfqjcfllcxaamai6hw5a</a> </span>
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From systems to logic in the early development of nonmonotonic reasoning

Erik Sandewall
<span title="">2011</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/weoplee4x5anpi62cco5v4higa" style="color: black;">Artificial Intelligence</a> </i> &nbsp;
This note describes how the notion of nonmonotonic reasoning emerged in Artificial Intelligence from the mid-1960's to 1980.  ...  The article concludes with some reflections on the roles and relationships between logicist theory and system design in AI, and in particular in Knowledge Representation.  ...  A more extensive piece of background was provided by Jon Doyle whose memoir manuscripts [5, 6] contain information about the development of truth-maintenance systems and related logics at MIT.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.artint.2010.04.013">doi:10.1016/j.artint.2010.04.013</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/hzcegltgbzebjl3lgqp76lqada">fatcat:hzcegltgbzebjl3lgqp76lqada</a> </span>
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AAAI News

Carol Hamilton
<span title="2017-10-02">2017</span> <i title="Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/27wksbinzzhjfow2wuy6m2iefm" style="color: black;">The AI Magazine</a> </i> &nbsp;
Fall news from the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence.  ...  Nuance Communications, Inc. is sponsoring a competition to encourage efforts to develop programs that can solve the Winograd Schema Challenge, an alternative to the Turing Test developed by Hector Levesque  ...  The Winograd Schema Challenge India Chapter officers include Kamalakar Karlapalem, President (Professor, International Institute of Information Technology Gachibowli, Hyderbad); C Anantaram, Vice  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1609/aimag.v38i3.2773">doi:10.1609/aimag.v38i3.2773</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/e4s37bplgba5fm6jgbyq746dbu">fatcat:e4s37bplgba5fm6jgbyq746dbu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190430235428/https://www.aaai.org/ojs/index.php/aimagazine/article/download/2773/2657" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/5f/0b/5f0b08b3870e2fcadbc358d2cd6a1d5ae381982a.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1609/aimag.v38i3.2773"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

The Defeat of the Winograd Schema Challenge [article]

Vid Kocijan, Ernest Davis, Thomas Lukasiewicz, Gary Marcus, Leora Morgenstern
<span title="2022-01-01">2022</span>
In this paper, we review the history of the Winograd Schema Challenge and assess its significance.  ...  The Winograd Schema Challenge -- a set of twin sentences involving pronoun reference disambiguation that seem to require the use of commonsense knowledge -- was proposed by Hector Levesque in 2011.  ...  Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Alan Turing Institute under the EP-SRC grant EP/N510129/1, the AXA Research Fund, the EPSRC grant "Unlocking the Potential of AI for English Law", and the  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv.2201.02387">doi:10.48550/arxiv.2201.02387</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/7gpqyf3pmjglhp24wj74okoknq">fatcat:7gpqyf3pmjglhp24wj74okoknq</a> </span>
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AdapterFusion: Non-Destructive Task Composition for Transfer Learning [article]

Jonas Pfeiffer, Aishwarya Kamath, Andreas Rücklé, Kyunghyun Cho, Iryna Gurevych
<span title="2021-01-26">2021</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
We empirically evaluate AdapterFusion on 16 diverse NLU tasks, and find that it effectively combines various types of knowledge at different layers of the model.  ...  First, in the knowledge extraction stage we learn task specific parameters called adapters, that encapsulate the task-specific information.  ...  Kyunghyun was a research scientist at Facebook AI Research part-time during which this project was carried out.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.00247v3">arXiv:2005.00247v3</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/rhjexrlidzcjtck5xjqcmaxmxe">fatcat:rhjexrlidzcjtck5xjqcmaxmxe</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210129215512/https://arxiv.org/pdf/2005.00247v2.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download [not primary version]" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <span style="color: #f43e3e;">&#10033;</span> <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/b4/ec/b4ec020dfca3f2b9f70b55cd68b81b619423b426.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.00247v3" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

NeurIPS 2021 Competition IGLU: Interactive Grounded Language Understanding in a Collaborative Environment [article]

Julia Kiseleva, Ziming Li, Mohammad Aliannejadi, Shrestha Mohanty, Maartje ter Hoeve, Mikhail Burtsev, Alexey Skrynnik, Artem Zholus, Aleksandr Panov, Kavya Srinet, Arthur Szlam, Yuxuan Sun (+3 others)
<span title="2021-10-15">2021</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
Therefore, the suggested challenge can bring two communities together to approach one of the important challenges in AI.  ...  Understanding the complexity of the challenge, we split it into sub-tasks to make it feasible for participants.  ...  His organizational experience includes service as sponsorship chair at EMNLP-16, workshop chair at NAACL-21, challenge co-organizer at the Dialog System Technology Challenge (DSTC7) workshop at AAAI-19  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2110.06536v2">arXiv:2110.06536v2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/jyyjlgbmpbdtjf6ctqssl2xpf4">fatcat:jyyjlgbmpbdtjf6ctqssl2xpf4</a> </span>
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Using the Winograd Schema Challenge as a CAPTCHA

Nicos Isaak, Loizos Michael
<span class="release-stage">unpublished</span>
The Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC), a certain form of hard pronoun resolution tasks, was proposed by Levesque as such a challenge task to promote research in AI.  ...  Based on current reports in the literature, the WSC remains a challenging task for bots, and is, therefore, a candidate to serve as a form of CAPTCHA.  ...  Sotiriou for creating the Greek WSC sentences, and to the school teachers for supervising the students.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.29007/rnk8">doi:10.29007/rnk8</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/kxuzj3w6kzbrpnyngajkf77f2a">fatcat:kxuzj3w6kzbrpnyngajkf77f2a</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200320024553/https://easychair.org/publications/open/pV9V" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/54/20/5420b05464ddc020f2ade224432d90e47d182922.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.29007/rnk8"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

CommonGen: A Constrained Text Generation Challenge for Generative Commonsense Reasoning [article]

Bill Yuchen Lin, Wangchunshu Zhou, Ming Shen, Pei Zhou, Chandra Bhagavatula, Yejin Choi, Xiang Ren
<span title="2020-11-30">2020</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
The CommonGen task is challenging because it inherently requires 1) relational reasoning with background commonsense knowledge, and 2) compositional generalization ability to work on unseen concept combinations  ...  However, building machines with commonsense to compose realistically plausible sentences remains challenging.  ...  Winogrande: An adversarial winograd schema challenge at scale. ArXiv, abs/1907.10641.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1911.03705v4">arXiv:1911.03705v4</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/iuxuuphxdzexjag2hfi7p622wq">fatcat:iuxuuphxdzexjag2hfi7p622wq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201207115807/https://arxiv.org/pdf/1911.03705v4.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/dd/16/dd16e0387f406005fc701e7398f225897039fa88.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1911.03705v4" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

WinoLogic: A Zero-Shot Logic-based Diagnostic Dataset for Winograd Schema Challenge

Weinan He, Canming Huang, Yongmei Liu, Xiaodan Zhu
<span title="">2021</span> <i title="Association for Computational Linguistics"> Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage">unpublished</span>
The recent success of neural language models (NLMs) on the Winograd Schema Challenge has called for further investigation of the commonsense reasoning ability of these models.  ...  Given a problem in WINOLOGIC, NLMs need to decide whether the plausible knowledge sentences could correctly solve the corresponding WSC problems in a zero-shot setting.  ...  Acknowledgement We appreciate the fruitful discussion with Dr. Zhanhao Xiao. We acknowledge support from the Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 62076261.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/2021.emnlp-main.307">doi:10.18653/v1/2021.emnlp-main.307</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/62mxb3jqv5duhhf22dm426xoyu">fatcat:62mxb3jqv5duhhf22dm426xoyu</a> </span>
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Debating Technologies (Dagstuhl Seminar 15512)

Iryna Gurevych, Eduard H. Hovy, Noam Slonim, Benno Stein, Marc Herbstritt
<span title="2016-04-15">2016</span> <i title="Schloss Dagstuhl Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik GmbH"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/u2phfyhrhje7xnnubtp3vfklcu" style="color: black;">Dagstuhl Reports</a> </i> &nbsp;
actions for the establishment of a new interdisciplinary research community around debating technologies. 31 participants from 22 different institutions took part in 16 sessions that included 34 talks,  ...  This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 15512 "Debating Technologies".  ...  IJCAI 2015. Buenos Aires, Argentina, pp. 156-163, 2015.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.4230/dagrep.5.12.18">doi:10.4230/dagrep.5.12.18</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/journals/dagstuhl-reports/GurevychHSS15.html">dblp:journals/dagstuhl-reports/GurevychHSS15</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ntrju72fynh4xnx5ew4j5qj5se">fatcat:ntrju72fynh4xnx5ew4j5qj5se</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220120222342/https://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2016/5803/pdf/dagrep_v005_i012_p018_s15512.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/13/56/1356b1e0e32774ea3defad92974f4678cd1e86b2.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.4230/dagrep.5.12.18"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Graph Neural Networks for Natural Language Processing: A Survey [article]

Lingfei Wu, Yu Chen, Kai Shen, Xiaojie Guo, Hanning Gao, Shucheng Li, Jian Pei, Bo Long
<span title="2021-06-10">2021</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive overview of Graph NeuralNetworks for Natural Language Processing.  ...  Finally, we discussvarious outstanding challenges for making the full use of GNNs for NLP as well as future researchdirections.  ...  The winograd schema challenge. In Thirteenth In- ternational Conference on the Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. Citeseer, 2012. F. W. Levi.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2106.06090v1">arXiv:2106.06090v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/zvkhinpcvzbmje4kjpwjs355qu">fatcat:zvkhinpcvzbmje4kjpwjs355qu</a> </span>
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Reasoning-Driven Question-Answering for Natural Language Understanding [article]

Daniel Khashabi
<span title="2019-08-14">2019</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
In the second part, we propose two new challenge datasets.  ...  In this thesis, we investigate the NLU problem through the QA task and focus on the aspects that make it a challenge for the current state-of-the-art technology.  ...  Figure 16 : Crowd-sourcing interface for verifying the validity of essentiality annotations generated by the first task.  ... 
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A Data-Driven Metric of Hardness for WSC Sentences

Nicos Isaak, Loizos Michael
<span class="release-stage">unpublished</span>
The Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC) — the task of resolving pronouns in certain sentences where shallow parsing techniques seem not to be directly applicable — has been proposed as an alternative to the  ...  Among a number of attempts to tackle this challenge, one particular approach has demonstrated the plausibility of using commonsense knowledge automatically acquired from raw text in English Wikipedia.Here  ...  One of these challenges is the Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC) [8] , an alternative to the well-known Turing test believed to be able to provide a more meaningful measure of machine intelligence [2]  ... 
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