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The Expressive Gaze Model: Using Gaze to Express Emotion

Brent J Lance, Stacy C Marsella
2010 IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications  
SPONSOR/MONITOR'S ACRONYM( Figure 1 . 1 The Expressive Gaze Model (EGM). This image shows the process the EGM uses to generate an emotionally expressive gaze shift.  ...  To address this issue, we present the Expressive Gaze Model (EGM), a method that enables virtual characters to generate believable gaze shifts that communicate a desired emotional expression.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mcg.2010.43 pmid:20650729 fatcat:abqnrxypkvb35nx6x3fpl3ufau

Emotional expression affects the accuracy of gaze perception

Janek S. Lobmaier, Matthias Hartmann, Andreas J. Volz, Fred W. Mast
2012 Motivation and Emotion  
Emotional facial expressions are powerful social cues. Here we investigated how emotional expression affects the interpretation of eye gaze direction.  ...  The faces displayed either an angry, happy, fearful or a neutral expression and were looking either straight at the observer, or were rotated 2°, 4°, 6°or 8°to the left and right.  ...  Volz were supported by a grant from the Pro*Doc program of the Swiss National Science Foundation awarded to FM (PDFMP1_127238).  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11031-012-9295-4 fatcat:sdshrjsaizedni75ram6awvil4

Culture, gaze and the neural processing of fear expressions

Reginald B. Adams, Robert G. Franklin, Nicholas O. Rule, Jonathan B. Freeman, Kestutis Kveraga, Nouchine Hadjikhani, Sakiko Yoshikawa, Nalini Ambady
2009 Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience  
The direction of others' eye gaze has important influences on how we perceive their emotional expressions.  ...  Here, we examined differences in neural activation to direct-versus averted-gaze fear faces as a function of culture of the participant (Japanese versus US Caucasian), culture of the stimulus face (Japanese  ...  Eye gaze and emotion Eye gaze also affects the perception of emotional expression.  ... 
doi:10.1093/scan/nsp047 pmid:20019073 pmcid:PMC2894663 fatcat:23k2tanfpnfzfmr6bkjpbfojla

The Role of Emotional Expression and Eccentricity on Gaze Perception

Deema Awad, Nathan J. Emery, Isabelle Mareschal
2019 Frontiers in Psychology  
We also find that flankers (regardless of emotional expression) did not influence performance.  ...  There was also no effect of the presence of flankers (regardless of expression) on the perception of the target gaze.  ...  In a fMRI study, Engell and Haxby (2007) presented participants with neutral faces with either direct-gaze or averted-gaze, or emotionally expressive faces with direct-gaze.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01129 pmid:31164853 pmcid:PMC6536623 fatcat:omeodi7wkjeuhkisfnkgvb7sn4

Self-relevance processing in the human amygdala: Gaze direction, facial expression, and emotion intensity

Karim N'Diaye, David Sander, Patrik Vuilleumier
2009 Emotion  
How the processing of emotional expression is influenced by perceived gaze remains a debated issue.  ...  Here we used a highly controlled set of computer-generated animated faces combining dynamic emotional expressions with varying intensity, and gaze shifts either directed at or averted from the observer  ...  Therefore, contrary to discreteemotion models, the appraisal theory predicts an influence of gaze direction on the emotion perceived in a face.  ... 
doi:10.1037/a0017845 pmid:20001123 fatcat:nzunmw2hczfllmodgwbqd6tl6u

Gaze cuing of attention in snake phobic women: the influence of facial expression

Carolina Pletti, Mario Dalmaso, Michela Sarlo, Giovanni Galfano
2015 Frontiers in Psychology  
To test this hypothesis and further investigate attentional biases for emotional faces in animal phobics, we conducted an experiment using a gaze-cuing paradigm in which participants' attention was driven  ...  Such findings may be due to the fact that these expressions could signal the presence of a phobic object in the surroundings.  ...  Acknowledgment This research was financially supported by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (Futuro in Ricerca 2012 grant RBFR12F0BD).  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00454 pmid:25941504 pmcid:PMC4403304 fatcat:yf32n4xzeraotfssqhehfay7le

The effect of facial expression and gaze direction on memory for unfamiliar faces

Satoshi F. Nakashima, Stephen R. H. Langton, Sakiko Yoshikawa
2012 Cognition & Emotion  
We report data from an experiment that investigated the influence of gaze direction and facial expression on face memory.  ...  Participants were shown a set of unfamiliar faces with either happy or angry facial expressions, which were either gazing straight ahead or had their gaze averted to one side.  ...  The authors would like to thank Yuko Morimoto, Keiko Nakamoto, Yukiko Uchida, and anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments on an earlier version of this manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1080/02699931.2011.619734 pmid:22077759 fatcat:lgeru6nambd3fgdvpzn3dcdnvi

Face Cells: Separate Processing of Expression and Gaze in the Amygdala

Andrew J. Calder, Lauri Nummenmaa
2007 Current Biology  
central nucleus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis) showing an increased response to averted relative to direct gaze irrespective of emotional expression (Figure 1 ).  ...  among emotional and neutral expressions.  ...  Lateral A summary of the major projections from the anterior inferotemporal cortex (TE), anterior superior temporal sulcus (STS), and temporal pole (TG) to the amygdala, as outlined by Amaral et al.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.03.031 pmid:17502093 fatcat:7rary64xsjdezmohikeprd7nc4

Perception of stereoscopic direct gaze: The effects of interaxial distance and emotional facial expressions

Jussi Hakala, Jari Kätsyri, Tapio Takala, Jukka Häkkinen
2016 Journal of Vision  
Moreover, because research has shown that stereoscopy affects the emotions elicited by facial expressions, and facial expressions affect the range of directions where an observer perceives mutual gazethe  ...  In addition to monoscopic and stereoscopic conditions, the stimuli included neutral, angry, and happy facial expressions. The observers judged the gaze direction and mutual gaze of four lookers.  ...  This study was supported by a research grant from the Emil Aaltonen Foundation to JK and a grant from the Academy of Finland (project number 265482) to J. Häkkinen.  ... 
doi:10.1167/16.9.5 pmid:27442954 fatcat:w42errqwbvh33ek3eejxauzpre

The effectiveness of a gaze cue depends on the facial expression of emotion: Evidence from simultaneous competing cues

M. W. Becker
2010 Attention, Perception & Psychophysics  
By holding the emotional expression constant, these trials allowed us to evaluate the extent to which gaze was an effective cue to attention in this twoface method. Emotion versus neutral trials.  ...  This method allows us to present two faces that gaze in opposite directions, while varying the facial expression of emotion on each face.  ... 
doi:10.3758/app.72.7.1814 pmid:20952780 fatcat:2zn6vbjotjhwdiqrooe2b3azxu

The influence of emotional facial expressions on gaze-following in grouped and solitary pedestrians

Andrew C. Gallup, Andrew Chong, Alex Kacelnik, John R. Krebs, Iain D. Couzin
2014 Scientific Reports  
Extending upon previous field studies, we investigated whether gaze cues paired with emotional facial expressions (neutral, happy, suspicious and fearsome) of an oncoming walking confederate modulate gaze-following  ...  The mechanisms contributing to collective attention in humans remain unclear.  ...  A Generalized Linear Model was used to test for main effects of and interactions between emotional condition and group membership, while subsequent pairwise tests were performed to assess comparisons within  ... 
doi:10.1038/srep05794 pmid:25052060 pmcid:PMC4107368 fatcat:tb6v3plszrb7ddtwqtr3jldkba

The interaction between gaze and facial expression in the amygdala and extended amygdala is modulated by anxiety

Ewbank
2010 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
Recent research has also found inconsistent effects of expression and gaze direction on the amygdala response to facial signals of threat.  ...  Here, we investigated the way in which individual differences in anxiety would influence the interactive effect of gaze and expression on the response to angry and fearful faces in the human extended amygdala  ...  To test whether the differential effect of gaze and anxiety on the amygdala response to angry and fearful faces was statistically robust we explored the interaction between gaze and emotional expression  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2010.00056 pmid:20661452 pmcid:PMC2906373 fatcat:dzljtqfwsbfhznra2mb4zy67xa

Building a 3D Model of the Face that Transmits an Arbitrary Combination of Identity, Facial Expression, and Gaze

Sunao KIKUCHI, Miyuki KAMACHI, Shigeru AKAMATSU
2008 The Journal of the Institute of Image Electronics Engineers of Japan  
We also developed an eyeball model for visualizing eye movements to turn the gaze.  ...  〈Summary〉 This paper describes an attempt to build a 3D face model for an anthropomorphic interface that transmits an arbitrary combination of identity, various facial expressions, and gaze.  ...  Acknowledgement This work was partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (18300076) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.  ... 
doi:10.11371/iieej.37.189 fatcat:hs7zbmdcqjhp3jkn3txtwlxx4i

Investigating the Effect of Gaze Cues and Emotional Expressions on the Affective Evaluations of Unfamiliar Faces

Todd Larson Landes, Yoshihisa Kashima, Piers D. L. Howe, Marco Tamietto
2016 PLoS ONE  
People look at what they are interested in, and their emotional expressions tend to indicate how they feel about the objects at which they look.  ...  The combination of gaze direction and emotional expression can therefore convey important information about people's evaluations of the objects in their environment, and can even influence the subsequent  ...  Performed the experiments: TL. Analyzed the data: TL PDLH YK. Wrote the paper: TL PDLH YK.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0162695 pmid:27682017 pmcid:PMC5040344 fatcat:aecmvsloujeedo4oxi7q2n6piy

Overestimation of the Subjective Experience of Time in Social Anxiety: Effects of Facial Expression, Gaze Direction, and Time Course

Kenta Ishikawa, Matia Okubo
2016 Frontiers in Psychology  
Moreover, facial expressions and gaze direction interact to create socially threatening situations in people with social anxiety.  ...  The present study investigated the effect of social anxiety on the perceived duration of observing emotional faces with a direct or an averted gaze.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study was supported in part by the MEXT-Supported Program for the Strategic Research Foundation at Private Universities 2011-2015 (S1101013) and KAKENHI (#40433859).  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00611 pmid:27199844 pmcid:PMC4850902 fatcat:s4hqq2sdvnd77br3v3ye3jaeki
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