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The Enforcers: Consistent Sparse-Discrete Methods for Constraining Informative Emergent Communication [article]

Seth Karten, Siddharth Agrawal, Mycal Tucker, Dana Hughes, Michael Lewis, Julie Shah, Katia Sycara
This research addresses the above issues by limiting the loss in reward of decreasing communication and eliminating the penalty for discretization.  ...  In this work, we successfully constrain training using a learned gate to regulate when to communicate while using discrete prototypes that reflect what to communicate for cooperative tasks with partial  ...  The main element of our work is the use of The Enforcers to constrain (with low variance) communication for arbitrary budgets.  ... 
doi:10.48550/arxiv.2201.07452 fatcat:iu5zlu6c5rc2xhwge5z6rhlb6u

Interpreting and Enforcing the Voluntary FRAND Commitment

Roger G. Brooks, Damien Geradin
2010 Social Science Research Network  
See also Communication of the Commission "Modernising ICT Standardisation in the EU -The Way Forward" (3 July 2009) Com (09) 324 final para 1 (noting the emergence of global fora and consortia as "world-leading  ...  enforcement rights under (in the case of France, for example) the doctrine of "stipulation pour autrui".  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1645878 fatcat:6k7vgjn4gzhenldn2ptstuwmpi

Enforcement Discretion and Executive Duty

Zachary Price
2013 Social Science Research Network  
Such a mindset appears consistent with the second presumption advocated here: a presumption against treating enforcement discretion as a vehicle for remaking statutory policy. B.  ...  inform the scope of executive enforcement discretion. 17 A distinct body of work addresses prosecutorial discretion and the related problem of overcriminalization.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2359685 fatcat:5l7454fvdfaujot2foe3rw6qj4

Environmental Compliance and Enforcement in China [chapter]

Wanxin Li, Krzysztof Michalak
2012 Governance, Risk, and Compliance Handbook  
The OECD is also at the forefront of efforts to understand and to help governments respond to new developments and concerns, such as corporate governance, the information economy, and the challenges of  ...  The OECD Member countries are: This work is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD.  ...  The Bureau consists of four divisions: the Comprehensive Division, the Division for Environmental Inspection, the Division for Emergency Supervision of Urban and Industrial Pollution, and the Division  ... 
doi:10.1002/9781118269213.ch27 fatcat:waxozhoztzd5ddhznczvqgbgfm

Enforcing and Discovering Structure in Machine Learning [article]

Francesco Locatello
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The world is structured in countless ways.  ...  It may be prudent to enforce corresponding structural properties to a learning algorithm's solution, such as incorporating prior beliefs, natural constraints, or causal structures.  ...  Third, for the Mutual Information Gap [Che+18] , we estimate the discrete mutual information (as opposed to continuous) on the mean representation (as opposed to sampled) on a subset of the samples (as  ... 
arXiv:2111.13693v1 fatcat:2urmfjeh6nhvjeiv3qoiy5hrum

Second-Order Regulation of Law Enforcement

John Rappaport
2014 Social Science Research Network  
After making the general case for the second-order approach, the Article sketches where it should work especially well or poorly.  ...  This Article interrogates a critical, yet understudied, regulatory design choice the Supreme Court makes in each criminal case raising constitutional questions about law enforcement conduct: not what the  ...  Id. at 10; see Debra Livingston, Police Discretion and the Quality of Life in Public Places: Courts, Communities, and the New Policing, 97 COLUM. L.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2390879 fatcat:zqtn3fm6rfcpfltrrfyuparrqm

Bilateral and Community Enforcement in a Networked Market with Simple Strategies

Itay Perah Fainmesser, David Goldberg
2011 Social Science Research Network  
We present a model of repeated games in large buyer-seller networks in the presence of reputation networks via which buyers share information about past transactions.  ...  Our characterization sheds light on the welfare costs of relying only on repeated interactions for sustaining cooperation, and on how to mitigate such costs.  ...  The intuition is consistent with much of the literature on community enforcement; when more buyers are aware of a seller's deviation, the seller faces a larger punishment for deviating.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1742960 fatcat:la36t2ctirf2hpppxwlb3ntgxe

Private International Cartels: Effectiveness, Welfare, and Anticartel Enforcement

John M. Connor
2003 Social Science Research Network  
to recover damages, and generally weak anti-cartel enforcement in Asia and Latin America.  ...  However, applying optimal deterrence concepts to the characteristics of modern international cartels allows one to deduce that current antitrust enforcement is inadequate to deter cartel formation.  ...  it retained too much discretion for EC officials and did not guarantee amnesty for the first applicants.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.611909 fatcat:coi6yku62ffgpnabfw6a7p2q3e

Reinforcing Representation: Congressional Power to Enforce the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments in the Rehnquist and Waite Courts

Ellen D. Katz
2003 Michigan law review  
Th anks also to Dani el Lo effl er and Wad e Ge nt z for re se arch assis tanc e, and to th e Univ ersi t y of Michigan Law School, which provid ed ge n er ous financial suppor t for th is proj ect th  ...  Karlan, End of the Second Recon struction? Voting Rights and the Court, NATION, May 23, 1994, at 69 8, 700 [h er ei nafter Kar lan, End of the Second Reconstruction?]  ...  and unassailable" and that it was "plainly a constitu tional method of enforcing the Fifteenth Amendment"); South Carolina v.  ... 
doi:10.2307/3595359 fatcat:rpgg5ojvlvc7nfaxxwjf3whssu

Enforcement of Civil Rights Law in Private Workplaces: The Effects of Compliance Reviews and Lawsuits Over Time

Alexandra Kalev, Frank Dobbin
2006 Law and Social Inquiry  
Early studies show that government affirmative action reviews improved the numbers, and rank, of blacks, but evidence of what has happened since 1980 is sparse.  ...  We also find that deregulation was more consequential for compliance reviews than for lawsuits: Compliance reviews initiated in the 1980s were less effective than Alexandra Kalev received her Ph.D. from  ...  This model emerged from criticism of a rule-based approach to antidiscrimination enforcement and the legal ambiguity it entails.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1747-4469.2006.00038.x fatcat:xg5rjuqgfnezvhdtlqff23a7gy

Antitrust Standing in Private Merger Cases: Reconciling Private Incentives and Public Enforcement Goals

Joseph F. Brodley
1995 Michigan law review  
In this paper, I attempt to develop a coherent method for reconciling public interest goals and private enforcement incentives that will be useful not only for merger enforcement, but for other areas of  ...  collusive group; (4) ability to raise rivals' costs, for example, constrained sources of supply or customer access that can be foreclosed by exclusive dealing contracts; (5) hostage exchange methods,  ... 
doi:10.2307/1289860 fatcat:jgahtwl565dujny56hmdsdy7nm

Public vs. Private Enforcement of International Economic Law: Of Standing and Remedy

Alan O. Sykes
2005 Social Science Research Network  
A private right of action for money damages is the best way to make such a commitment.  ...  In the investment setting, the paper argues that a central objective of investment treaties is to reduce the risks confronting private investors and thereby to lower the cost of capital for capital importing  ...  operating permit in Metalclad) or the emergence of new information about the subject of regulation (such as the health issues associated with the gasoline additive in S.D.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.671801 fatcat:2rt3symfkfgo3gtu7jj264vs3q

A Boltzmann approach to mean-field sparse feedback control * *Giacomo Albi and Massimo Fornasier acknowledge the support of the ERC-Starting Grant HDSPCONTR "High-Dimensional Sparse Optimal Control". Dante Kalise acknowledges the support of the ERC-Advanced grant OCLOC 668998 "From Open to Closed Loop Optimal Control of PDEs"

Giacomo Albi, Massimo Fornasier, Dante Kalise
2017 IFAC-PapersOnLine  
Numerical experiments assess the performance of the proposed sparse design.  ...  We study the synthesis of optimal control policies for large-scale multi-agent systems.  ...  Theorem 1 furnishes a consistency result to our approach, in particular in the quasi-invariant scale we can conclude that the binary interaction dynamics converges to a sparse feedback constrained mean-field  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.ifacol.2017.08.646 fatcat:i4taxsu5xvd2vmwfmjebrox63m

Generalized Sparse and Low-Rank Optimization for Ultra-Dense Networks [article]

Yuanming Shi and Jun Zhang and Wei Chen and Khaled B. Letaief
2017 arXiv   pre-print
In this article, we present some recently proposed large-scale sparse and low-rank frameworks for optimizing UDNs, supported by various motivating applications.  ...  This motivates the recent introduction of highly structured and generalizable models for network optimization.  ...  However, emerging mobile applications have strong demands for user privacy and ultra-low latency communications, which call for more general mathematical models and formulations.  ... 
arXiv:1709.09103v1 fatcat:gtamszsp7zhatewx23el6jfuw4

Methods for Sparse Signal Recovery Using Kalman Filtering With Embedded Pseudo-Measurement Norms and Quasi-Norms

Avishy Carmi, Pini Gurfil, Dimitri Kanevsky
2010 IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing  
We present two simple methods for recovering sparse signals from a series of noisy observations. The theory of compressed sensing (CS) requires solving a convex constrained minimization problem.  ...  In our first algorithm, the PM equation constrains the norm of the estimated state. In this case, the augmented measurement equation becomes linear, so a regular KF can be used.  ...  Other applications consider model-reduction methods to enforce sparseness for preventing over-fitting and for reducing computational complexity and storage capacities.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tsp.2009.2038959 fatcat:m63oczqz3ventasibi6cg6h36a
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