Filters








1,417 Hits in 10.7 sec

Economics [chapter]

Paul Ormerod
2017 Understanding Complex Systems  
Economics is by no means an empty box. For example, it offers what is possibly the only general law of behaviour in the social sciences, namely that agents react to incentives.  ...  In the 1950s, there was an active debate about the computational limits which agents faced when making decisions.  ...  In other words, to place realistic bounds on the ability of people to process the information which they have, regardless of whether it is complete.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-42424-8_2 fatcat:ismikk6uove55jcmriquchsaq4

Strategy under Ambiguity, and a New Type of Decision Dilemma

Richard J. Arend
2022 Administrative Sciences  
In this exploratory study, we challenge real decision makers to make choices in strategic games involving ambiguity, and to rationalize those choices.  ...  We do so by considering the influence of decision and decision-maker characteristics on the behaviors displayed while confronting these problems, with an eye on identifying vulnerabilities.  ...  The results indicate that decision makers are bounded in rationality and that boundedness likely influences how decision characteristics affect behavior-with more intense ambiguity problems generating  ... 
doi:10.3390/admsci12020044 doaj:c4abaa0d73b442369f239b54b799f52a fatcat:bedrbhhtufco7ksrqrovgsci7u

Probabilistic Exposure Analysis for Chemical Risk Characterization

Kenneth T. Bogen, Alison C. Cullen, H. Christopher Frey, Paul S. Price
2009 Toxicological Sciences  
Key examples of recent experience gained in assessing human exposures to chemicals in the environment, and other applications to chemical risk characterization and assessment, are presented.  ...  Different types of information required to apply PEA to these different decision contexts are identified, and specific PEA methods are highlighted that are best suited to exposure assessment in these separate  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work benefited from participant and peer review input provided in the  ... 
doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfp036 pmid:19223660 pmcid:PMC3692252 fatcat:27jk4s355baldkfdh2vgmdk52q

Applying AI on the Battlefield: The Ethical Debates [chapter]

Gregory M. Reichberg, Henrik Syse
2021 Robotics, AI, and Humanity  
by a machine, as opposed to being killed by a human being; and (3) that the honor of the military profession hinges on maintaining an equality of risk between combatants, an equality that would be removed  ...  AbstractBecause lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) are designed to make targeting decisions without the direct intervention of human agents (who are "out of the killing loop"), considerable debate  ...  Acknowledgements The authors thank Joe Reeder and Sigurd Hovd for valuable comments to earlier drafts of the article.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-54173-6_12 fatcat:4yw4frwy5fhb5cvv3yu2uslhtm

A Decision-Theoretic Approach to Collaboration: Principal Description Methods and Efficient Heuristic Approximations [chapter]

Frans A. Oliehoek, Arnoud Visser
2010 Studies in Computational Intelligence  
This chapter gives an overview of the state of the art in decision-theoretic models to describe cooperation between multiple agents in a dynamic environment.  ...  To overcome this problem, we build upon the field of decision theory (DT). Decision theory describes how a decision maker, or agent, should make a decision given its preferences over alternatives.  ...  We wish to thank our colleagues: Julian de Hoog, Julian Kooij, Matthijs Spaan, Nikos Vlassis and Shimon Whiteson.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-11688-9_4 fatcat:jx6pyhxp7jg45nsc2xf6zaeegy

If quantum probability = classical probability + bounded cognition; is this good, bad, or unnecessary?

Tim Rakow
2013 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
This intriguing position, however, may overstate weaknesses in classical probability theory by underestimating the role of current knowledge states and may under-employ available knowledge about the limitations  ...  In addition, flexibility in model specification has risks for the use of quantum probability.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to Diederik Aerts, Harald Atmanspacher, Thomas Filk, James Hampton, Mike Oaksford, Steven Sloman, Jennifer Trueblood, and Christoph Weidemann for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x12003172 pmid:23673051 fatcat:fo4b4cc6xzeh5hqb4c6indj33q

Artificial intelligence based cognitive routing for cognitive radio networks

Junaid Qadir
2015 Artificial Intelligence Review  
We also survey the application of various classes of AI techniques to CRNs in general, and to the problem of routing in particular.  ...  We discuss various decision making techniques and learning techniques from AI and document their current and potential applications to the problem of routing in CRNs.  ...  Game theory is also differentiated from optimization theory (which caters to a single decision maker scenario) in their ability to model multi-agent decision making scenarios where the decisions of each  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10462-015-9438-6 fatcat:hi4mk5iaf5dsjgco5sgknejroq

Quantum probability, intuition, and human rationality

Mike Oaksford
2013 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
I propose a possible resolution in situation theory.  ...  AbstractThis comment suggests that Pothos & Busmeyer (P&B) do not provide an intuitive rational foundation for quantum probability (QP) theory to parallel standard logic and classical probability  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to Diederik Aerts, Harald Atmanspacher, Thomas Filk, James Hampton, Mike Oaksford, Steven Sloman, Jennifer Trueblood, and Christoph Weidemann for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x12003081 pmid:23673049 fatcat:n74vhxhrjvee3abpl5oii2topu

The cognitive economy: The probabilistic turn in psychology and human cognition

Petko Kusev, Paul van Schaik
2013 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
AbstractAccording to the foundations of economic theory, agents have stable and coherent "global" preferences that guide their choices among alternatives.  ...  We propose that this in turn will encourage them to respond to "local" preferences and goals influenced by context and memory representations.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to Diederik Aerts, Harald Atmanspacher, Thomas Filk, James Hampton, Mike Oaksford, Steven Sloman, Jennifer Trueblood, and Christoph Weidemann for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x12003019 pmid:23673040 fatcat:2duuhozdvjfnrp32jgpenterbe

Can quantum probability provide a new direction for cognitive modeling?

Emmanuel M. Pothos, Jerome R. Busemeyer
2013 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
Finally, we consider the implications of a QP theory approach to cognition for human rationality.  ...  Note first that both CP and QP theory share the fundamental assumption that it is possible to model cognition on the basis of formal, probabilistic principles. But why consider a QP approach?  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to Diederik Aerts, Harald Atmanspacher, Thomas Filk, James Hampton, Mike Oaksford, Steven Sloman, Jennifer Trueblood, and Christoph Weidemann for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x12001525 pmid:23673021 fatcat:4sj5kfqw4neqpjer6mjfcqyena

Cold and hot cognition: Quantum probability theory and realistic psychological modeling

Philip J. Corr
2013 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
AbstractTypically, human decision making is emotionally "hot" and does not conform to "cold" classical probability (CP) theory.  ...  As quantum probability (QP) theory emphasises order, context, superimposition states, and nonlinear dynamic effects, one of its major strengths may be its power to unify formal modeling and realistic psychological  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to Diederik Aerts, Harald Atmanspacher, Thomas Filk, James Hampton, Mike Oaksford, Steven Sloman, Jennifer Trueblood, and Christoph Weidemann for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x12002907 pmid:23673029 fatcat:zugqmxg6rbc2lg3ij34j2dwr5a

Cognitive architectures combine formal and heuristic approaches

Cleotilde Gonzalez, Christian Lebiere
2013 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
AbstractQuantum probability (QP) theory provides an alternative account of empirical phenomena in decision making that classical probability (CP) theory cannot explain.  ...  Cognitive architectures combine probabilistic mechanisms with symbolic knowledge-based representations (e.g., heuristics) to address effects that motivate QP.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to Diederik Aerts, Harald Atmanspacher, Thomas Filk, James Hampton, Mike Oaksford, Steven Sloman, Jennifer Trueblood, and Christoph Weidemann for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x12002956 pmid:23673033 fatcat:hgomfp7fzrctxjhwq7vhsfcioq

Signal detection theory in Hilbert space

Marcus Vinícius C. Baldo
2013 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
Here, relevant concepts from signal detection theory are recast in that language, allowing an empirically testable extension of the quantum probability formalism to psychophysical measures, such as detectability  ...  AbstractThe Hilbert space formalism is a powerful language to express many cognitive phenomena.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to Diederik Aerts, Harald Atmanspacher, Thomas Filk, James Hampton, Mike Oaksford, Steven Sloman, Jennifer Trueblood, and Christoph Weidemann for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x12002865 pmid:23673024 fatcat:6ky3e5ojprbdbnhcktmbi2tdzm

Quantum modeling of common sense

Hamid R. Noori, Rainer Spanagel
2013 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
Strong empirical evidence suggests the context- and order-dependent representation of human judgment and decision-making processes, which falls beyond the scope of classical Bayesian probability theories  ...  However, considering behavior as the output of underlying neurobiological processes, a fundamental question remains unanswered: Is cognition a probabilistic process at all?  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to Diederik Aerts, Harald Atmanspacher, Thomas Filk, James Hampton, Mike Oaksford, Steven Sloman, Jennifer Trueblood, and Christoph Weidemann for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x1200307x pmid:23673048 fatcat:tb6sew3qoravxoo67suylfrsn4

Limitations of the Dirac formalism as a descriptive framework for cognition

Artem Kaznatcheev, Thomas R. Shultz
2013 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
The open systems framework is a generalization of classical probability and we hope it will allow cognitive scientists to extend quantum probability from perception, categorization, memory, decision making  ...  , and similarity judgments to phenomena in learning and development.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to Diederik Aerts, Harald Atmanspacher, Thomas Filk, James Hampton, Mike Oaksford, Steven Sloman, Jennifer Trueblood, and Christoph Weidemann for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x12003007 pmid:23673038 fatcat:sppqlwbkhfewrptnjsepz2ehna
« Previous Showing results 1 — 15 out of 1,417 results