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The Cryptographic Complexity of Anonymous Coins: A Systematic Exploration

Niluka Amarasinghe, Xavier Boyen, Matthew McKague
2021 Cryptography  
The multitude of these notions also hints at the surprising complexity of the overall anonymity landscape.  ...  The modern financial world has seen a significant rise in the use of cryptocurrencies in recent years, partly due to the convincing lure of anonymity promised by these schemes.  ...  Therein, our work shows the very complex nature of the level of anonymity demonstrated by any decentralized currency scheme through a fine-grained systematization.  ... 
doi:10.3390/cryptography5010010 fatcat:kg2wkztnwndqlh6v3o46emsgee

Exploring the Attack Surface of Blockchain: A Systematic Overview [article]

Muhammad Saad, Jeffrey Spaulding, Laurent Njilla, Charles Kamhoua, Sachin Shetty, DaeHun Nyang, Aziz Mohaisen
2019 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we systematically explore the attack surface of the Blockchain technology, with an emphasis on public Blockchains.  ...  Towards this goal, we attribute attack viability in the attack surface to 1) the Blockchain cryptographic constructs, 2) the distributed architecture of the systems using Blockchain, and 3) the Blockchain  ...  The more coins a users owns, the higher his chances of winning the block race.  ... 
arXiv:1904.03487v1 fatcat:bo67ns67enh3dpzzlmkbtbgx6i

Coin-Operated Capitalism

Shaanan Cohney, David A. Hoffman, Jeremy Sklaroff, David Wishnick
2018 Social Science Research Network  
This Article presents the legal literature's first detailed analysis of the inner workings of Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs).  ...  Surprisingly, in a community known for espousing a technolibertarian belief in the power of "trustless trust" built with carefully designed code, a significant fraction of issuers retained centralized  ...  a small part of this complex set of rules in the code. 177 PRG's smart contract code does limit issuance to 200 trillion tokens.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.3215345 fatcat:us7hwzcjybga5jcaa45oj7zgea

Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs): benefits, risks and success measures

Alfreda Šapkauskienė, Ingrida Višinskaitė
2020 Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues  
The initial coin offering is usually defined as a new, innovative way of raising funds used by organizations, companies, or entrepreneurs, attracting funds through a cryptographic exchange in exchange  ...  the success of the ICO, which is usually defined as the amount of funds attracted, listing of the coins, return on investment, market capitalization or the duration of the ICO.  ...  the potential anonymity of the investors (see Figure 3 )..  ... 
doi:10.9770/jesi.2020.7.3(3) fatcat:ynd5iels6nazhmxm2ppwnzt3vy

Initial Coin Offerings: Financing Growth with Cryptocurrency Token Sales

Sabrina Howell, Marina Niessner, David Yermack
2018 Social Science Research Network  
Initial coin offerings (ICOs) have emerged as a new mechanism for entrepreneurial finance, with parallels to initial public offerings, venture capital, and pre-sale crowdfunding.  ...  In a sample of more than 1,500 ICOs that collectively raise $12.9 billion, we examine which issuer and ICO characteristics predict successful real outcomes (increasing issuer employment and avoiding enterprise  ...  One example in this category is Paragon, which raised $70 million to build "a community dedicated to the worldwide legalization and systematization of cannabis" and later became a high-profile target of  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.3201259 fatcat:3uayklxbqjbaxkrrwajirz2zuy

Why Do Businesses Go Crypto? An Empirical Analysis of Initial Coin Offerings

Saman Adhami, Giancarlo Giudici, Stefano Martinazzi
2017 Social Science Research Network  
We analyze the determinants of the success of these token offerings by considering a sample of 253 campaigns.  ...  In this work, we provide the first comprehensive description of the Initial Coin Offering (ICO) phenomenon, which by the end of 2017 allowed startups around the world to raise more than $5.3 billion, according  ...  Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank two anonymous referees and the participants of the 2017 Shanghai Fintech Conference, and in particular Dr. Yang Yu for her discussion.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.3046209 fatcat:3ljwsl3gubbrfjz7sst2lyzfkm

Why do businesses go crypto? An empirical analysis of initial coin offerings

Saman Adhami, Giancarlo Giudici, Stefano Martinazzi
2018 Journal of Economics and Business  
We analyze the determinants of the success of these token offerings by considering a sample of 253 campaigns.  ...  In this work, we provide the first comprehensive description of the Initial Coin Offering (ICO) phenomenon, which by the end of 2017 allowed startups around the world to raise more than $5.3 billion, according  ...  Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank two anonymous referees and the participants of the 2017 Shanghai Fintech Conference, and in particular Dr. Yang Yu for her discussion.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jeconbus.2018.04.001 fatcat:nrfgw7rwlvfsljr627a7y7hgmi

The Wisdom of Crowds in FinTech: Evidence from Initial Coin Offerings

Jongsub Lee, Tao Li, Donghwa Shin
2021 The Review of Corporate Finance Studies  
Certification by analysts on a FinTech platform that harnesses the "wisdom of crowds" is associated with successful initial coin offerings (ICOs).  ...  Overall, our results suggest that a market-based certification process that relies on a diverse group of individuals is at play in financing blockchain startups.  ...  In recent years, initial coin offerings (ICOs) have emerged as a new form of crowdfunding for blockchain-related startups.  ... 
doi:10.1093/rcfs/cfab014 fatcat:dk2ozuxqvvh3zpgdey6wmryhdq

Why do startups pursue initial coin offerings (ICOs)? The role of economic drivers and social identity on funding choice

Magnus Schückes, Tobias Gutmann
2020 Small Business Economics  
Initial coin offerings (ICOs) are a novel form of funding that has driven billions of dollars into the blockchain ecosystem, potentially challenging traditional funding vehicles such as business angel  ...  Our findings suggest that the entrepreneur's social identity in conjunction with the enabling mechanisms of the blockchain technology shape entrepreneurial pursuits and funding choice.  ...  Acknowledgments We wish to thank Tom Vanacker and the two anonymous reviewers who spurred the development of this research project.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11187-020-00337-9 fatcat:c5uww2f52beevpgtohoyrl3xca

Seeking Anonymity in an Internet Panopticon [article]

Joan Feigenbaum, Bryan Ford
2015 arXiv   pre-print
Toward this end, we offer a high-level view of the Dissent project, the first systematic effort to build a practical anonymity system based purely on foundations that offer measurable and formally provable  ...  Current approaches to anonymity also appear unable to offer accurate, principled measurement of the level or quality of anonymity a user might obtain.  ...  So each adjacent pair of cryptographers flips a coin that only the two can see.  ... 
arXiv:1312.5307v3 fatcat:mqlea6umb5fytbpdw6cpfqdnji

Seeking anonymity in an internet panopticon

Joan Feigenbaum, Bryan Ford
2015 Communications of the ACM  
So each adjacent pair of cryptographers flips a coin that only the two can see.  ...  Because each coin toss affects the values of exactly two napkins, the effects of the coins cancel out of the final result, leaving a 1 if any cryptographer paid the bill (and lied about the XOR) or a 0  ... 
doi:10.1145/2714561 fatcat:sr22peaajrgw5gwxaokm6xmrae

Internet Banking — An Overview [chapter]

Juergen Seitz, Eberhard Stickel
2001 Electronic Banking  
Thismeans reduced anonymity. Anonymity may be increased by exchangingthe coins at another server. Security is reached by means of ahybrid cryptographic algorithm.  ...  These coins are encoded with a publickey and send to the dealer. Anonymity of the customer may be guaranteedby using a new session key for each message.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-322-86627-1_9 fatcat:meruoffm55f2piswswz6fbaic4

Distributed Ledger Privacy: Ring Signatures, Möbius and CryptoNote [article]

Christopher D. Clack, Nicolas T. Courtois
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Our primary goal is to explore the suitability of these two techniques for improving the privacy of payments on cryptographic ledgers.  ...  The key concept is a token controlled by a cryptographic private key for spending, and represented by a public key for receiving and audit purposes.  ...  The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 provides an overview of the emerging ecosystem of cryptographic assets and blockchain privacy; Section 3 explores some of the cryptographic technology that  ... 
arXiv:1902.02609v1 fatcat:p6kjutup5fgndkgq2gqf7ahofi

Privacy and Cryptocurrencies - A Systematic Literature Review

Lasse Herskind, Panagiota Katsikouli, Nicola Dragoni
2020 IEEE Access  
In this work, we perform a systematic literature review on the realm of privacy for electronic currencies.  ...  Our transaction history in the current centralized banking system has the ability to reveal a lot of private information for each spender, both to the banking system itself, but also to those entities  ...  Addressing the issue of coin transferability, Hayes [14] proposed a system in which the current owner of the coin signs the chain of transactions; i.e., when C receives the coin, a chain of transactions  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.2980950 fatcat:mv5atuumnvgljbn74fonh767be

A study of formation trends and innovative features of cryptocurrencies in the digital economic environment

Alovsat Aliyev, Institute of Information Technology, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
2022 Problems of Information Society  
The scientific-methodological bases of studying the impact of the application of electronic money on the economy and business process are explored.  ...  The relevance of formation and regulation of new directions of effective development of the economic environment with the widespread use of digital technologies is justified.  ...  The study of innovative features of cryptocurrencies and their application is a complex issue. It is affected by many internal and external factors.  ... 
doi:10.25045/jpis.v13.i2.07 fatcat:snty2yvgsjhf7kkgdyp5smeula
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