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The complexity of Solitaire

Luc Longpré, Pierre McKenzie
2009 Theoretical Computer Science  
Klondike is the well-known 52-card Solitaire game available on almost every computer.  ...  When a single suit is allowed, the problem drops in complexity down to AC 0 [3], that is, the problem is solvable by a family of constant-depth unbounded-fan-in { and, or, mod 3 } -circuits.  ...  The second author was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Fonds de recherche sur la nature et les technologies du Québec.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.tcs.2009.08.027 fatcat:6r6rznfyzfc5hkx5m56nl6tudu

Use of Interventional Neuroradiology Devices (Solitaire AB and Cascade Net) in the Treatment of Complex Renal Aneurysms through Stent-Assisted Coil Embolisation

Eva Pampín, Fernando López, Francisco Javier Maynar, Rebeca Bastida, Amaya Iturralde
2021 Surgical Science  
We describe the technique of such devices.  ...  The risk of rupture of true renal artery aneurysms is low but when they are bigger than 2 -2.5 cm it increases significantly, making treatment essential.  ...  Conclusion The Solitaire AB and Cascade Net intracranial devices routinely used in interventional neuroradiology are valid and safe options to use as devices in the endovascular treatment of true complex  ... 
doi:10.4236/ss.2021.1211038 fatcat:lbeiuz34orhedi7munq3g2z2rm

Observations of Townsend's Solitaires (Myadestes townsendi) on Mount Magazine in Logan County, Arkansas

Don R. Simons, Kimberly Smith
2018 Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science  
However, the range map for Townsend's Solitaire in Dunn and Alderfer (2017) has a small symbol indicating an "extent of irregular or irruptive range in some winters" in northwestern Arkansas.  ...  Townsend's Solitaires (Myadestes townsendi) (Fig. 1 ) normally range throughout the Rocky Mountains.  ...  This bird was foraging in cedars along the southern rim of the mountaintop west of the cabin complex and was seen by a group of experienced observers 4 days later. This bird was silent.  ... 
doi:10.54119/jaas.2018.7203 fatcat:n5q5asvxr5fj7fg57fjedpoawa

Solitaire Stentectomy Using a Stent-Retriever Technique in a Porcine Model

Andreas Simgen, Michael Kettner, Frida Juliane Webelsiep, Toshiki Tomori, Ruben Mühl-Benninghaus, Umut Yilmaz, Pervinder Bhogal, Matthias W. Laschke, Michael D. Menger, Wolfgang Reith, Philipp Dietrich
2020 Clinical Neuroradiology  
Complications, such as entrapment of the Solitaire-retriever complex at the intermediate catheter, Solitaire migration, vasospasm, perforation, or dissection were not observed.  ...  retrievers within the deployed Solitaire devices and trapping parts of the Solitaire within the microcatheter.  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to thank the team of the Institute for Clinical & Experimental Surgery, Saarland University, for supporting this study.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00062-020-00906-1 pmid:32424667 fatcat:lyybftysmvhbtpybqo2rcfyj2a

Fixed-Point Logics and Solitaire Games

Dietmar Berwanger, Erich Gr�del
2004 Theory of Computing Systems  
The model-checking problem for Solitaire-LFP is PSPACE-complete in general and PTIME-complete for formulae of bounded width.  ...  On finite structures (but not on infinite ones), Solitaire-LFP is equivalent to transitive closure logic. We also consider the solitaire fragment of guarded fixed-point logics.  ...  The expression and combined complexity of Solitaire-LFP is PSPACEcomplete, and the data complexity is NLOGSPACE-complete. Proof.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00224-004-1147-5 fatcat:o7bj3ruwkzgxxdqqnsdcboehpm

Synthesis and photophysical properties of peripherally metallated bis(dimethylamino)porphyrazines

Efstathia G Sakellariou, Antonio Garrido Montalban, Hubert G Meunier, Richard B Ostler, Garry Rumbles, Anthony G.M Barrett, Brian M Hoffman
2000 Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry  
The photophysics of the two novel solitaire porphyrazines 3 and 4 (obtained via coordination of PdCl 2 and PtCl 2 to the peripheral bis(dimethylamino) entity of the Zn-porphyrazine 1, respectively) have  ...  While the free ligand 1 exhibits neither fluorescence nor triplet absorption, the peripherally metallated derivatives 3 and 4 display both fluorescence as well as intersystem crossing.  ...  and Physical Sciences Research Council, the National Science Foundation, and NATO for generous support of our studies.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s1010-6030(00)00343-9 fatcat:a2bvo63yqnal5c4eqoxo3drbeq

Iatrogenic Carotid-Cavernous Fistula after Stent Assisted Coil Embolization of Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm

Hye-Ran Park, Seok-Mann Yoon, Jai-Joon Shim, Hack-Gun Bae, Il-Gyu Yun
2015 Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery  
Stent assisted coiling (SAC) is a useful technique for the treatment of wide necked complex aneurysm.  ...  It seems to be desirable to place the proximal tip of Solitaire stent in the straight portion whenever possible to reduce the risk of inadvertent arterial injury which might be caused by future navigation  ...  The proximal tip of the Solitaire stent was visible beyond the confines of the ICA lumen(Fig 2B, C).  ... 
doi:10.7461/jcen.2015.17.1.43 pmid:25874185 pmcid:PMC4394119 fatcat:nc34go5q25aurbhlyzxzeizaey

Stent-assisted coiling of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms using the Solitaire AB stent

Vikram Huded, Rithesh R. Nair, Devashish D. Vyas, Bhumir N. Chauhan
2014 Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice  
To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies of Solitaire AB-assisted coiling of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms from India.  ...  Context: Stent-assisted coiling of wide-necked and complex intracranial aneurysms is an effective and feasible treatment option.  ...  Conclusion In our experience, stent-assisted coiling using the Solitaire AB stent is a safe and effective method of treating wide-necked and complex intracranial aneurysms.  ... 
doi:10.1055/s-0039-1700323 fatcat:w5raexxsnvcahhsgehtgzhluqm


Douglas K. McCormick
1993 Nature Biotechnology  
(Bio/Technology 10:264-267, March, 1992) this way: It must be remembered that the septic cascade is complex.  ...  , rather than with competitive inhibitors of the cells and mediators involved in the development of toxic shock."  ...  If a system as simple as solitaire is that hard to predict, what in the world do we expect from a game as complex as clinical trials, played by companies holding only a single pharmaceutical hand?  ... 
doi:10.1038/nbt0493-419 fatcat:ur53ayie75addcziqz33mwingi

Clinical and Angiographic Outcomes of Aneurysms Treated with Two Self-expanding Stent-assisted Coiling Systems: A Comparison of Solitaire AB and Enterprise VRD Stents

Sung-Won Kim, Seng-Oun Sung, Kil-Sung Chae, Hwa-Seung Park, Sang-Hoon Lee
2015 Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery  
Objective : The purpose of this study was to compare clinical findings and outcomes of Enterprise and Solitaire stent-assisted coiling (SAC). , 86 patients (mean age, 60.3 years) harboring 89 aneurysms  ...  Because of its higher radial strength and better vessel wall apposition, we cautiously propose that the Solitaire stent may be more effective for SAC of aneurysms harboring a large or severe tortuous parent  ...  Currently, two self-expanding closed-cell stents, the Enterprise VRD stent (Codman, Miami, FL, USA) and the Solitaire AB stent (Covidien, Irvine, CA, USA), are widely used for SAC of wide-neck or complex  ... 
doi:10.7461/jcen.2015.17.3.149 pmid:26523250 pmcid:PMC4626336 fatcat:snkk2w3brbaftbjg6zmqlg2vhy

Solitaire automata

Richard E. Ladner, Jeffrey K. Norman
1985 Journal of computer and system sciences (Print)  
The notion of a solitaire automaton is introduced to model the class of solitaire games. Space and time bounded solitaire automata with varying degrees of information are investigated.  ...  The power of solitaire automata is also determined when the information is perfect or zero.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT Thanks to Anne Condon for carefully reading and commenting on a preliminary version of the paper.  ... 
doi:10.1016/0022-0000(85)90007-8 fatcat:2jmvxe3fwrfl3a2m5tnjyqnbwa

Zielonka's Recursive Algorithm: dull, weak and solitaire games and tighter bounds

Maciej Gazda, Tim A.C. Willemse
2013 Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science  
We investigate the complexity of Zielonka's Recursive algorithm for solving these special games, showing that the algorithm runs in O(d (n + m)) on weak games, and, somewhat surprisingly, that it requires  ...  For the latter classes, we provide a family of games G, allowing us to establish a lower bound of 2^(n/3).  ...  We explore this question by investigating the complexity of solving weak, dull and nested solitaire classes using Zielonka's algorithm.  ... 
doi:10.4204/eptcs.119.4 fatcat:scbv7t6dobh37ekv5iokhjthqq

Outcomes of Stent-assisted Coil Embolization of Wide-necked Intracranial Aneurysms Using the Solitaire™ AB Neurovascular Remodeling Device

Hae Woong Jeong, Won-Bae Seung
2015 Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery  
Results : Successful placement of the Solitaire AB stent was achieved in all the cases.  ...  Long-term follow-up will be required to identify the effect of the Solitaire AB stent on recanalization rates.  ...  or complex intracranial aneurysms.  ... 
doi:10.7461/jcen.2015.17.4.301 pmid:27066440 pmcid:PMC4823427 fatcat:eqz6galzk5ff3bzmdmsm6tmswy

Analysis of Solitaire [article]

Daniel Shiu
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We have proposed modifications to the cipher that would reduce the repetition bias, but at the cost of increasing the complexity of the cipher (probably beyond the goal of allowing manual implementation  ...  We find a model for repetitions in the keystream in the stream cipher Solitaire that accounts for the large majority of the repetition bias. Other phenomena merit further investigation.  ...  The update function U for Solitaire is slightly more complex, though again is intended to be simple enough to implement manually.  ... 
arXiv:1909.06300v1 fatcat:p6qlya7y7be77msrqxmxksgduu


Ronald Bjarnason, Prasad Tadepalli, Alan Fern
2007 ICGA Journal  
We propose a searchtree compression that reveals a new state representation for the games of Klondike Solitaire and Thoughtful Solitaire, a version of Klondike Solitaire in which the location of all cards  ...  Our multistage nested rollout algorithm allows the user to apply separate heuristics at each stage of the search process and tune the search magnitude for each stage.  ...  Acknowledgements This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant IIS-0329278.  ... 
doi:10.3233/icg-2007-30302 fatcat:jgfubjiwpvelvbquyaogaoea4u
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