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The Complexity of Positive First-Order Logic without Equality II: The Four-Element Case [chapter]

Barnaby Martin, Jos Martin
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We study the complexity of evaluating positive equality-free sentences of first-order (FO) logic over fixed, finite structures B.  ...  Extending the algebraic methods of a previous paper, we derive a complete complexity classification for these problems as B ranges over structures of domain size 4.  ...  Preliminaries Throughout, let B be a finite structure, with domain B, over the finite relational signature σ. Let {∃, ∀, ∧, ∨}-FO be the positive fragment of first-order (FO) logic without equality.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-15205-4_33 fatcat:kyngcfp6d5gf7amcb6tsw2xvqy

The complexity of positive first-order logic without equality [article]

Florent Madelaine, Barnaby Martin
2010 arXiv   pre-print
We study the complexity of evaluating positive equality-free sentences of first-order (FO) logic over a fixed, finite structure B.  ...  We introduce surjective hyper-endomorphisms and use them in proving a Galois connection that characterises definability in positive equality-free FO.  ...  Let {∃, ∀, ∧, ∨}-FO and {∃, ∀, ∧, ∨, =}-FO be the positive fragments of first-order (FO) logic, without and with equality, respectively.  ... 
arXiv:1003.0802v1 fatcat:52dljydvvncrjnvglmzsatym5a

Four-Dimensional Design: From Strategies to Cases – Generation of Fractal Grammar for Reusing Building Elements [chapter]

W. Debacker, C. Henrotay, A. Paduart, S. Elsen, W. P. De Wilde, H. Hendrickx
2011 Ecodynamics: The Prigogine Legacy  
The key detailing principles and two design cases are further examined in this paper.  ...  These four-dimensional design strategies strive for a healthy built environment, by taking into account, as from the fi rst sketches, the wear and tear of artefacts and the changing and evolving circumstances  ...  Case 2: renovation of a high-rise building in Flanders This case study regards a 4D designing approach applied to the renovation of the Chicago Building, a high-rise dwelling complex situated in Antwerp  ... 
doi:10.2495/978-1-84564-654-7/21 fatcat:wjmspwwev5frrazfnqxijkmdyi

II.—THE LOGICAL CALCULUS. I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES

W. E. JOHNSON
1892 Mind  
Certainly the unique position of the Logical Calculus-which seems to be trying to reduce intelligence to non-intelligence-demands very careful treatment, if we are to avoid a purely sterile or circular  ...  I will attempt to "enumerate briefly what appear to be the principles common to every species of symbolic calculus. (1) The symbols must be understood to represent-without exhaustively characterising-things  ...  it degrades logic to the position of a mere branch of mathematics.  ... 
doi:10.1093/mind/1.1.3 fatcat:mtpa2fcdrbdj5eaqet2dfd7he4

THE LOGICAL CALCULUS. II

W. E. JOHNSON
1892 Mind  
and more complex forms in the order of their complexity.  ...  . 1 In the simplest cases the suffix may be omitted without danger of ambiguity, but the necessity for this complete notation will be seen when we come to complex multiple quantifications.  ...  order equal to the number of universalised symbols involved; e.g., the Binomial Theorem (a + b) n = a n + n.a n -1 b + .... is a triply-qnantified proposition, for each of the symbols a, b and n here stand  ... 
doi:10.1093/mind/1.2.235 fatcat:2obyr7xbx5gnbdrcqokppfrbbm

WADEIn II

Peter Brusilovsky, Tomasz D. Loboda
2006 ACM SIGCSE Bulletin  
The paper introduces the WADEIn II system for the visualization of expression evaluation in the C programming language, shows how expression evaluation visualizations can be made adaptive, and explains  ...  The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the ideas of adaptive explanatory visualization using a practical example.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0426021.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1140123.1140140 fatcat:mqmomym5ifgu3oxxo2kilag2xu

WADEIn II

Peter Brusilovsky, Tomasz D. Loboda
2006 Proceedings of the 11th annual SIGCSE conference on Innovation and technology in computer science education - ITICSE '06  
The paper introduces the WADEIn II system for the visualization of expression evaluation in the C programming language, shows how expression evaluation visualizations can be made adaptive, and explains  ...  The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the ideas of adaptive explanatory visualization using a practical example.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0426021.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1140124.1140140 dblp:conf/iticse/BrusilovskyL06 fatcat:bz7bwldombgj3nvrb2ydegs4f4

Introduction to Sociology. II

G. De Greef
1903 American Journal of Sociology  
or the abstract theory of human order, to the positive theory of the general limits of variation characteristic of the human order.  ...  All the most extended and the most complex social structures will be only special cases of this simple general structure.  ... 
fatcat:uwr6xgtg4vcwxnk47flzja7v2m

Introduction to Sociology. II

G. De Greef
1903 American Journal of Sociology  
order directly, without a preliminary study of special sociological limits.  ...  humanité, in which he sets forth social statics or the abstract theory of human order,to the positive theory of the general limits of variation characteristic of the human order.  ... 
doi:10.1086/211165 fatcat:u6odmptt6rdnnlpahsdnfc6wwi

The theory of factors. II

Stuart Carter Dodd
1928 Psychological review  
In the case of rectilinear regression, the more convenient criterion is that every dis- criminant of the (m — m)th order shall equal zero.  ...  Transfer of training will then not take place except insofar as the second activity is a mere variant of the first. In this case a portion of the unnecessary elements have already been eliminated.  ... 
doi:10.1037/h0070394 fatcat:2gcis22kmfgi3km6yfx7a36qpu

MARC II and COBOL

Henriette D. Avram, Julius R. Droz
1968 Information Technology and Libraries  
A description of the machine processing of MARC II records using COBOL for an application on the Library of Congress System 360/30.  ...  Emphasis is on the manipulation by COBOL of highly complex variable length MARC records containing variable length fields.  ...  The base address of the data in the communication format is not relative to the first position of the record as defined in the processing format, but to the first position of the first variable field.  ... 
doi:10.6017/ital.v1i4.2939 fatcat:ok2vz27hvbao3md2gepotlzqwa

The Logic of Automata---Part II

Arthur W. Burks, Hao Wang
1957 Journal of the ACM  
By the results of section 4.1 the starter of a THE LOGIC OF AUTOMATA-—PART II 297 decoded normal form net may be constructed without cycles.  ...  A net is strongly con- n ') d te THE LOGIC OF AUTOMATA—PART II 289 nected if and only ¥f every element of C(> i, MM“) is unity.  ... 
doi:10.1145/320881.320885 fatcat:nqe5n2lub5gidatki3332fzbi4

II. Arithmetic [chapter]

Alexandre Borovik, Tony Gardiner
2019 The Essence of Mathematics Through Elementary Problems  
We analyse case (ii) and leave cases (iii) and (iv) to the reader.  ...  So none of the elements of S can have arisen before the series of order k`1. But each fraction in S arises at some stage in a Farey series.  ...  The contradiction arising in step 3. above is an application of an important principle, namely The Least Element Principle: Every non-empty set S of positive integers has a smallest element.  ... 
doi:10.11647/obp.0168.02 fatcat:h4vocilu65eelgp7av4u4vmupu

II.—THE RELATION BETWEEN INDUCTION AND PROBABILITY—(part II.)

C. D. BROAD
1920 Mind  
The logical position therefore seems to be this.  ...  It is important for us to consider the logical position of this habit. (1) In the first place we suppose that the law is strongly suggested to us by superficial observation.  ...  THE RELATION BETWEEN INDUCTION AND PBOBABILITT.  ... 
doi:10.1093/mind/xxix.1.11 fatcat:mtt2zysxejfi7hqhbxuplhtroq

Anticancer Activity of Cu(II), Pd(II) and Zn(II) Complexes of Phosphonate with Glutamine Amino Acid

Ahmed Imam Hanafy, Zeinhom Mohamad El-Bahy, Marwa Sayed El-Gendy, Omar Makram Ali
2018 Oriental Journal of Chemistry  
Copper (II), palladium(II) and zinc(II) complexes of phosphonate derivative (S)-2-((phenoxyphosphono)(2-hydroxyphenyl) methyl-amino)-4-carbamoylbutanoic acid (PHCB) have been prepared and fully characterized  ...  The complexes structure was supported by 1 H-NMR which shows the disappearance of both carboxylic and NH protons. The metal complexes stability was studied by thermal analysis.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors acknowledge the scientific research deanship at Taif university for supporting this work by research program (1-437-4914).  ... 
doi:10.13005/ojc/340231 fatcat:mm77cuetpvh4nibsitqezukw5y
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