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The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol: Analysis and Applications [chapter]

Juan Garay, Aggelos Kiayias, Nikos Leonardos
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this work, we extract and analyze the core of the Bitcoin protocol, which we term the Bitcoin backbone, and prove two of its fundamental properties which we call common prefix and chain quality in the  ...  Next, we propose and analyze applications that can be built "on top" of the backbone protocol, specifically focusing on Byzantine agreement (BA) and on the notion of a public transaction ledger.  ...  In our analysis of the Bitcoin backbone protocol we formalize and prove two fundamental properties it possesses.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-46803-6_10 fatcat:o4dhxeta4rbylgyjhr5lwi6v3a

The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol Against Quantum Adversaries [article]

Alexandru Cojocaru, Juan A. Garay, Aggelos Kiayias, Fang Song, Petros Wallden
2019 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
Motivated by this, in this work we revisit the formal security of the core of the Bitcoin protocol, called the Bitcoin backbone, in the presence of an adversary that has access to a scalable quantum computer  ...  Bitcoin and its underlying blockchain protocol have received recently significant attention in the context of building distributed systems as well as from the perspective of the foundations of the consensus  ...  We then turn to the security analysis of the Bitcoin backbone protocol.  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/CojocaruGKSW19 fatcat:fensfyft7vazhm6tf5ebc4jspi

On Analysis of the Bitcoin and Prism Backbone Protocols [article]

Jing Li, Dongning Guo
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Prior analyses of the bitcoin and Prism backbone protocols assume the lifespan of blockchain is finite.  ...  Specifically, the results include a blockchain growth property, a blockchain quality property, and a common prefix property of the bitcoin backbone protocol, as well as the liveness and persistence of  ...  An in-depth analysis of the bitcoin protocol was given in [2] . Several important properties of the bitcoin backbone protocol have been proposed in [1] , [3] - [6] .  ... 
arXiv:1907.05016v2 fatcat:7xpdvu2isbethph3ldosu3hi5q

The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol with Chains of Variable Difficulty [chapter]

Juan Garay, Aggelos Kiayias, Nikos Leonardos
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We extend the q-bounded synchronous model of the Bitcoin backbone protocol [Eurocrypt 2015], which posed the basic properties of Bitcoin's underlying blockchain data structure and shows how a robust public  ...  Our work introduces new analysis techniques and tools to the area of blockchain systems that may prove useful in analyzing other blockchain protocols.  ...  Application: Robust Transaction Ledger We now come to the (main) application the Bitcoin backbone protocol was designed to solve.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-63688-7_10 fatcat:erpkke25fjfhllazp4shxu37fm

Analysis of bitcoin backbone protocol in the non-flat model

Peifang Ni, Hongda Li, Dongxue Pan
2020 Science China Information Sciences  
In this paper, we provide the formal analysis of bitcoin backbone protocol in the non-flat model.  ...  Keywords bitcoin system, proof-of-work, computational power, non-flat model, transaction ledger Citation Ni P F, Li H D, Pan D X. Analysis of bitcoin backbone protocol in the non-flat model.  ...  The responsibility for scientific accuracy and content remains entirely with the authors.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11432-019-2698-1 fatcat:7kcv6yy5inbzbay4kiqmjmemde

Post-Quantum Blockchain Proofs of Work [article]

Alexandru Cojocaru, Juan Garay, Aggelos Kiayias, Fang Song, Petros Wallden
2021 arXiv   pre-print
In addition, we revisit the formal treatment of security of the core of the Bitcoin consensus protocol, called the Bitcoin backbone (Eurocrypt 2015), against quantum adversaries and show that its security  ...  Our analysis indicates that security of the Bitcoin backbone protocol is guaranteed provided that the number of adversarial quantum queries is bounded so that each quantum query is worth O(p^-1/2) classical  ...  FS was supported by the US National Science Foundation grants CCF-2042414 and CCF-2054758 (CAREER).  ... 
arXiv:2012.15254v3 fatcat:usfol7a3vjewrlt3f7estaqjga

Analysis of Recent Trend and Applications in Block Chain Technology

Vivekanadam B
2020 Journal of ISMAC  
Blockchains are primarily used by cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and other applications to record these transactions.  ...  Some of the applications are manufacturing, government and finance when the three properties met together (i.e., Efficiency, Scalability and Security).  ...  Bitcoin network consists of a group of globally distributed computers all under open-source software. Blockchain used for many applicators.  ... 
doi:10.36548/jismac.2020.4.003 fatcat:5x6jbs5rdrbotmu6zhb3zymdly

On Elapsed Time Consensus Protocols [article]

Mic Bowman, Debajyoti Das, Avradip Mandal, Hart Montgomery
2021 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
We prove the security of our ET consensus protocol with a trusted gimer given an honest majority assumption in a model very similar to the bitcoin backbone model proposed by Garay et al. which we call  ...  Our model and protocol aims to capture the essence of PoeT and PoL while ignoring some of the more practical difficulties associated with such protocols, such as bootstrapping and setting up the TEE.  ...  Applications of Our Protocol In [GKL15] , the authors show that the bitcoin backbone protocol almost immediately implies a Byzantine fault tolerant consensus protocol and a public ledger.  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/BowmanDMM21 fatcat:ip44m2tvj5fspiebwrwtkk4ui4

Blockchain Implementation Quality Challenges: A Literature Review

Bojana Koteska, Elena Karafiloski, Anastas Mishev
2017 Software Quality Analysis, Monitoring, Improvement, and Applications  
The conclusions of this study could be used for further analysis of the quality attributes required for the Blockchain implementations and improvement of the quality of the Blockchain systems.  ...  Blockchain is not applicable only in nancial transaction systems but it is transforming our society from the way we use our cars, smartphones, healthcare, vote, and even personal identication.  ...  On the other hand, the latency between the transaction submission and confirmation is affected by the consensus protocol.  ... 
dblp:conf/sqamia/KoteskaKM17 fatcat:vqbfmqu7ejabtjnlkylemtc6mi

An Analysis of Block Chain Applications In Bitcoin And Smart Grid Technologies

Srujana Vungarala
2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology  
This is sustainable and eco-friendly alternative. This paper is tailored to analyze the blockchain applications in Bitcoin and Smart Grid.  ...  The paper has been framed by using secondary research and the authors' opinion is also voiced.Blockchain-based application are springing up, covering numerous fields including financial services, Internet  ...  Bitcoin Mining Mining is the backbone of bitcoin network as it provides safety and security and confirms secure transactions.  ... 
doi:10.22214/ijraset.2021.37303 fatcat:fo4enjbpc5abxkjibaztiuuozi

Proofs of Work for Blockchain Protocols [article]

Juan A. Garay, Aggelos Kiayias, Giorgos Panagiotakos
2017 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
The protocol is built on top of a SoW-based blockchain and standard properties of the underlying hash function, thus improving on the known provably secure consensus protocols in this setting, which rely  ...  More recently, with the advent of blockchain protocols like Bitcoin, consensus has been considered in the "permissionless" setting where no authentication or even point-to-point communication is available  ...  we establish the security of the Bitcoin backbone protocol [31] .  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/GarayKP17 fatcat:pjgk7ggz45gkdkbuz2ux73324e

Asymptotic Performance Analysis of Blockchain Protocols [article]

Antoine Durand, Elyes Ben-Hamida, David Leporini, Gérard Memmi
2019 arXiv   pre-print
To reach this goal, we undertake a complexity analysis of a wide range of prominent distributed algorithms proposed for blockchain systems, under the lens of Total Order Broadcast protocols.  ...  We sampled protocols designed for very different settings and that use a broad range of techniques, thus giving a good overview of the achievements of state-of-the-art techniques.  ...  Using the Bitcoin backbone protocol For Bitcoin, Snow White, and Ouroboros we will rely on the backbone protocol formalism from Garay et al. [6] .  ... 
arXiv:1902.04363v2 fatcat:g3lfq7v4azfbnhs5ndjbv2ge2a

A Survey on Consensus Protocols in Blockchain for IoT Networks [article]

Mehrdad Salimitari, Mainak Chatterjee
2019 arXiv   pre-print
In this article, we discuss and survey the various blockchain based consensus methods that are applicable to resource constrained IoT devices and networks.  ...  The success of blockchain as the underlying technology for cryptocurrencies has opened up possibilities for its use in other application domains as well.  ...  In addition, in a smart home, there is a need to store all the communicated data among the devices and the current state of each device and sensors for analysis and better decision making.  ... 
arXiv:1809.05613v4 fatcat:edz2g3h4snbchofsdxmngsqe3i

PREStO: A Systematic Framework for Blockchain Consensus Protocols [article]

Stefanos Leonardos, Daniel Reijsbergen, Georgios Piliouras
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Existing efforts to survey the area reveal a fragmented terminology and the lack of a unified framework to reason about the properties of blockchain protocols.  ...  The result is a dynamic scheme -- termed the PREStO framework -- which aids the interaction between stakeholders of different backgrounds, including managers and investors, and which enables systematic  ...  Their analysis extends initial analyses of the backbone protocols of the main cryptocurrencies [84] , [85] , [87] , [157] .  ... 
arXiv:1906.06540v2 fatcat:srzzkl3n5vgkrjatuclfjch7am

Formal Modelling and Security Analysis of Bitcoin's Payment Protocol [article]

Paolo Modesti, Siamak F. Shahandashti, Patrick McCorry, Feng Hao
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The Payment Protocol standard BIP70, specifying how payments in Bitcoin are performed by merchants and customers, is supported by the largest payment processors and most widely-used wallets.  ...  In this paper, we give the first formal model of the protocol and formalise the refund address security goals for the protocol, namely refund address authentication and secrecy.  ...  Acknowledgements The second and forth authors were supported by the European Research Council (ERC) Starting Grant (No. 306994).  ... 
arXiv:2103.08436v1 fatcat:ncvwqslocjh3hhrwqg4libc6ya
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