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The Animacy Continuum in the Human Ventral Vision Pathway

Long Sha, James V. Haxby, Herve Abdi, J. Swaroop Guntupalli, Nikolaas N. Oosterhof, Yaroslav O. Halchenko, Andrew C. Connolly
2015 Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience  
Evidence from neuroimaging has been interpreted to suggest that this distinction is reflected in the functional topography of the ventral vision pathway as lateral-to-medial activation gradients.  ...  Representational similarity analysis of the activity in ventral vision cortex revealed a main axis of variation with high-animacy species maximally different from artifacts and with the least animate species  ...  We also thank those who have helped in providing expert advice and other assistance, especially M. Ida Gobbini, Michael Hanke, Scott Pauls, and  ... 
doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00733 pmid:25269114 fatcat:3up2bsiwmzcq5frhpyvkpa5tvm

Naturalistic stimuli reveal a dominant role for agentic action in visual representation

James V. Haxby, M. Ida Gobbini, Samuel A. Nastase
2020 NeuroImage  
The use of naturalistic stimuli enables functional brain imaging research to explore cognitive domains that are poorly sampled in highly-controlled experiments.  ...  Naturalistic, dynamic movies evoke strong, consistent, and information-rich patterns of activity over a broad expanse of cortex and engage multiple perceptual and cognitive systems in parallel.  ...  Indeed, the original work on two visual cortical pathways dissociated perception of spatial relations and action in the dorsal spatial vision pathway from perception of static form in the ventral object  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116561 pmid:32001371 fatcat:owim5b636nfndoxuv3sqsccygy

How the Human Brain Represents Perceived Dangerousness or "Predacity" of Animals

Andrew C. Connolly, Long Sha, J. Swaroop Guntupalli, Nikolaas Oosterhof, Yaroslav O. Halchenko, Samuel A. Nastase, Matteo Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Hervé Abdi, Barbara C. Jobst, M. Ida Gobbini, James V. Haxby
2016 Journal of Neuroscience  
We compared neural representational spaces with target representational spaces based on behavioral judgments and a computational model of early vision and found a processing pathway in which perceived  ...  Our results suggest that the perception of threat in the human brain is associated with neural structures that underlie perception and cognition of social actions and intentions, suggesting a broader role  ...  the animacy continuum along the first PC in the LOC (Fig. 4B , Taxonomy Cluster 5).  ... 
doi:10.1523/jneurosci.3395-15.2016 pmid:27170133 pmcid:PMC4863063 fatcat:6shzchs3ynbsxhgvucbwe4fv7u

Untangling the animacy organization of occipitotemporal cortex [article]

J.Brendan Ritchie, Astrid A. Zeman, Joyce Bosmans, Shuo Sun, Kirsten Verhaegen, Hans P. Op de Beeck
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
organization of the ventral visual pathway.  ...  We found that graded selectivity based on animal resemblance to human faces and bodies masquerades as an apparent animacy continuum, which suggests that taxonomy is not a separate factor underlying the  ...  The authors declare no competing interests.  ... 
doi:10.1101/2020.07.17.206896 fatcat:arg3d3ymxbczvb7hqt7wb2otti

The ventral visual pathway represents animal appearance over animacy, unlike human behavior and deep neural networks

Stefania Bracci, J. Brendan Ritchie, Ioannis Kalfas, Hans Op de Beeck
2019 Journal of Neuroscience  
In contrast, activity patterns in ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VTC) were better explained by object appearance: animals and lookalikes were similarly represented and separated from the inanimate objects  ...  Here, we show that neural networks can predict animacy according to human behavior but do not explain visual cortex representations.  ...  These results are not in conflict with, but rather are consistent with, the animacy continuum: bugs might be perceived less animate than dogs and cats and represented far away from humans in the animacy  ... 
doi:10.1523/jneurosci.1714-18.2019 pmid:31196934 pmcid:PMC6697402 fatcat:l2sklk423jawbabgmk7wrc7txi

The Representation of Biological Classes in the Human Brain

A. C. Connolly, J. S. Guntupalli, J. Gors, M. Hanke, Y. O. Halchenko, Y.-C. Wu, H. Abdi, J. V. Haxby
2012 Journal of Neuroscience  
Additionally, analysis of the shape of the similarity space in ventral regions provides evidence for a continuum in the abstract representational space-with primates at one end and insects at the other  ...  Patterns of activity throughout ventral object vision cortex reflected the biological classes of the stimuli.  ...  Analysis of the topographies of responses reveals a continuum that appears to reflect the degree of animacy in the ventral visual cortex.  ... 
doi:10.1523/jneurosci.5547-11.2012 pmid:22357845 pmcid:PMC3532035 fatcat:cxmaidzsezc6jnax6daznbok2u

Mid-level visual features underlie the high-level categorical organization of the ventral stream

Bria Long, Chen-Ping Yu, Talia Konkle
2018 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
Human object-selective cortex shows a large-scale organization characterized by the high-level properties of both animacy and object size.  ...  We found that unrecognizable texforms were sufficient to elicit the large-scale organizations of object-selective cortex along the entire ventral pathway.  ...  We found that unrecognizable texforms were sufficient to elicit the large-scale organizations of object-selective cortex along the entire ventral pathway.  ... 
doi:10.1073/pnas.1719616115 pmid:30171168 pmcid:PMC6156638 fatcat:cijdp6ijbrfapn233igajvwc2q

On the partnership between neural representations of object categories and visual features in the ventral visual pathway

Stefania Bracci, J. Brendan Ritchie, Hans Op de Beeck
2017 Neuropsychologia  
A dominant view in the cognitive neuroscience of object vision is that regions of the ventral visual pathway exhibit some degree of category selectivity.  ...  In which case a rethinking of the function and organization of the ventral pathway may be in order.  ...  Furthermore, this organization in human IT is similar to that found in monkey IT (Kriegeskorte et al., 2008b) , and may reflect a continuum of animacy rather than a dichotomous representation in the ventral  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.06.010 pmid:28619529 pmcid:PMC5680697 fatcat:byq7sbzksbhrpivuhcr2pv5fzm

Representation of Gravity-Aligned Scene Structure in Ventral Pathway Visual Cortex

Siavash Vaziri, Charles E. Connor
2016 Current Biology  
The ventral visual pathway in humans and non-human primates is known to represent object information, including shape and identity [1] .  ...  In the ventral pathway, this could support perceiving and/or predicting physical events involving objects subject to gravity, recognizing object attributes like animacy based on movement not caused by  ...  There is human fMRI evidence that scene and object information are brought together in the lateral occipital complex [22] , a likely homologue for macaque higher-level ventral pathway, as well as in PPA  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.01.022 pmid:26923785 pmcid:PMC4819394 fatcat:ubbg7w6ljbhchlzpo6xmuljhuu

A mid-level organization of the ventral stream [article]

Bria Long, Chen-Ping Yu, Talia Konkle
2017 bioRxiv   pre-print
Human object-selective cortex shows a large-scale organization characterized by the high-level properties of both animacy and object-size.  ...  We found that unrecognizable texforms were sufficient to elicit the large-scale organizations of object-selective cortex along the entire ventral pathway.  ...  The role of curvature in ventral stream organization .  ... 
doi:10.1101/213934 fatcat:mybh2kol7bfqzfnmjj3o3eevj4

Novel childhood experience suggests eccentricity drives organization of human visual cortex [article]

Jesse Gomez, Michael Barnett, Kalanit Grill-Spector
2018 bioRxiv   pre-print
childhood that predicts the locus of distributed responses to Pokemon in adulthood.  ...  These data advance our understanding about how childhood experience and functional constraints shape the functional organization of the human brain.  ...  This research was funded by the Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award grant F31EY027201 to JG, and NIH grants 1ROI1EY02231801A1 and 2RO1 EY 022318-06 to KGS. Author contributions  ... 
doi:10.1101/415729 fatcat:r23pfgy6ozcurlmbyudoysttsq

Two routes to actorhood: lexicalized potency to act and identification of the actor role

Sabine Frenzel, Matthias Schlesewsky, Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky
2015 Frontiers in Psychology  
The inference of causality is a crucial cognitive ability and language processing is no exception: recent research suggests that, across different languages, the human language comprehension system attempts  ...  This identification can take place verb-independently based on certain prominence cues (e.g., case, word order, animacy).  ...  This research was supported, in parts, by grants from the German Research Foundation (DFG; BO 2471/3-2) and the German state of Hesse (Loewe Program). We would like to thank Prof. em.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00001 pmid:25688217 pmcid:PMC4311632 fatcat:xg2cryn2rjfjtk226bm7qo7ste

The neural basis of predicate-argument structure

James R Hurford
2003 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
In vision these are the dorsal and ventral pathways. In audition, similarly separable "where" and "what" pathways exist.  ...  Vision and audition research in primates and humans shows two independent neural pathways; one locates objects in body-centered space, the other attributes properties, such as colour, to objects.  ...  correlates for the ventral and dorsal pathways.  ... 
pmid:14968690 fatcat:k277a435q5fhlhoraoi5w6qhzm

A Continuous Semantic Space Describes the Representation of Thousands of Object and Action Categories across the Human Brain

Alexander G. Huth, Shinji Nishimoto, An T. Vu, Jack L. Gallant
2012 Neuron  
Humans can see and name thousands of distinct object and action categories, so it is unlikely that each category is represented in a distinct brain area.  ...  A more efficient scheme would be to represent categories as locations in a continuous semantic space mapped smoothly across the cortical surface.  ...  We thank Natalia Bilenko and Tolga Ç ukur for helping with fMRI data collection, Neil Thompson for assistance with the WordNet analysis, and Tom Griffiths and Neuron Semantic Representation in the Human  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.10.014 pmid:23259955 pmcid:PMC3556488 fatcat:no3uxwjtjzhefj5uxgq63oer4u

Attention Selectively Reshapes the Geometry of Distributed Semantic Representation

Samuel A. Nastase, Andrew C. Connolly, Nikolaas N. Oosterhof, Yaroslav O. Halchenko, J. Swaroop Guntupalli, Matteo Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Jason Gors, M. Ida Gobbini, James V. Haxby
2017 Cerebral Cortex  
Attending to animal taxonomy while viewing the same stimuli increased the discriminability of distributed animal category representations in ventral temporal cortex.  ...  Attending to animal behavior transiently increased the discriminability of distributed population codes for observed actions in anterior intraparietal, pericentral, and ventral temporal cortices.  ...  Notes We thank Kelsey Wheeler for help in collecting the video stimuli, Courtney Rogers for administrative support, and Nikolaus Kriegeskorte for providing many helpful comments in an open review.  ... 
doi:10.1093/cercor/bhx138 pmid:28591837 fatcat:6oaepx7zuzcvhn4hmsbrgtxmxa
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