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Testability and validity of WCAG 2.0

Giorgio Brajnik, Yeliz Yesilada, Simon Harper
2010 Proceedings of the 12th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on Computers and accessibility - ASSETS '10  
Further, we discuss the validity of the evaluations generated by these inspectors and look at the differences in validity due to expertise.  ...  Further, testability of WCAG 2.0 criteria is achieved if 80% of knowledgeable inspectors agree that the criteria has been met or not.  ...  Acknowledgments and Experimental Data We would like to thank all the experts that we contacted, and especially those who contributed to this study.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1878803.1878813 dblp:conf/assets/BrajnikYH10 fatcat:bvwozsjat5eblepwpewbj2g3bm

Is accessibility conformance an elusive property? A study of validity and reliability of WCAG 2.0

Giorgio Brajnik, Yeliz Yesilada, Simon Harper
2012 ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing  
The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 separate testing into both "Machine" and "Human" audits; and further classify "Human Testability" into "Reliably Human Testable" and "Not Reliably Testable  ...  Further, trained-but novice-evaluators performing the same audits exhibited the same agreement to that of our more experienced ones, but a reduction on validity of 6-13%; the validity that an untrained  ...  Many thanks also to the students of the course "Progettazione di siti web 2009-2010". Data of this study can be found at http://www.dimi.uniud.it/giorgio/projects/wcag20/experiment-wcag20-2010.tgz.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2141943.2141946 fatcat:kmrbskhk35byrhuzszsirrqviu

Accessibility 2.0

Brian Kelly, David Sloan, Stephen Brown, Jane Seale, Helen Petrie, Patrick Lauke, Simon Ball
2007 Proceedings of the 2007 international cross-disciplinary conference on Web accessibility (W4A) - W4A '07  
Further activities continue to focus on technical developments, with current discussions exploring the potential merits of use of Semantic Web and Web 2.0 approaches.  ...  of the end user and the Web developer.  ...  This means creating a framework where technical guidance WCAG 1.0, and potentially WCAG 2.0, has a valid and valuable role to play within a wider context, and encouraging defining context such that it  ... 
doi:10.1145/1243441.1243471 dblp:conf/w4a/KellySBSPLB07 fatcat:5zabrp4fk5b73gi3rd4xnd6pxq

Validity and reliability of web accessibility guidelines

Giorgio Brajnik
2009 Proceeding of the eleventh international ACM SIGACCESS conference on Computers and accessibility - ASSETS '09  
This paper presents an experiment aimed at finding out what is the validity and reliability of different checkpoints taken from WCAG 1.0 and WCAG 2.0.  ...  WCAG 2.0 explicitly claim that they are based on "testable" criteria, but no scientific evidence exists that this is actually the case.  ...  Acknowledgments Many thanks to my students who participated to this study, and to Giulio Darrigo who managed to set up instruction pages and spreadsheets, and helped me collecting the data.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1639642.1639666 dblp:conf/assets/Brajnik09 fatcat:amfoayykcjdklhbura2lamregy

Evaluation of the effectiveness of a tool to support novice auditors

Christopher Bailey, Elaine Pearson
2012 Proceedings of the International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility - W4A '12  
The results of the evaluations carried out by the novices yielded promising levels of validity and reliability.  ...  Quantitative and qualitative data from the experiment support continued use of the AEA in an educational context, highlighting the benefits compared to WCAG 2.0 and gives further insight into the complex  ...  These finding are supported by Brajnik [12] who evaluated the testability and validity of WCAG 2.0 with both experts and nonexperts.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2207016.2207044 dblp:conf/w4a/BaileyP12 fatcat:y7xjnuxphjgytpzvhef5xvnk7m

Measuring and comparing the reliability of the structured walkthrough evaluation method with novices and experts

Christopher Bailey, Elaine Pearson, Voula Gkatzidou
2014 Proceedings of the 11th Web for All Conference on - W4A '14  
The results of the evaluations carried out by novices yielded promising, consistent levels of validity and reliability.  ...  There is also a significant expertise and evaluator effect. The Structured Walkthrough method is the translation of a manual, expert accessibility evaluation process adapted for use by novices.  ...  These finding are supported by a study that evaluated the testability and validity of WCAG 2.0 with both experts and nonexperts [10] .  ... 
doi:10.1145/2596695.2596696 dblp:conf/w4a/BaileyPG14 fatcat:zdc5mce6brgd7hfrn6medy2ita

An analysis of the use of the web-accessibility validator

Łukasz Krawiec
2017 Communiation Papers of the 2017 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems  
The paper is a continuation of the study of the website validation [1].  ...  Then there is briefly characterized proposal of validators evaluation criteria for studying web-accessibility and present a list of selected tools in this way.  ...  Each of the above validators uses the WCAG 2.0 standard as the main platform of reference.  ... 
doi:10.15439/2017f456 dblp:conf/fedcsis/Krawiec17 fatcat:c7pfek2uzfb2dk2dptzt7t4t3y

Development and trial of an educational tool to support the accessibility evaluation process

Christopher Bailey, Elaine Pearson
2011 Proceedings of the International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility - W4A '11  
Some initial conclusions about the reliability and validity of the method and the pedagogical implications of the tool are presented.  ...  to validate the method.  ...  These finding are supported by Brajnik [9] who evaluated the testability and validity of WCAG 2.0 with both experts and non-experts.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1969289.1969293 dblp:conf/w4a/BaileyP11 fatcat:wq4y5ce6frbhbljyyicjj4gf7i

GroupvsIndividual Web Accessibility Evaluations: Effects with Novice Evaluators

Giorgio Brajnik, Markel Vigo, Yeliz Yesilada, Simon Harper
2016 Interacting with computers  
Members of groups exhibited strong agreement on the evaluation results among them and with the group outcome. Other measures of validity and reliability are not significantly affected by group-work.  ...  Later on they were matched randomly to constitute a group of two and they were asked to revise their initial assessment and to produce a group assessment of the same page.  ...  For example, when considering the expertise effect on barrier walkthrough and WCAG 2.0 conformance review 1 it was found that expecting agreement at the 80% level, which was a level suggested for human  ... 
doi:10.1093/iwc/iww006 fatcat:boennr7zibdtzph2qtsdasn7du

Incorporating Accessibility Elements to the Software Engineering Process

Wesley Tessaro Andrade, Rodrigo Gonçalves de Branco, Maria Istela Cagnin, Débora Maria Barroso Paiva
2018 Advances in Human-Computer Interaction  
Accessibility is one of these challenges and it is related to the digital inclusion and social welfare of the population.  ...  Results were evaluated and we concluded that the use of the proposal reached the objectives, supporting different stages of the development process and contributing to obtain accessible software products  ...  Acknowledgments The authors thank CAPES and FUNDECT (T.O. 102/2016) for financial support.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2018/1389208 fatcat:eoqzlh624raojjunksle2lp4ry

Legal and Regulatory Update: Does your website comply with legal requirements for accessibility?

Ardi Kolah
2005 Journal of Direct Data and Digital Marketing Practice  
The founding father of the internet, Tim  ...  -A conformance claim of 'WCAG 2.0 AAA' can be made if all Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3 success criteria for all guidelines have been met.  ...  -A conformance claim of 'WCAG 2.0 A+' can be made if all Level 1 success criteria for all guidelines and some Level 2 success criteria have been met.  ... 
doi:10.1057/palgrave.dddmp.4340506 fatcat:rrrlk6zasvbglbngefw6kzdxfy

Assessing Usability and Accessibility of Indian Tourism Websites for Visually Impaired

Gaurav Agrawal, Ankur Dumka, Mayank Singh, Anchit Bijalwan, Pradeep Kumar Singh
2022 Journal of Sensors  
The accessibility evaluation was done to check the compliance of Web Content Accessibility Guideline version 2.0 by the tourism website using the automated tool TAW.  ...  One of the greatest barriers they face is the lack of accessible and usable information on the Internet, which thwarts their travel plans.  ...  of the websites passed the WCAG 2.0 accessibility test.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2022/4433013 fatcat:xm7nxdhpkfg6liz2kih35ac66u

Evaluating the accessibility of public health websites: An exploratory cross-country study

Nancy Alajarmeh
2021 Universal Access in the Information Society  
However, to leverage the benefits of such resources for the widest demographic groups, Web accessibility requirements should be met at an acceptable level (e.g., WCAG 2.0, Level AA).  ...  with regards to the perception of information and operability of the interface items.  ...  This is due to the nature of technology and content; both are in a continual evolution. The currently valid working standards are WCAG 2.0 and WCAG 2.1.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10209-020-00788-7 pmid:33526996 pmcid:PMC7838847 fatcat:kgfpfqccx5bwbdfz5egbk7qiuq

Conceptualization Approach for Accessibility-Aware Framework

Saqib Ali, Taiseera Al Balushi, Ali Al-Badi
2013 Communications of the IBIMA  
A majority of web based information and services are inaccessible to people with certain disabilities, largely due to a lack of awareness of accessibility issues on the part of composers and developers  ...  The approach provides guidelines for web developers and composers in the development of accessible web solutions.  ...  Acknowledgments The research leading to these results has received research project grant funding from the Research Council of the Sultanate of Oman Research Grant Agreement No [ORG SQU ICT 10 004].  ... 
doi:10.5171/2013.477923 fatcat:4wt5cymgxrghvjasxyi7nv5sjy

Forcing standardization or accommodating diversity?

Brian Kelly, David Sloan, Lawrie Phipps, Helen Petrie, Fraser Hamilton
2005 Proceedings of the 2005 International Cross-Disciplinary Workshop on Web Accessibility (W4A) - W4A '05  
However it is argued that in the context of evaluation and policymaking, inappropriate reference to the WCAG may lead to serious practical difficulties in implementation and monitoring of an effective  ...  In particular, the current promotion of W3C technologies at the expense of widely used and accessible proprietary technologies may be problematic, as is the apparent reliance of the WCAG on compliant browsing  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to Andy Judson and Lorna Gibson for their advice and comments in the writing of this paper. 10.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1061811.1061820 dblp:conf/w4a/KellySPPH05 fatcat:2jwdfthpwfekzaliucgjcadyby
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