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What's Left of the Left: Democrats and Social Democrats in Challenging Times

David Bailey
<span title="">2012</span> <i title="Informa UK Limited"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2lfq64vxd5eplkx2dmdvzyieay" style="color: black;">West European Politics</a> </i> &nbsp;
advocating more "big government" and "tax-and-spend liberalism."  ...  To become competitive again, these "New Democrats" wanted their party to shed its tax-and-spend image and promote a leaner, more efficient government.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2012.706422">doi:10.1080/01402382.2012.706422</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/y7no63xgr5anbb56eqeygfus4y">fatcat:y7no63xgr5anbb56eqeygfus4y</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190427225547/http://oapen.org/download?type=document&amp;docid=1004318" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2012.706422"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> tandfonline.com </button> </a>

Neoliberal Urbanism and the Assault Against Public Services and Workers in Toronto, 2006-2011

Carlo Fanelli
<span title="2014-03-07">2014</span> <i title="OpenEdition"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/wflrsfmtgvh6zkxx7vevrcbtra" style="color: black;">Articulo: Journal of Urban Research</a> </i> &nbsp;
...While the day brought some compromise, the Mayor worked from the onset to draw a sharp ideological line among Council members, characterizing his critics as ‘tax-and-spend socialists’.  ...  split shifts, variable schedules, as well as casual and seasonal employment.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.4000/articulo.2380">doi:10.4000/articulo.2380</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/s6ainyr46vha3adlu3gmsoj5k4">fatcat:s6ainyr46vha3adlu3gmsoj5k4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220423075201/https://journals.openedition.org/articulo/2380" title="fulltext access" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [HTML] </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.4000/articulo.2380"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

The Architecture of Smart Intelligence: Structuring and Overseeing Agencies in the Post-9/11 World

Anne Joseph O'Connell
<span title="2006-12-01">2006</span> <i title="JSTOR"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2mo5nmz5jra7xgtiatcgc2mktq" style="color: black;">California Law Review</a> </i> &nbsp;
Weisbach & Jacob Nussim, The Integration of Tax and Spending Programs, 113 YALE L.J. 955 (2004) (first perspective), and Nancy Staudt, Redundant Tax and Spending Programs, 100 Nw. U. L.  ...  For an example of a similar framework (costs and benefits to specialization and coordination in tax and spending programs), see Weisbach & Nussim, supra note 14. 193.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2307/20439079">doi:10.2307/20439079</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/edlwmjdvvzflfobrkvrx5auvea">fatcat:edlwmjdvvzflfobrkvrx5auvea</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190429022143/https://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2716&amp;context=facpubs" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/30/de/30dee409e9e6501842ebe960e4729033d606f2c4.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2307/20439079"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> jstor.org </button> </a>

Revenue Sharing Arrangements: Options and Relative Merits (The Mahbub ul Haq Memorial Lecture)

Vito Tanzi
<span title="2010-12-01">2010</span> <i title="Pakistan Institute of Developemnt Economics (PIDE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/73eroif4wfeo7eckfipzg6w4zq" style="color: black;">Pakistan Development Review</a> </i> &nbsp;
popularity of socialism; and (c) the creation of the United Nations, an event that gave a global voice to the citizens of lowincome countries and that provided statistics that, for the first time pointed  ...  The decades immediately after World War Two saw: (a) the spreading of ideas, rightly or wrongly attributed to John Maynard Keynes, that called for a larger government role in the economy; (b) the growing  ...  The table shows the continuing great predominance of national governments in both taxing and spending. II.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.30541/v49i4ipp.311-332">doi:10.30541/v49i4ipp.311-332</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/odzbnidwbbfrffx4b4azcu7abq">fatcat:odzbnidwbbfrffx4b4azcu7abq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190428024127/http://thepdr.pk/pdr/index.php/pdr/article/download/2404/2404" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/4a/64/4a6428da014ee7351001dbe9002518a91b6df4a8.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.30541/v49i4ipp.311-332"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Urban Governance and Finance in India

M. Govinda Rao, Richard M. Bird
<span title="">2010</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/tol7woxlqjeg5bmzadeg6qrg3e" style="color: black;">Social Science Research Network</a> </i> &nbsp;
Not only must adequate finance for the provision of services be found but it is critical to ensure that the money spent results in desired outputs and outcomes.  ...  However, neither urban infrastructure nor the level of urban public services is adequate for current needs, let alone to meet growing demands. Dealing with this problem is a formidable challenge.  ...  All taxing and spending decisions are made at one level.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1568858">doi:10.2139/ssrn.1568858</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/fmmuphjztjh3za7rzrjvopseei">fatcat:fmmuphjztjh3za7rzrjvopseei</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170922221854/http://www.nipfp.org.in/media/medialibrary/2013/04/wp_2010_68.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/79/f2/79f22e2a306e9e00ac8ad88951030cd1908f5875.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1568858"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ssrn.com </button> </a>

Truman and the Democratic Party

<span title="1997-10-01">1997</span> <i title="American Library Association"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/pjjljho22jhnrmpk3k2jxhxzv4" style="color: black;">ChoiceReviews</a> </i> &nbsp;
and spending cuts and passage of the Taft-Hartley Act.  ...  Chicagoans increasingly complained about the deteriorating quality ofpublic education, garbage collection, and public transportation.  ...  While Truman's greatest strengths and accomplishments as a party leader were his efforts for what he perceived to be his party's long-term ideological, programmatic, and electoral welfare, his greatest  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5860/choice.35-1109">doi:10.5860/choice.35-1109</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/cdw7i7mpdndehpj4oi5wrrgkoy">fatcat:cdw7i7mpdndehpj4oi5wrrgkoy</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200507020708/https://uknowledge.uky.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1003&amp;context=upk_political_science_american_politics" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/97/85/9785f6ba13be8b69d5f427f28b817a00f547984a.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5860/choice.35-1109"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

A Roadmap to Municipal Reform: Improving Life in Canadian Cities

Benjamin Dachis
<span title="">2018</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/tol7woxlqjeg5bmzadeg6qrg3e" style="color: black;">Social Science Research Network</a> </i> &nbsp;
Grants mean that voters do not know which level of government is responsible for taxing and spending.  ...  Poorly designed institutions create the wrong incentives for local officials to get the tax and spending mix right.  ...  Municipalities then spend the reserves over time, as the city gradually expands the services for which it collected fees. The needed infrastructure is not always developed on a timely basis.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3273008">doi:10.2139/ssrn.3273008</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/33tlbldhsvhazhjkjenlcr6zam">fatcat:33tlbldhsvhazhjkjenlcr6zam</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190618192823/https://www.cdhowe.org/sites/default/files/attachments/research_papers/mixed/Book_Road%20Map_Final_web.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/8d/ca/8dca021986b224a7249a926344721bc7b1ab2015.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3273008"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ssrn.com </button> </a>

The Illusion of Fiscal Illusion in Regulatory Takings

Bethany Berger
<span title="">2015</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/tol7woxlqjeg5bmzadeg6qrg3e" style="color: black;">Social Science Research Network</a> </i> &nbsp;
The main economic justification for compensating owners for losses from land use restrictions is based on a surprising mistake.  ...  and spending, where both economic effects and competing priorities are more evident.  ...  determining the rules and whether individual owners comply with them, will be responsible for distributing funds between schools, police, garbage collection, or the many other demands on municipal revenues  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2689954">doi:10.2139/ssrn.2689954</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/sgtdnypwbreptm2xbifus377rq">fatcat:sgtdnypwbreptm2xbifus377rq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200307065459/https://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1969&amp;context=aulr" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/ce/f0/cef001d976bf7541f2a264f1ff915bf520dae4cd.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2689954"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ssrn.com </button> </a>

Surrender: how the Clinton administration completed the Reagan revolution

<span title="1999-04-01">1999</span> <i title="American Library Association"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/pjjljho22jhnrmpk3k2jxhxzv4" style="color: black;">ChoiceReviews</a> </i> &nbsp;
What was remarkable, however, was not that failure but his ability to deliver on his promises on taxes and spending.  ...  The traditional tools for ‹ghting in›ation involve restrictive ‹scal (taxing and spending) policy and restrictive monetary (interest rate) policy.  ...  [T]he real value (purchasing power) of the dollar which would enable the United States to balance its trade has decreased steadily over time. . . . the response of U.S. exports to foreign income growth  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5860/choice.36-4596">doi:10.5860/choice.36-4596</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/tknifv6grvgwzfaifsel7cupa4">fatcat:tknifv6grvgwzfaifsel7cupa4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201107232809/https://library.oapen.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.12657/23997/1006137.pdf;jsessionid=E25D6398A2BF6C5909A4D3D7921ED2E2?sequence=1" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5860/choice.36-4596"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Abstracts of Working Papers in Economics

<span title="">1994</span> <i title="Cambridge University Press (CUP)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/4tkopougvzf6diwaascartbc2u" style="color: black;">Abstracts of Working Papers in Economics</a> </i> &nbsp;
AB Increasing urban and environmental demands for water have led to widespread calls for reform of the existing water allocation system in California.  ...  In this paper we advance a new framework for noncooperative, multilateral bargaining that can be used to conceptualize the negotiation process.  ...  AB Estimates are made, from time series data on real gross domestic products, of the standard deviations of returns in markets for perpetual claims on countries' incomes.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1017/s0951007900004149">doi:10.1017/s0951007900004149</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/enpbondewbgibkktwlz63dd6lm">fatcat:enpbondewbgibkktwlz63dd6lm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200313050754/https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/B3A279A16AAA7D294F5957A212F5C3FD/S0951007900004149a.pdf/div-class-title-abstracts-of-working-papers-in-economics-div.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/07/c8/07c8605fa93172fd14db90929b4577bb8172ac2e.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1017/s0951007900004149"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> cambridge.org </button> </a>

Local Income Taxation in the United States with Special Reference to the State of Ohio

Arthur D. Lynn
<span title="">1956</span> <i title="JSTOR"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ykgikrluhvhshcs6aeciz7errq" style="color: black;">Journal of Finance</a> </i> &nbsp;
Anti-cyclical fiscal policy relies upon the conscious, planned utilization of governmental taxing and spending powers to achieve particular goals,^Modification of the progression of the tax system as a  ...  Such part as Council may from time to time appropriate for the settlement and compromise of city employees back pay 3-Such part as Council may from time to time appropriate for the settlement repair  ...  would in all probability produce little or no add itional revenue, or may even cause a loss* The maximum amount that could be collected from this excluded class would be only $10*1|0 per r e a s o n  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2307/2976534">doi:10.2307/2976534</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/eah6eusz5fh5pkpd7wnghw36au">fatcat:eah6eusz5fh5pkpd7wnghw36au</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190426113115/https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=osu1486396542268&amp;disposition=inline" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/04/e4/04e40b63f7ecc542b239aed3a4ea510dd6e73945.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2307/2976534"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> jstor.org </button> </a>

STATE INDIVIDUAL INCOME TAX CONFORMITY IN PRACTICE: EVIDENCE FROM THE TAX CUTS & JOBS ACT

Amy B. Monahan
<span title="2020-07-13">2020</span>
The study illustrates that conformity imposes significant time constraints on state legislatures, conformity causes not only revenue shocks, but tax policy shocks, and even where state revenue is kept  ...  This widespread incorporation has many supporters and has been justified on the basis that it is necessary in order for states to have a simple and efficient tax system.  ...  and spending.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.7916/cjtl.v11i1.6679">doi:10.7916/cjtl.v11i1.6679</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/gkgqfh2wbzcnxcwilbxd5w7vzu">fatcat:gkgqfh2wbzcnxcwilbxd5w7vzu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200717021424/https://journals.library.columbia.edu/index.php/taxlaw/article/download/6679/3459" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/7f/d9/7fd9d45c4daf6337f27aeb08e4e9aeca2f8a5306.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.7916/cjtl.v11i1.6679"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Space Junk [chapter]

Alice Gorman
<span title="">2020</span> <i title="Open Book Publishers"> Earth 2020 </i> &nbsp;
Earth Day in 1970, mainstream economics had well-defined disciplines studying labor markets, international trade and public sector finance (i.e. government tax and spending policy).  ...  The problem I had been grappling with was to estimate, in near real time, the death toll from such heat waves.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.11647/obp.0193.27">doi:10.11647/obp.0193.27</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/zadldbhlm5b2xhfx7tpaq7bx74">fatcat:zadldbhlm5b2xhfx7tpaq7bx74</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200311111253/https://www.openbookpublishers.com/10.11647/OBP.0193.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/33/4b/334bac0924346a4e11bf06242aa8dfec4976e4b9.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.11647/obp.0193.27"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

America's Mayors: Who Serves and How Mayors Shape Policy

Patricia A. Kirkland
<span title="2017-08-14">2017</span>
Responsible for funding and providing essential services, municipal governments have a huge impact on the public's safety and quality of life.  ...  Business owners and executives are especially well represented in American city halls, accounting for about 32% candidates and mayors.  ...  and differences in party control are associated with contrasting policies, particularly on issues concerning taxing and spending (Mc-Carty, Poole and Rosenthal 2006; Bartels 2008).Lee, Moretti and Butler  ... 
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Exit, Voice, and Loyalty under Municipal Decline: A Difference-in-Difference Analysis in Japan by

Josh Osowski, Jung Yun, Alex Ingrams, Amber Williams, Dongyoen Kang, Hasan Shuaib, Huafang Li, Javier Fuezalida, Margaret Riccardelli, Rusi Sun, Shilpa Viswanath, Shuyang Peng (+5 others)
<span title="">2016</span> <span class="release-stage">unpublished</span>
Data were collected from 600 randomly sampled citizens of Ohwani and Inakadate, with a response rate of 44%.  ...  The estimation approach in the second quantitative phase was a unique difference-indifference (DID) design with a time difference enabled by a careful retrospective measurement.  ...  Rhode and Strumpf (2003) , for example, find decreasing heterogeneity of local tax and spending variations and resident characteristics, (e.g., race, age, education, religion, party vote shares, income  ... 
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