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Task Interaction in an HTN Planner [article]

Ilče Georgievski, Alexander Lazovik, Marco Aiello
2011 arXiv   pre-print
In order to reason effectively, an HTN planner needs expressive domain knowledge.  ...  Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) planning uses task decomposition to plan for an executable sequence of actions as a solution to a problem.  ...  Although our idea is similar to theirs, we use less constrained task to task interaction in an HTN planning. Hence, we consider two types of tasks, methods and operators.  ... 
arXiv:1111.7025v1 fatcat:zroc52iaojap5h5jnigvt7opjq

An Overview of Hierarchical Task Network Planning [article]

Ilche Georgievski, Marco Aiello
2014 arXiv   pre-print
However, the history of almost 40 years obfuscates the current understanding of HTN planning in terms of accomplishments, planning models, similarities and differences among hierarchical planners, and  ...  Second, we provide a set of concepts that helps to interpret HTN planners from the aspect of their search space.  ...  In the following list, we provide a general description of harmful interactions found in HTN planners. • Deleted-condition interaction -appears when a primitive task in one part of a task network deletes  ... 
arXiv:1403.7426v1 fatcat:alqqtduit5gyxodbqgbjnvsoue

HTN planning: Overview, comparison, and beyond

Ilche Georgievski, Marco Aiello
2015 Artificial Intelligence  
We thank Eirini Kaldeli for the useful feedback on an earlier version of the paper.  ...  Acknowledgements We are deeply in debt to Austin Tate for the proactive and attentive stance toward this work, and for valuable comments on Nonlin and O-Plan2.  ...  In the following list, we provide a general description of harmful interactions found in HTN planners. • Deleted-condition interaction -appears when a primitive task in one part of a task network deletes  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.artint.2015.02.002 fatcat:liw5deufezetbj57i7xcbuegyy

A comparative analysis of partial order planning and task reduction planning

Subbarao Kambhampati
1995 ACM SIGART Bulletin  
In this paper I will describe a generalized algorithm template for partial order planning based on refinement search, and extend it to cover HTN planning.  ...  Although task reduction (HTN) planning historically preceded partial order (PO) planning, and is believed to be more general than the latter, very little comparative analysis of the two planning formalisms  ...  Specifically, we can define the reduction level of a task in an HTN plan as the number of reductions that were done to introduce that task into the plan.  ... 
doi:10.1145/202187.202192 fatcat:i3k664l4oje3lmrnnjgcpc4rta

What Planner for Ambient Intelligence Applications?

F. Amigoni, N. Gatti, C. Pinciroli, M. Roveri
2005 IEEE transactions on systems, man and cybernetics. Part A. Systems and humans  
Moreover, we present some of the experimental results that validated the proposed planner in a realistic application scenario in which an AmI system monitors and answers the needs of a diabetic patient  ...  In this paper we propose a planning system for AmI applications, based on the Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) approach and called D-HTN, able to find courses of actions to address given goals.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their useful comments, Federico Moro and Chiara Pascali for the fruitful discussions that generated the idea of D-HTN planner, and Alessandro  ... 
doi:10.1109/tsmca.2004.838465 fatcat:dlceo3xvfbfsxgujvx2mooh3ki

Expressivity of STRIPS-Like and HTN-Like Planning [chapter]

Marián Lekavý, Pavol Návrat
2007 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This would mean that a HTN-like planner can generally solve more domains than a STRIPS-like planner with the same extensions.  ...  It is widely believed, that the expressivity of STRIPS and STRIPS-like planning based on actions is generally lower than the expressivity of Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) and HTN-like planning, based  ...  HTN-like planners have an important role in planning for multi-agent systems.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-72830-6_13 fatcat:imhgvjw3vreqtkkdugbikm3vrq

A Human-Aware Task Planner Explicitly Reasoning About Human and Robot Decision, Action and Reaction

Guilhem Buisan, Rachid Alami
2021 Companion of the 2021 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction  
The complexity of the tasks autonomous robots can tackle is constantly increasing, yet we seldom see robots interacting with humans to perform tasks.  ...  We present the rationale of our approach along with a formalization and show its potential on an illustrative example involving the assembly of a table by a robot and a human.  ...  In this work, the human task is modeled in order to evaluate an interactive system, ensuring that at any state, any possible human action is supported by the system.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3434074.3447231 fatcat:xagw7vbrs5br3ckqdewdasrtli

Using Guidelines to Constrain Interactive Case-Based HTN Planning [chapter]

Héctor Muñoz-Avila, Daniel C. McFarlane, David W. Aha, Len Breslow, ‡James A. Ballas, Dana S. Nau
1999 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
By selecting tasks corresponding to the hierarchy's leaf nodes, users can activate the conversational case-based planner to interactively re ne guideline tasks into a concrete plan.  ...  It integrates a hierarchical task editor with a conversational case-based planner.  ...  When given a task T to re ne by HTE, NaCoDAE HTN uses T as an index for initial case retrieval and conducts an interactive conversation, which ends when the user selects a case C = hl;T;N;Pi.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-48508-2_21 fatcat:br3o2occujel5jqbjtmxj5pmky

Believable NPCs in serious games: HTN planning approach based on visual perception

Ibrahim M. Mahmoud, Lianchao Li, Dieter Wloka, Mostafa Z. Ali
2014 2014 IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games  
Five modules were developed in this part; Controller, World Model, Domain, Interface and HTN Planner.  ...  Secondly, an HTN planning approach is implemented based on SHOP for the domain of our serious game.  ...  The HTN implementation is an extension of C# Unity3D HTN-Planner (CUHP) [19] , which is based on Dana Nau's Pyhop implementation (an HTN-Planner written in Python) [20] that provides a basic implementation  ... 
doi:10.1109/cig.2014.6932891 dblp:conf/cig/MahmoudLWA14 fatcat:24h5h44bpzcozj6xnm5tnthpjm

Applications of SHOP and SHOP2

D. Nau, Tsz-Chiu Au, O. Ilghami, U. Kuter, H. Munoz-Avila, J.W. Murdock, D. Wu, F. Yaman
2005 IEEE Intelligent Systems  
HTN planners perform this search by applying HTN methods, which are essentially forms that describe how to decompose tasks into subtasks.  ...  Unlike most other HTN planners, SHOP and SHOP2 use a search-control strategy called ordered task decomposition, which breaks tasks into subtasks and generates the plan's actions in the same order that  ...  The opinions expressed in this paper are the authors' and do not necessarily reflect those of the funders.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mis.2005.20 fatcat:hcia6quokrfl5fc5ayk6mroxoq

HATP: An HTN Planner for Robotics [article]

Raphaël Lallement and Lavindra de Silva and Rachid Alami
2014 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper we present the HATP (Hierarchical Agent-based Task Planner) planning framework which extends the traditional HTN planning domain representation and semantics by making them more suitable  ...  This provides an intuitive methodology for specifying high-level instructions on how robots and agents should perform tasks, while also giving the planner enough flexibility to choose the lower-level steps  ...  In this paper we describe the HATP (Hierarchical Agentbased Task Planner) HTN planner and show how it is partic-ularly suited for use in robotics.  ... 
arXiv:1405.5345v2 fatcat:jc7pbsogqfca3m4qb6x7ca5q6y

Preference-Guided Planning: An Active Elicitation Approach [article]

Mayukh Das, Phillip Odom, Md. Rakibul Islam, Janardhan Rao Doppa, Dan Roth, Sriraam Natarajan
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Specifically, we study this problem in the context of the Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) planning framework as it allows easy interaction with the human.  ...  However, it may be difficult for the human expert to supply this information without knowledge of the reasoning employed by the planner and the distribution of planning problems.  ...  HTN Planning: An HTN planner [13] , one of the well-known neoclassical planners, searches for valid plans in the space of tasks and sub-tasks by recursively decomposing the current task into sub-tasks  ... 
arXiv:1804.07404v1 fatcat:dyx3c4qdwfeitgubueb2ovylpa

The Shop Planning System

Dana S. Nau, Yue Cao, Amnon Lotem, Héctor Muñoz-Avila
2001 The AI Magazine  
SHOP is powerful enough that an implementation of it is being used as an embedded planner in the Naval Research Laboratory's HICAP system.  ...  The SHOP algorithm is a hierarchical task network (HTN) planning algorithm, but it differs from other HTN planning algorithms in that SHOP plans for tasks in the same order that they will be executed.  ...  SHOP is powerful enough that an implementation of it is being used as an embedded planner in the Naval Research Laboratory's HICAP system.  ... 
doi:10.1609/aimag.v22i3.1580 dblp:journals/aim/NauCLM01 fatcat:2p2ccfir45etnfpy4upbvf7eke

Narrative-Centered Tutorial Planning for Inquiry-Based Learning Environments [chapter]

Bradford W. Mott, James C. Lester
2006 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The planner dynamically balances narrative and pedagogical goals while at the same time satisfying the real-time constraints of highly interactive learning environments.  ...  Recent years have seen growing interest in narrative-centered learning environments.  ...  Hierarchical task network (HTN) planners [6] have found a much broader use in fielded systems than competing approaches.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11774303_67 fatcat:dfofjrly4vcxdlbhurm4lzjene

Building long-term relationships with virtual and robotic characters: the role of remembering

Zerrin Kasap, Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann
2011 The Visual Computer  
In order to see the effect of remembering on users, we designed a tutoring application and measured the changes in social presence and task engagement levels according to the existence of memory.  ...  Our primary goal in this study was to develop a system that can still keep the attention of the users after the first interaction.  ...  A new episode is recorded whenever a new primitive task is selected by the HTN planner. Events happening during the achievement of a primitive task are stored in each episode.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00371-011-0630-7 fatcat:ctrjj54zzvg2jafoc4pwbpqscq
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