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Non-thermal vibrations in biased molecular junctions [article]

Tao Wang, Lei-Lei Nian, Jing-Tao Lü
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We study vibrational statistics in current-carrying model molecular junctions using master equation approach. Especially, we concentrate on the validity of using an effective temperature T_ eff to characterize the nonequilibrium steady state of a vibrational mode. We identify cases where a single T_ eff can not fully describe one vibrational state. In such cases, the probability distribution among different vibrational states does not follow the Boltzmann type. Consequently, the actual entropy
more » ... free energy) of the vibrational mode is lower (higher) than the corresponding thermal value given by T_ eff, indicating extra work can be extracted from these states. Our results will be useful for the study of non-thermal vibrational state in thermodynamics of nanoscale systems, and its usage in nanoscale heat engines.
arXiv:2003.09614v1 fatcat:lmxppoby6ferlf73imsgdt2fwq

supplemental materials.pdf

Jianzhou Long, Qingsong Pan', Nairong Tao, Lei Lu
2018 Figshare  
The measurement method of residual stress by X-ray diffraction.
doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.6326897 fatcat:m3vsnufdgbcjvap5ax7rguiw24

Small trees in supercritical random forests [article]

Tao Lei
2017 arXiv   pre-print
We study the scaling limit of random forest with prescribed degree sequence in the regime that the largest tree consists of all but a vanishing fraction of nodes. We give a description of the limit of the forest consisting of the small trees, by relating plane forest to marked cyclic forest and its corresponding lattice path.
arXiv:1710.02744v1 fatcat:feq3sjn2fbbyzklhxrfktkper4

supplemental materials.pdf

Jianzhou Long, Qingsog Pan, Nairong Tao, Lei Lu
2018 Figshare  
Schematic illustrations of the residual stress measurement by X-ray diffraction
doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.6263930.v1 fatcat:ewudlzxkpbe3pg2k5j7gw4eota

Nanostructures in superhydrophobic Ti6Al4V hierarchical surfaces control wetting state transitions

Yizhou Shen, Jie Tao, Haijun Tao, Shanlong Chen, Lei Pan, Tao Wang
2015 Soft Matter  
This paper mainly reports the wetting state of liquid droplets on a Ti6Al4V micro–nanoscale hierarchical structured hydrophobic surface.
doi:10.1039/c5sm00024f pmid:25855128 fatcat:mvlxv4xp5bdhbjyhnjocxazh5a

A Model of Anisotropic Property of Seepage and Stress for Jointed Rock Mass

Pei-tao Wang, Tian-hong Yang, Tao Xu, Qing-lei Yu, Hong-lei Liu
2013 Journal of Applied Mathematics  
Joints often have important effects on seepage and elastic properties of jointed rock mass and therefore on the rock slope stability. In the present paper, a model for discrete jointed network is established using contact-free measurement technique and geometrical statistic method. A coupled mathematical model for characterizing anisotropic permeability tensor and stress tensor was presented and finally introduced to a finite element model. A case study of roadway stability at the Heishan Metal
more » ... Mine in Hebei Province, China, was performed to investigate the influence of joints orientation on the anisotropic properties of seepage and elasticity of the surrounding rock mass around roadways in underground mining. In this work, the influence of the principal direction of the mechanical properties of the rock mass on associated stress field, seepage field, and damage zone of the surrounding rock mass was numerically studied. The numerical simulations indicate that flow velocity, water pressure, and stress field are greatly dependent on the principal direction of joint planes. It is found that the principal direction of joints is the most important factor controlling the failure mode of the surrounding rock mass around roadways.
doi:10.1155/2013/420536 fatcat:zxdwjgmbm5f3pnvumdmoytelfq

Laparoscopic left hepatectomy in swine: a safe and feasible technique

Hua Zhang, Tao Liu, Yue Wang, Hai-feng Liu, Jian-tao Zhang, Yan-shuang Wu, Lei Lei, Hong-bin Wang
2014 Journal of Veterinary Science  
A purely laparoscopic four-port approach was created for left hepatectomy in pigs. A polyethylene loop was placed on the left two hepatic lobes for traction and lift. Next, penetrating ligation of the lobes using of a double row of silk sutures was performed to control bleeding. A direct hepatic transection was completed using a monopolar hook electrode without meticulous dissection of the left hepatic vein. The raw surface of the liver was coagulated and sealed with fibrin glue. Lobes were
more » ... ieved through an enlarged portal. Laparoscopic hepatic lobectomy was completed in all pigs without the use of specialized instruments and with a mean operative time of 179 ± 9 min. No significant perioperative complications were observed. The average weight of each resected lobe was 180 ± 51 g. Complete blood count as well as serum organics and enzyme levels normalized after about 2 weeks. During necropsy, adhesion of the hepatic raw surface to the gastric wall and omentum were observed. No other abnormalities were identified. This minimally invasive left hepatectomy technique in swine could serve as a useful model for investigating liver diseases and regeneration, and offer preclinical information to improve hepatobiliary surgical procedures.
doi:10.4142/jvs.2014.15.3.417 pmid:24962406 pmcid:PMC4178143 fatcat:xahnnhdd5vhz3hvzova6kzegyu

Rationalizing Neural Predictions [article]

Tao Lei, Regina Barzilay, Tommi Jaakkola
2016 arXiv   pre-print
(Weaver and Tao, 2001; Mnih et al., 2014; ).  ...  et al., 2015; Lei et al., 2016) compared to other alternatives such CNNs and LSTMs.  ... 
arXiv:1606.04155v2 fatcat:bncnf54fyjeyvggcjnuvegfkwq

Training Language Models with Memory Augmentation [article]

Zexuan Zhong, Tao Lei, Danqi Chen
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Recent work has improved language models remarkably by equipping them with a non-parametric memory component. However, most existing approaches only introduce memories at testing time, or represent them using a separately trained encoder – resulting in sub-optimal training of the language model. In this work, we present TRIME, a novel yet simple training approach designed for training language models with memory augmentation. Our approach uses a training objective that directly takes in-batch
more » ... amples as accessible memory. We also present new methods for memory construction and data batching, which are used for adapting to different sets of memories – local, long-term, and external memory – at testing time. We evaluate our approach on multiple language modeling and machine translation benchmarks. We find that simply replacing the vanilla language modeling objective by ours greatly reduces the perplexity, without modifying the model architecture or incorporating extra context (e.g., 18.70 → 17.76 on WikiText-103). We further augment language models with long-range contexts and external knowledge and demonstrate significant gains over previous memory-augmented approaches.
arXiv:2205.12674v1 fatcat:k4rfo2qkpzbfndynddfuz43ffu

Co-expression and Immunity of Legionella pneumophila mip Gene and Immunoadjuvant ctxB Gene

Tao WANG, Jian-Ping CHEN, Hong LI, Ke-Qian ZHI, Lei ZHANG, Chun-Lei YANG, Da-Chang TAO
2005 Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica  
The mip gene of Legionella pneumophila and the ctxB gene of Vibrio cholerae were amplified by PCR respectively. The amplified cDNA was ligated to the pcDNA3.1(+) vector. The recombinant plasmids pcDNA3.1-mip and pcDNA3.1-ctxB were identified by restriction analysis and PCR, and further confirmed by sequencing analysis. NIH3T3 cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1-mip and pcDNA3.1-ctxB according to the Lipofection method. Transient and stable products of the co-expression of the mip gene and ctxB
more » ... gene were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. The results showed that NIH3T3 cells were successfully transfected, and that the transiently and stably co-expressed products can be detected in the transfected cells. To detect the humoral and cellular immune response in immunized mice induced by the coimmunization of the mip and ctxB genes, female BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with pcDNA3.1mip and pcDNA3.1-ctxB. The results showed that the specific antibody titer and the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response for pcDNA3.1-mip immunization and co-immunization were increased compared with that of pcDNA3.1(+) immunization. Furthermore, the specific antibody titer and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response for co-immunization were increased compared with that of pcDNA3.1-mip immunization. Statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was a significant difference between the groups (P<0.01). The results indicated that the ctxB gene enhanced the humoral and cellular immune response to the mip gene immunization. These findings provide experimental evidence to support the development of the L. pneumophila DNA vaccine.
doi:10.1111/j.1745-7270.2005.00029.x pmid:15756423 fatcat:h7ukext5s5di5l76peg22unnhq

Patent Mining

Longhui Zhang, Lei Li, Tao Li
2015 SIGKDD Explorations  
doi:10.1145/2783702.2783704 fatcat:43nczn4devantgbroaoiljczz4

Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for Secure Communications in Large-Scale MIMO Relaying Systems [article]

Jian Chen, Xiaoming Chen, Tao Liu, Lei Lei
2014 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we address the problem of energy-efficient power allocation for secure communications in an amplify-and-forward (AF) large-scale multiple-input multiple-output (LS-MIMO) relaying system in presence of a passive eavesdropper. The benefits of an AF LS-MIMO relay are exploited to significantly improve the secrecy performance, especially the secrecy energy efficiency (bit per Joule). We first analyze the impact of transmit power at the relay on the secrecy outage capacity, and prove
more » ... hat the secrecy outage capacity is a concave function of transmit power under very practical assumptions, i.e. no eavesdropper channel state information (CSI) and imperfect legitimate CSI. Then, we propose an energy-efficient power allocation scheme to maximize the secrecy energy efficiency. Finally, simulation results validate the advantage of the proposed energy-efficient scheme compared to the capacity maximization scheme.
arXiv:1408.5566v1 fatcat:7g5pscohl5dbhlzlqomt4gj2ma

One Step Quantum Key Distribution Based on EPR Entanglement

Jian Li, Na Li, Lei-Lei Li, Tao Wang
2016 Scientific Reports  
A novel quantum key distribution protocol is presented, based on entanglement and dense coding and allowing asymptotically secure key distribution. Considering the storage time limit of quantum bits, a grouping quantum key distribution protocol is proposed, which overcomes the vulnerability of first protocol and improves the maneuverability. Moreover, a security analysis is given and a simple type of eavesdropper's attack would introduce at least an error rate of 46.875%. Compared with the
more » ... pong" protocol involving two steps, the proposed protocol does not need to store the qubit and only involves one step. The task of cryptograph is to ensure that only the legitimate users like Alice and Bob can read the secret message in the secure communication, which the unauthorized users like Eve cannot read. Researchers are dedicated to developing reliable and secure cryptographic protocols. With the rapid development of information technology and quantum physics 1 , quantum cryptography has become an important and attractive field. Quantum cryptography is based on the quantum mechanics, which is definitely different from the classical digital cryptographic system, and has much higher performance of security. With the rapid development of quantum mechanics in the past years, quantum information has been prosperous and fascinating. Quantum mechanics offers some unique capabilities for the processing of the information, such as quantum computation and quantum communication. In the last decade, scientists have made dramatic progress in the field of quantum communication. The quantum key distribution (QKD), which task is to create a private key between two remote authorized users, is one of the most remarkable applications of quantum mechanics. Importantly, Gottesman, Lo, Lütkenhaus and Preskill (henceforth referred to as GLLP) proved the security of QKD when Alice's and Bob's devices are flawed, as is the case in practical implementations 2 . In addition, a device-independent QKD (DI-QKD) and measurement-device-independent QKD (MDI-QKD) was proposed. MDI-QKD protocol is fully practicable with current technology and attracted a lot of scientific attention from theoretical side 3-7 . In 1984, C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard presented the pioneer quantum key distribution protocol, called BB84 protocol now 8 . This protocol has received lots of attention since it was come up. IBM and Montreal university first completed the experiment of quantum cryptography in 1989 9 , which verified the BB84 protocol from the aspect of experiment. In ref. 10, the communication distance extended to more than 1 km by use of polarized photons. Now the distance of key distribution can reach up to 200 km, and there are some other developments with quantum key distribution, such as refs 11-16. In recent years, a novel concept, quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) was put forward and studied by groups of researchers. It allows two remote parties to communicate directly without creating a private key in advance and using it to encrypt the secret message. Thus, the sender should confirm whether the channel is secure before he encodes his message on the quantum states because the message cannot be discarded, unlike that in QKD protocols. Many QSDC protocols have been proposed, including the protocols without using entanglement 17-19 , the protocols using entanglement 20-27 and the two-way QSDC protocols 28-37 . The QSDC protocol can also be used in some special environments as first proposed by Boström et al. 38 and Deng et al. 20 . In ref. 38, Boström and Felbinger presented a famous QSDC protocol which is called "Ping-pong" protocol. But researchers have found much vulnerability 39-42 in the "Ping-pong" protocol. A new quantum key distribution protocol was proposed in this paper, which based on entanglement and dense coding. However, in the new protocol, there is a serious problem that is the storage time limit during the actual operation. At present, the world record of quantum state storage time is only 3 ms at Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics. Considering the storage time limit, a grouping quantum key distribution protocol based on entanglement and dense coding, which does
doi:10.1038/srep28767 pmid:27357865 pmcid:PMC4928064 fatcat:us7usegxy5dczpflvqrnx3xbbi

Hepatocyte-like cells from directed differentiation of mouse bone marrow cells in vitro1

Xiao-lei SHI, Yu-dong QIU, Qiang LI, Ting XIE, Zhang-hua ZHU, Lei-lei CHEN, Lei LI, Yi-tao DING
2005 Acta Pharmacologica Sinica  
Aim: To design the effective directed differentiation medium to differentiate bone marrow cells into hepatocyte-like cells. Methods: Bone marrow cells were cultured in the directed differentiation media including fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4) and oncostatin M (OSM). Hepatocyte-like cells from directed differentiation of bone marrow cells were identified through cell morphology, RNA expressions by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), protein expressions by Western blot,
more » ... and hepatocellular synthesis and metabolism functions by albumin ELISA, Periodic acid-Shiff staining and urea assay. Results: Some epithelial-like cells or polygonal cells appeared and increased in the course of the cell directed differentiation. Hepatocyte nucleur factor-3β (HNF-3β), albumin (ALB), cytokeratin 18 (CK18), transthyretin (TTR), glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-Pase), and tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) mRNA were expressed in the course of the directed differentiation. The directed differentiated cells on d 21 expressed HNF-3β, ALB, and CK18 proteins. The directed differentiated cells produced albumin and synthesized urea in a time-dependent manner. They could also synthesize glycogen. Conclusion: Our differentiation media, including FGF-4 and OSM, are effective to differentiate bone marrow cells into hepatocyte-like cells, which could be used for hepatocyte resources for bioartificial liver or hepatocyte transplantation.
doi:10.1111/j.1745-7254.2005.00093.x pmid:15780197 fatcat:gp5uqobi5zffbni5nkvexflbpq

Cytotoxicity study of polyethylene glycol derivatives

Guoqiang Liu, Yongsan Li, Lei Yang, Yen Wei, Xing Wang, Zhiming Wang, Lei Tao
2017 RSC Advances  
Cytotoxicity of PEG oligomers (with different molecular weights) and PEG based monomers (with different chain end groups) was studied in detail.
doi:10.1039/c7ra00861a fatcat:nooqn3yr7jfafij5rbyajpxjjy
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