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Symbolic execution based test-patterns generation algorithm for hardware Trojan detection

Lixiang Shen, Dejun Mu, Guo Cao, Maoyuan Qin, Jeremy Blackstone, Ryan Kastner
2018 Computers & security  
However, the combination of symbolic execution and metamorphic testing is useful for detecting hardware Trojans in Verilog code.  ...  First, control flow graphs of Verilog code were generated. Next, parallel symbolic execution and satisfiability modulo theories solver generated test patterns.  ...  The aim of this study was to generate efficient test patterns for detecting internally triggered hardware Trojans in RTL code. We proposed a test generation method for hardware Trojans in RTL code.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cose.2018.07.006 fatcat:byf4mlthbze6fjaye2w3hemskq

A Symbolic Approach to Detecting Hardware Trojans Triggered by Don't Care Transitions [article]

Ruochen Dai, Tuba Yavuz
2021 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we present a symbolic approach to detecting don't care transitions and the hidden Trojans.  ...  One type of hardware Trojans leverages the don't care transitions in Finite State Machines (FSMs) of hardware designs.  ...  We would like to thank Yier Jin, Xiaolong Guo, and Orlando Arias for the valuable discussions about the synthesis process.  ... 
arXiv:2111.03989v1 fatcat:w72t5zor45f7hcii6jqu3a755q

A Symbolic Approach to Detecting Hardware Trojans Triggered by Don't Care Transitions

Ruochen Dai, Tuba Yavuz
2022 ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems  
In this paper, we present a symbolic approach to detecting don't care transitions and the hidden Trojans.  ...  One type of hardware Trojans leverages the don't care transitions in Finite State Machines (FSMs) of hardware designs.  ...  We would like to thank Yier Jin, Xiaolong Guo, and Orlando Arias for the valuable discussions about the synthesis process.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3558392 fatcat:4mmipn2wmzeadgkz26sbch5kaa

Detection of hardware Trojan in SEA using path delay

Prasanna Kumar, Ramasamy Srinivasan
2014 2014 IEEE Students' Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Computer Science  
Detecting hardware Trojan is a difficult task in general.  ...  In this paper we analyzed hardware Trojan horses insertion and detection in Scalable Encryption Algorithm (SEA) crypto.  ...  For instance Automatic Test Pattern Generation (ATPG) methods which are used in manufacturing test for detecting defects generally operate on the netlist of the HTH-free circuit.  ... 
doi:10.1109/sceecs.2014.6804444 fatcat:4qlmdmuuqre2rhm74frpszdpga

Validation of Hardware Security and Trust: A Survey [article]

Payman Behnam
2018 arXiv   pre-print
The aim of this survey is a brief review of challenges of security validation as well as define and classify Hardware Trojans.  ...  Then, we provide more details about various validation techniques for hardware security and trust.  ...  Automatic Test Pattern Generation (ATPG) and Code Coverage can be utilized for distinguishing circuit with small Trojan and circuits without them.  ... 
arXiv:1801.00649v1 fatcat:6eworcng6ndwbdanjnh2dlz2h4

Doppelganger Obfuscation — Exploring theDefensive and Offensive Aspects of Hardware Camouflaging

Max Hoffmann, Christof Paar
2020 Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems  
technique that is based on low-level camouflaging.  ...  Hardware obfuscation is widely used in practice to counteract reverse engineering.  ...  Gürkaynak for technical insights and helpful discussions. This work was supported in part by ERC grant 695022 and DFG Excellence Strategy grant 39078197 (EXC 2092, CASA).  ... 
doi:10.46586/tches.v2021.i1.82-108 fatcat:rzm42ok2lzc5xmy5vjj6bhlbve

Towards Accurate Run-Time Hardware-Assisted Stealthy Malware Detection: A Lightweight, Yet Effective Time Series CNN-Based Approach

Hossein Sayadi, Yifeng Gao, Hosein Mohammadi Makrani, Jessica Lin, Paulo Cesar Costa, Setareh Rafatirad, Houman Homayoun
2021 Cryptography  
Prior HMD methods though effective have limited their study on detecting malicious applications that are spawned as a separate thread during application execution, hence detecting stealthy malware patterns  ...  Hardware-assisted Malware Detection (HMD) techniques depend on standard Machine Learning (ML) classifiers to detect signatures of malicious applications by monitoring built-in HPC registers during execution  ...  [54] introduced a Symbolic Fourier Approximation (SFA) based discretization approach to generate the representation.  ... 
doi:10.3390/cryptography5040028 fatcat:tdgn54ormvf4tidbwzajazjwky

Hardware trojan detection through information flow security verification

Adib Nahiyan, Mehdi Sadi, Rahul Vittal, Gustavo Contreras, Domenic Forte, Mark Tehranipoor
2017 2017 IEEE International Test Conference (ITC)  
We then propose a Trojan detection framework based on information flow security (IFS) verification.  ...  However, these third party IPs cannot be trusted as hardware Trojans can be maliciously inserted into them by untrusted vendors.  ...  [13] have proposed a Trojan detection technique based on symbolic algebra.  ... 
doi:10.1109/test.2017.8242062 dblp:conf/itc/NahiyanSVCFT17 fatcat:5adb5uzlqbf7tbm4qmfkqprl7y

ForASec: Formal Analysis of Security Vulnerabilities in Sequential Circuits [article]

Faiq Khalid, Imran Hafeez Abbassi, Semeen Rehman, Awais Mehmood Kamboh, Osman Hasan, Muhammad Shafique
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Moreover, it also identifies the number of gates required by an HT that can go undetected for a given design and variability conditions.  ...  Security vulnerability analysis of Integrated Circuits using conventional design-time validation and verification techniques (like simulations, emulations, etc.) is generally a computationally intensive  ...  project, IoT4CPS: Trustworthy IoT for Cyber-Physical Systems.  ... 
arXiv:1812.05446v3 fatcat:qjcwkhsegnegpmatzckak3fedm

Reverse Engineering Digital Circuits Using Structural and Functional Analyses

Pramod Subramanyan, Nestan Tsiskaridze, Wenchao Li, Adria Gascon, Wei Yang Tan, Ashish Tiwari, Natarajan Shankar, Sanjit A. Seshia, Sharad Malik
2014 IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing  
Our inference algorithms cover 68% of the gates in this SOC. We also demonstrate that our algorithms are effective in aiding a human analyst to detect hardware Trojans in an unstructured netlist.  ...  Algorithmic reverse engineering of digital circuits can mitigate these concerns by enabling analysts to detect malicious hardware, verify the integrity of ICs, and detect IP violations.  ...  Finally, we describe a case study where we inject hardware trojans into two of the test articles from Table 2 and discuss how our algorithms would aid an analyst detect these trojans.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tetc.2013.2294918 fatcat:jbq5xwsh4retlip7g6o3mzyr2q

Digital Twin for Secure Semiconductor Lifecycle Management: Prospects and Applications [article]

Hasan Al Shaikh, Mohammad Bin Monjil, Shigang Chen, Navid Asadizanjani, Farimah Farahmandi, Mark Tehranipoor, Fahim Rahman
2022 arXiv   pre-print
introduce security vulnerabilities or verification engineers to fail in detecting them earlier in the design lifecycle.  ...  Finally, we provide potential future research avenues and challenges for realization of the digital twin framework to enable secure semiconductor lifecycle management.  ...  LBIST generates input patterns for internal scan chains using a pseudorandom pattern generator such as linear feedback shift register.  ... 
arXiv:2205.10962v2 fatcat:gzlhrvansna6xhegfjh4agw6ne

Trustworthy Hardware: Identifying and Classifying Hardware Trojans

Ramesh Karri, Jeyavijayan Rajendran, Kurt Rosenfeld, Mohammad Tehranipoor
2010 Computer  
Automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) algorithms assume a model of the faults that can result from flaws in manufacturing and produce test patterns that will detect those faults if they are present  ...  The IC testing phase is important for hardware trust not because it is a likely phase for Trojan insertion but because it provides an opportunity for Trojan detection.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mc.2010.299 fatcat:ueck7qhg3jh7xl3bw6zitcsrx4

Pre-silicon security verification and validation

Xiaolong Guo, Raj Gautam Dutta, Yier Jin, Farimah Farahmandi, Prabhat Mishra
2015 Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Design Automation Conference on - DAC '15  
As existing functional testing methods fall short in detecting unspecified (often malicious) logic, formal methods have emerged as an alternative for validation of trustworthiness of IP cores.  ...  We also outline the use of symbolic algebra in equivalence checking, to ensure that the hardware implementation is equivalent to its design specification, thus leaving little space for malicious logic  ...  Authors in [36] proposed a method to generate "Trojan Vectors" into the testing patterns, hoping to activate the Hardware Trojans during the functional testing.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2744769.2747939 dblp:conf/dac/GuoDJFM15 fatcat:l4qxqf33gnhu7acl3k7bzzapzy

Recognizing malicious software behaviors with tree automata inference

Domagoj Babić, Daniel Reynaud, Dawn Song
2012 Formal methods in system design  
In particular, we propose a new approach to learning and generalizing from observed malware behaviors based on tree automata inference.  ...  We explore how formal methods and tools of the verification trade could be used for malware detection and analysis.  ...  We also thank reviewers for their insightful and constructive comments.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10703-012-0149-1 fatcat:edrg5e5bq5e3pl7di22txppqgu

Parametric Trojans for Fault-Injection Attacks on Cryptographic Hardware

Raghavan Kumar, Philipp Jovanovic, Wayne Burleson, Ilia Polian
2014 2014 Workshop on Fault Diagnosis and Tolerance in Cryptography  
We propose two extremely stealthy hardware Trojans that facilitate fault-injection attacks in cryptographic blocks.  ...  These Trojans are activated with very low probability under the presence of a slightly reduced supply voltage (0.001 for 20% V dd reduction).  ...  An IC can have millions of paths, which can make timing-based SCA impractical. Another way to detect Trojans is by functional testing, in which the Trojans are activated by test patterns.  ... 
doi:10.1109/fdtc.2014.12 dblp:conf/fdtc/KumarJBP14 fatcat:mwyiux2wsfgkvputirgmrkytua
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