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Abstract: Background: To retrospectively analyze post renal transplant patients to determine the frequency of BK-Virus infection, treatment and complication at Institute of Kidney Diseases Hayatabad, Peshawar. Methodology: This was a cross sectional (retrospective) study from January 2008 to January 2021 conducted at Institute of Kidney Diseases, Peshawar, Pakistan. Clinical Records and laboratory data were collected. BK viral load was obtained by quantitative DNA-polymerase chain reactiondoi:10.5281/zenodo.5545720 fatcat:dnux2j6yzfccpbopiqvlplh4cq
more »... testing of blood. Results: Total of 263 patients were assessed. Out of 263, 246 (93.54%) were males and 17 (6.46%) were females with mean age 32.06 ± 5.49. All patients underwent live related transplant. BK-Virus plasma PCR was positive in 15 (5.70%) in post renal transplant patients after 6 months. Conclusion: The BK-Virus infection is very common in post renal transplant patients who have received induction therapy and on intense immunosuppression. Effective Treatment is by reducing the immunosuppressive drugs to minimal level.
The objective of present study was to select the best pre-anesthetic to be used in combination with propofol for neutering dogs. A prospective randomized study was conducted on 18 clinical cases of mongrel dogs admitted for neutering were subjected in to three groups (n=6). In group A (xylazine @ 2.2 mg/kg), group B (diazepam@ 0.25 mg/kg) and group C (medetomidine @ 40 µg/kg body weight), were injected intramuscular as preanesthetics. After 3-5 minutes of pre-anesthetic, the propofol injectiondoi:10.18805/ijar.b-1029 fatcat:uedh3ucbq5dd3m46dwip2tbyeq
more »... 6 mg/kg of body weight was administered intravenous as anesthetic drug in all three groups. Analgesia was tested by the presence or absence of following reflexes - tail pricking, toes pinch, pedal reflex and patellar reflex. Rapid onset (9.13 ± 1.41 minutes) and long duration (59.67± 5.50 minutes) of analgesia was observed in group C compared other groups (onset 13.661±1.72 A, 20.16 ± 1.75 B minutes) and duration of analgesia (48.56 ± 4.61 A and 40.66± 5.46 B minutes). CBC, ALT, AST, ALP and blood urea nitrogen values were non-significantly (P e" 0.5) same within and between all three groups. There was significant (P d" 0.5) increase in ALT, AST, ALP, BUN and serum creatinine in group B at 24 hours interval. The results of our study showed that there was non significant decrease (P e" 0.5) in Hb and total erythrocytes count while non-significant increase (P e" 0.5) in total leukocyte count was noted in all three groups. The results showed that Medetomidine HCl in combination with propofol produce, rapid onset, and long duration of analgesia, with rapid and smooth recovery and no effects on haematological parameters of dogs.
Multispectral image classification has long been the domain of static learning with nonstationary input data assumption. The prevalence of Industrial Revolution 4.0 has led to the emergence to perform real-time analysis (classification) in an online learning scenario. Due to the complexities (spatial, spectral, dynamic data sources, and temporal inconsistencies) in online and time-series multispectral image analysis, there is a high occurrence probability in variations of spectral bands from andoi:10.1155/2020/8361989 fatcat:rv25t6f5dzg7rhyh6kxjgrnynq
more »... input stream, which deteriorates the classification performance (in terms of accuracy) or makes them ineffective. To highlight this critical issue, firstly, this study formulates the problem of new spectral band arrival as virtual concept drift. Secondly, an adaptive convolutional neural network (CNN) ensemble framework is proposed and evaluated for a new spectral band adaptation. The adaptive CNN ensemble framework consists of five (05) modules, including dynamic ensemble classifier (DEC) module. DEC uses the weighted voting ensemble approach using multiple optimized CNN instances. DEC module can increase dynamically after new spectral band arrival. The proposed ensemble approach in the DEC module (individual spectral band handling by the individual classifier of the ensemble) contributes the diversity to the ensemble system in the simple yet effective manner. The results have shown the effectiveness and proven the diversity of the proposed framework to adapt the new spectral band during online image classification. Moreover, the extensive training dataset, proper regularization, optimized hyperparameters (model and training), and more appropriate CNN architecture significantly contributed to retaining the performance accuracy.
3 12:00 PM 35 4.68 +7.83% B-4 01:00 PM 37 4.78 +10.14% B-5 02:00 PM 38 4.89 +12.67% B-6 03:00 PM 40 4.99 +14.98% B-7 04:00 PM 42 5.11 +17.74% Corresponding author: Muhammad Arif ...doi:10.5281/zenodo.3370652 fatcat:haesaixlmregphvf727p3wlcpa
BACKGROUND: To access the socio demographic determinants that have potential influence on fertility preferences among Pakistani women of reproductive age 15-49. DATA: Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) of ever married women with sample size 13558 was used. SETTING: The National Institute of Population Studies coordinated this survey with the technical support from ICF International and Pakistan Bureau of Statistics and the USAID supported the financially. METHODS: Bivariate anddoaj:90f58a3044d041a99a09872fb89b1085 fatcat:mkbeg7talfgytpqgltl75r46ei
more »... omial logistic regression analysis carried out. RESULTS: Higher proportion (42.6%) of women wants no more children. Bivariate analysis revealed that age, place of residence, education status, media access, wealth index, occupation, number of living children and ideal numbers of children are found to be significant with respect to fertility preference. Multinomial model showed that younger women were almost ten times [OR=9.76] preferred more children compared to older ages. Respondents belong to Baluchistan and Sindh province [OR=1.59 OR=1.49] were likely to have more children respectively compared to their counter parts lived in GB. An illiterate woman 1.20 times more wants children compared to women with higher educational degree. Women belong to Sindh and Punjab 1.79 and 1.62 times more used modern contraception (sterilized) respectively. Women dweller of Baluchistan region were more likely to declare in fecund compared to their counter parts lived in Gilgit Baltistan. CONCLUSION: These statistical outcomes about fertility preference in Pakistan and exploration of significant socio demographic factors of ever married women can be an emerging for population management and control.
Poliomyelitis is a highly infectious disease but preventable by effective vaccines.Children under five year of age affected by this disease as a result a permanent paralysis.Objectives: To uncover the trend of infant polio immunization coverage through modeling isa significant concern to formulate an adequate vaccination strategies and program after theoutbreak of new cases of polio in a recent year in Pakistan. Design: The reported data ofmonthly infant polio immunization coverage to Nationaldoi:10.29309/tpmj/2015.22.04.1337 fatcat:weuvhvvgrzedldrzkij7dafsle
more »... nstitute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistanfrom January 2008 to July 2013 for the present study has been taken from Pakistan bureau ofstatistics with total time series entities 67. National Institute of Health, Islamabad took the recordof per month number of doses administered ( 0-11 months )children by the registered healthcentre in pakistan. Period: January 2008 - July 2013. Setting: Pakistan bureau of statistics(Statistics House) Methods: A set of various short term time series forecasting models namelyBox-Jenkins, single moving average, double moving average, single parameter exponentialsmoothing, brown, Holts and winter models were carried out to expose the infant polioimmunization coverage trend. Results: Among the several forecasting models ARIMA modelsare chosen due to lower measure of forecast errors namely root mean square error (RMSE),mean absolute error (MAE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). ARIMA (2,1,1), ARIMA(1,0,2), ARIMA (0,1,2) and ARIMA (2,1,1) models are established as an adequate models for theprediction of OPV-0, OPV-1, OPV-2 and OPV-3 respectively. Conclusions: With the exceptionof OPV-1 the infant polio immunization coverage is expected to rise in Pakistan.
BMC Research Notes
Hepatitis B and C is common in Pakistan and various risk factors are attributable to its spread. One thousand and fifty consecutive male cases suffering from chronic liver disease (327 HBV and 723 HCV) were selected from the OPD of public sector hospital and a private clinic dealing exclusively with the liver patients. To compare the results 723 age and gender matched controls were selected from the blood transfusion services of the public sector hospital. A standard questionnaire was filleddoi:10.1186/1756-0500-2-212 pmid:19852780 pmcid:PMC2772845 fatcat:2ajyg4pbk5dwxebyxxudmxewpq
more »... all patients and controls which included the information on possible risk factors. Findings: Family history of liver disease was significantly higher (43% and 34%) in HBV and HCV positive cases as compared to 5% in controls [odds ratio 15.6; 95% Confidence Interval CI: 10.1 --24.1, 10.9; 95% Confidence Interval CI: 7.3 --16.4] and same trend was seen for death due to liver disease in the family. Majority 74% hepatitis B positive cases had their shaves done at communal barbers but this practice was equally prevalent amongst controls (68%), thus negating it as a possible risk factor, but there is a significant risk with p < 0.05 associated with HCV in male that get their shave in barber. Very strong association of the disease was found with history of dental treatment (38% HCV 36% HBV and 21% controls) [Odd ratio 2.3; 95% CI: 1.8-3.0, Odd ratio 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5-2.8], surgery (23% HCV cases,14% HBV cases and 12% controls), history of blood transfusion was significantly higher in HCV (6%) as compared to controls (2.1%) [Odd ratio 2.9; 95% CI: 1.5-5.5]. History of taking injections for various ailments by the general practitioners (over 90% patients in both hepatitis B and C cases) was significantly higher as compared to 75% in controls [Odds ratio 3.8, 6.9; 95% CI: 2.4-6.1, 4.5-10.4] but hospitalization was not significant in HBV and HCV cases. Conclusion: Injections, surgery and dental treatment appear as major risk factors for the transmission of hepatitis B and C in the community. Massive health care awareness drives need to be done for both health care providers and the public to reduce this menace.
To determine the effectiveness of three different methods of ultrasound probe cleaning for the prevention of nosocomial infections. Experimental study. Radiology Department, the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi and Microbiology Department, JPMC, Karachi, from December 2006 to April 2007. A total of 75 culture swabs from ultrasound probes used for sonographic examinations of different body parts of patients were included in the study. Probes were prospectively randomized into three equalpmid:18541083 fatcat:w5hkohytcbdjnbnzv3iz3we6he
more »... ups with 25 probes in each group. Culture was sent before and after using three different techniques of cleaning ultrasound probe, which included sterilized paper towel, 0.9% saline and swipe over with standard bath soap applied on group A (n=25), group B (n=25) and group C (n=25) respectively. Number of Colony Forming Unit (CFU) of bacteria were calculated on standard agar plate to find out the effectiveness of cleaning methods in reducing bacterial count from the ultrasound probe after the procedures. All samples were tested in single microbiology lab by using same bacterial growth media provided by same manufacturer. Kruskall Wallis, Jonchkheere-Terpstra and Wilcoxon sign rank tests were applied to find out statistical significance. There was a significant reduction in bacterial count after applying either of all three cleaning methods for ultrasound probe compared to count on the probes before cleaning (p<0.001), however, soap cleaning method was the most effective in decreasing bacterial count to the minimum level in comparison to other two methods (p<0.001). The overall reduction in pathogenic bacterial count after performing each cleaning method was 45%, 76% and 98% for paper cleaning, normal saline and soap cleaning method respectively. Cleaning ultrasound probe after performing each procedure is a cost-effective practice with potential of reducing nosocomial infections. Soap cleaning technique is the most effective method for reducing bacterial count acquired due to patients' body contact with the ultrasound probes.
doi:10.1093/occmed/kqaa103 pmid:32428236 fatcat:bja7whgn6fbinfzhu7szw5xymu
Objectives: To uncover the trend regarding TB knowledge and perception ofits transmission as well as underlining the socio demographics aspects associated with TBcure among the reproductive venerable women. Methods: Quantitative frame work along withinferential analysis have been carried out by using the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey2006-07 and 2012-13 of ever married women. Results: Trend regarding TB awareness and itscure and treatment have been changed over time by 4.31% and 4.49%doi:10.29309/tpmj/2015.22.08.1157 fatcat:fcimty6mevd3hdjiuhxvy23mou
more »... spectively in PDHS2012 compared to PDHS 2006. Whereas an adequate knowledge of TB transmission thoughtair when coughing and sneezing remain constant after equating the two surveys. To understandthe functional relationship of variables multinomial logistic regression analysis was carried outseparately for PDHS 2006 and PDHS 2012. Two models revealed that early reproductive agegroup 15-19 of ever married women believed that TB cannot be curable compared to theircounterparts upper age groups 45-49. Illiterate ever married women are more pronounced[OR=5.38 and OR=10.30] that TB is an incurable infectious disease compared to womenhaving higher educational degree in PDHS 2006 and PDHS 2012 respectively. Location andgeographical area of residence, wealth index, and media exposure have positive associationabout TB knowledge of cure and treatment. Conclusion: Although the awareness level improvedbut it still needs to launch some massive and wide-ranging awareness programme regardingan adequate knowledge of various diffusion modes of tuberculosis by utilizing all media modespredominantly television. Potential struggles are obligatory where the subordinate literacy rateand limited health care settings meticulousness in remote areas, so that the illness and deathdue toTB can be minimized.
The Professional Medical Journal
Objectives: Effective implementation of mathematical and statistical modelsmaximizes the likelihood of understanding the trajectory, level and pattern of incurable diseasesand their therapies, so that precise demand strategies for costly lifesaving therapies for future,resource allocation and timely intervention could be ensured, a significant concern for lessdeveloped countries like Pakistan. Methods: The record of monthly number of patients onlifesaving anti-Retroviral Therapy for more thandoi:10.29309/tpmj/2015.22.02.1400 fatcat:qwcoskohkvaijdmsqtnndtqn5e
more »... HIV treatment centers in Pakistan wasacquired for the period January 2011 to July 2013.A set of eleven curve fitting models namelylinear, quadratic, cubic, logarithmic, inverse ,exponential growth model, logistics-curve andcompound models was carried out for prediction. Results: After the execution of various curvefitting models by taking the ANOVA approach along with coefficient of determination and theforecast accuracy measures namely, mean percentage error (MAPE), mean absolute error(MAE) and mean square error (MSE) in the selection of final efficient model. Cubic model wasselected for forecasting the monthly anti-retroviral therapy cases for all categories i.e. overall,male female and children. On the basis of final selected model 3% increment is expectednumber of paticuts on anti-retroviral therapy annually in HIV treatment center in all Pakistan.Male patients are expected to increase 14% who will get lifesaving anti-retroviral therapies.While the annually expected reduction of 17% and 42% in female and children cases takinganti-retroviral therapy is expcted in future respectively. Conclusions: The overall number ofpeople on anti-retroviral therapy are expected to increase in Pakistan. Males are expected tohave greater risk as compared to female and children in Pakistan.
Col Syed Zoherul Alam, MBBS, MCPS, FCPS, Classified Specialist in Radiology, CMH, Dhaka; 4. Col Arif Ahmed Khan, MBBS, MCPS, FCPS, Classified Specialist in Pathology, AFIP, Dhaka; 5. ... Hussain Ahmed, MBBS, DMRD, Junior Consultant in Radiology, BG Hospital. Peelkhana, Dhaka. ...doi:10.3329/jafmc.v10i1.22904 fatcat:vojsh3axcfgchakttuyekxaeru
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. TB). It is transmitted through respiratory droplets. Increased cholesterol level is a predisposing factor for TB. M. TB uses cholesterol in the host macrophage membranes to bind and enter the macrophages. Statins are the drugs that are prescribed to hyperlipidemic patients to maintain their lipid levels in the normal range, thereby reducing the risk of stroke and cardiovascular events. Moreover, statins aid indoi:10.7759/cureus.7404 pmid:32337130 pmcid:PMC7182050 fatcat:amaflspgobgo3lsc366mjw4klu
more »... cing the levels of cholesterol in human macrophages. Therefore, a reduction in the membrane cholesterol minimizes the entry of TB pathogen inside macrophages. Furthermore, acting as vitamin D3 analogs and positively influencing pancreatic beta-cell function in a chronic diabetic state, statins minimize the occurrence of M. TB infection among diabetic population as well. This review aims to provide a comprehensive detail of all in vitro, in vivo, and retrospective studies that investigated the effects of statins in relation to the prevention or treatment of TB infection.
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