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Financial Sector Liberalization and its Challenges to the Local Banks - the Experience of Singapore

Tan Swee Liang, Gilbert Tan Yip Wei
2006 Banks and Bank Systems  
For more elaboration on the state's involvement in other service areas of the financial sector, see Tan (2005) .  ...  See Zheng and Tan (2006) for alternative approach to modeling stock market returns using GARCH (1,1) model.  ... 
doaj:741aec77d4e34490be750a244bfdaf62 fatcat:2qttn4s7gncsjfuabjsei6rvlm


2009 Singapore Economic Review  
Prime Minister further aggravated investors' concerns. 7 See Lee (2000 Lee ( , 2001 Lee ( , 2002 Lee ( and 2004 . 8 For more discussions on process of financial sector liberalization in Singapore, see Tan  ... 
doi:10.1142/s021759080900332x fatcat:2uqkwkz4nzhcxl6o3ykux5j5au


Domingo Tagal Addatu, Joshua P. Loh, Li-Ling Tan, Liang Shen, Adrian F. Low, Chi-Hang Lee, Swee Gan Teo, Huay Cheem Tan
2010 Journal of the American College of Cardiology  
As information regarding the clinical outcomes in different Asian ethnic groups after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is limited, we decided to examine this in our local multiethnic population. Methods: Between January 2001 to December 2007, all patients who underwent PCI in our centre were enrolled in this study. They were prospectively followed up for at least 1 year for clinical endpoints of myocardial infarction, death, TVR and stent thrombosis (ST).
doi:10.1016/s0735-1097(10)61974-2 fatcat:q2ndk6s36jekhnx5iuqif46cja

Integrated Genomic and Metabolomic Approach to the Discovery of Potential Anti-Quorum Sensing Natural Products from Microbes Associated with Marine Samples from Singapore

Ji Ong, Hui Goh, Swee Lim, Li Pang, Joyce Chin, Koh Tan, Zhao-Xun Liang, Liang Yang, Evgenia Glukhov, William Gerwick, Lik Tan
2019 Marine Drugs  
With 70% of the Earth's surface covered in water, the marine ecosystem offers immense opportunities for drug discovery and development. Due to the decreasing rate of novel natural product discovery from terrestrial sources in recent years, many researchers are beginning to look seaward for breakthroughs in new therapeutic agents. As part of an ongoing marine drug discovery programme in Singapore, an integrated approach of combining metabolomic and genomic techniques were initiated for
more » ... novel anti-quorum sensing molecules from bacteria associated with subtidal samples collected in the Singapore Strait. Based on the culture-dependent method, a total of 102 marine bacteria strains were isolated and the identities of selected strains were established based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. About 5% of the marine bacterial organic extracts showed quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activity in a dose-dependent manner based on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS reporter system. In addition, the extracts were subjected to mass spectrometry-based molecular networking and the genome of selected strains were analysed for known as well as new biosynthetic gene clusters. This study revealed that using integrated techniques, coupled with biological assays, can provide an effective and rapid prioritization of marine bacterial strains for downstream large-scale culturing for the purpose of isolation and structural elucidation of novel bioactive compounds.
doi:10.3390/md17010072 fatcat:7jyprmr3tnca5de6e6vcruzf5a

Assessment of left ventricular preload by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging predicts exercise capacity in adult operated tetralogy of Fallot: a retrospective study

Jonathan Yap, Ju Le Tan, Thu Thao Le, Fei Gao, Liang Zhong, Reginald Liew, Swee Yaw Tan, Ru San Tan
2014 BMC Cardiovascular Disorders  
The optimal timing of pulmonary homograft valve replacement (PVR) is uncertain. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) are often used to guide the clinical decision for PVR in operated tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) patients with significant pulmonary regurgitation (PR). We aim to study the relationship between exercise capacity and CMR in these patients. Methods: The study is a single-centre retrospective analysis of 36 operated TOF patients [median 21.4
more » ... uartile range 16.4, 26.4) years post-repair; 30 NYHA I, 6 NYHA II; median age 25.2 (interquartile range 19.5-31.7) years, 29 males] with significant PR on CMR who underwent CPET within 15 [median 2.0 (interquartile range 0.8-7.2)] months from CMR. CPET parameters were compared with 30 age-and sex-matched healthy controls [median age 27.8 (interquartile range 21.0-32.8) years; 24 males]. Results: Peak systolic blood pressure (177 versus 192 mmHg, p = 0.007), Mets (7.3 versus 9.9, p < 0.001), peak oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) (29.2 versus 34.5 ml/kg/min, p < 0.001) and peak oxygen pulse (11.0 versus 13.7 ml/beat, p = 0.003) were significantly lower in TOF group versus control. Univariate analyses showed negative correlation between PR fraction and anaerobic threshold. There was a positive correlation between indexed left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular end-diastolic volumes, as well as indexed LV and effective RV stroke volumes, on CMR and VO 2 max and Mets achieved on CPET. These remained significant after adjustment for age and sex. Conclusions: TOF subjects have near normal exercise capacity but significantly lower Mets, VO 2 max and peak oygen pulse achieved compared to controls. Increased PR fraction in TOF subjects was associated with lower anaerobic threshold. Higher indexed effective RV stroke volume, a measure of LV preload, was associated with higher VO 2 max and Mets achieved, and may potentially be used as a predictor of exercise capacity.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-14-122 pmid:25245139 pmcid:PMC4177590 fatcat:legurp7nfjg37dtmzsanjitbt4

What has luck got to do with economic development? An interpretation of resurgent Asia's growth experience

H.M. Leung, Swee Liang Tan, Zhen Lin Yang
2004 Journal of Policy Modeling  
This paper critically reexamines the belief, currently gathering strength in the literature, that economic development depends on good luck rather than on good policy, and that Prometheus is "unchained by chance". While it is impossible to disprove the role of luck in growth, we argue that luck is endogenous, and good luck is a function of good policy. Luck favours those who strive. Again contrary to common belief, we show that resurgent Asian economies have endured more, not less, than their
more » ... ir share of economic volatility. They learned their lessons by success and failures, and luck is endogenous through learning-by-investing.
doi:10.1016/j.jpolmod.2004.02.003 pmid:32287528 pmcid:PMC7134611 fatcat:r2hnxum4mnamneaunuzdf2yllq

Numerical Simulation and Clinical Implications of Stenosis in Coronary Blood Flow

Jun-Mei Zhang, Liang Zhong, Tong Luo, Yunlong Huo, Swee Yaw Tan, Aaron Sung Lung Wong, Boyang Su, Min Wan, Xiaodan Zhao, Ghassan S. Kassab, Heow Pueh Lee, Boo Cheong Khoo (+3 others)
2014 BioMed Research International  
Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is the gold standard to guide coronary interventions. However it can only be obtained via invasive angiography. The objective of this study is to propose a noninvasive method to determineFFRCTby combining computed tomography angiographic (CTA) images and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. Utilizing the method, this study explored the effects of diameter stenosis (DS), stenosis length, and location onFFRCT. The baseline left anterior descending (LAD)
more » ... was reconstructed from CTA of a healthy porcine heart. A series of models were created by adding an idealized stenosis (with DS from 45% to 75%, stenosis length from 4 mm to 16 mm, and at 4 locations separately). Through numerical simulations, it was found thatFFRCTdecreased (from 0.89 to 0.74), when DS increased (from 45% to 75%). Similarly,FFRCTdecreased with the increase of stenosis length and the stenosis located at proximal position had lowerFFRCTthan that at distal position. These findings are consistent with clinical observations. Applying the same method on two patients' CTA images yieldedFFRCTclose to the FFR values obtained via invasive angiography. The proposed noninvasive computation ofFFRCTis promising for clinical diagnosis of CAD.
doi:10.1155/2014/514729 pmid:24987691 pmcid:PMC4058689 fatcat:2y2ktnnbrbaphnlnbxgdkyhrd4

Simplified Models of Non-Invasive Fractional Flow Reserve Based on CT Images

Jun-Mei Zhang, Liang Zhong, Tong Luo, Aileen Mae Lomarda, Yunlong Huo, Jonathan Yap, Soo Teik Lim, Ru San Tan, Aaron Sung Lung Wong, Jack Wei Chieh Tan, Khung Keong Yeo, Jiang Ming Fam (+9 others)
2016 PLoS ONE  
Invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) is the gold standard to assess the functional coronary stenosis. The non-invasive assessment of diameter stenosis (DS) using coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) has high false positive rate in contrast to FFR. Combining CTA with computational fluid dynamics (CFD), recent studies have shown promising predictions of FFR CT for superior assessment of lesion severity over CTA alone. The CFD models tend to be computationally expensive, however, and
more » ... quire several hours for completing analysis. Here, we introduce simplified models to predict noninvasive FFR at substantially less computational time. In this retrospective pilot study, 21 patients received coronary CTA. Subsequently a total of 32 vessels underwent invasive FFR measurement. For each vessel, FFR based on steady-state and analytical models (FFR SS and FFR AM , respectively) were calculated non-invasively based on CTA and compared with FFR. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 90.6% (87.5%), 80.0% (80.0%), 95.5% (90.9%), 88.9% (80.0%) and 91.3% (90.9%) respectively for FFR SS (and FFR AM ) on a per-vessel basis, and were 75.0%, 50.0%, 86.4%, 62.5% and 79.2% respectively for DS. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.963, 0.954 and 0.741 for FFR SS, FFR AM and DS respectively, on a perpatient level. The results suggest that the CTA-derived FFR SS performed well in contrast to invasive FFR and they had better diagnostic performance than DS from CTA in the identification of functionally significant lesions. In contrast to FFR CT , FFR SS requires much less computational time. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a very prevalent cardiovascular disease which can lead to angina and myocardial infarction (MI) [1] [2] [3] . The quantification of functional coronary stenosis is of high significance for patient management to prevent mortality from CAD [4] . Both anatomical parameters and hemodynamic indices are commonly applied to quantify the severity of CAD. The anatomical parameters of diameter stenosis (DS) and area stenosis (AS) express the diameter and area of a stenosed region, respectively, relative to a "normal" segment. Although computed tomography angiography (CTA) has proven valuable to characterize the anatomic severity of CAD with lower cost and fewer complications, it cannot determine the hemodynamic significance of a stenosis and it has high false positive rate in contrast to a hemodynamic index, such as fractional flow reserve, FFR [5] . FFR is defined as the ratio of maximal blood flow achievable in a stenotic artery to the theoretical maximal flow in the same vessel when stenosis is absent [6] . Assuming a linear pressure-flow relation, flow is proportional to pressure when resistance is constant. Therefore, FFR can be calculated as the ratio of the pressure distal to a coronary stenosis to aortic pressure at the hyperemia state [7] . Because FFR can identify the functionally significant coronary stenoses, including intermediate coronary stenoses [8-10], it is used as gold standard to identify those stenoses that can most likely benefit from percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Revascularization is commonly recommended when the coronary stenosis leads to FFR 0.80. FFR can only be measured via invasive coronary catheterization at hyperemic state, however, which carries higher medical cost and some complications [11] . There have been some alternative adoptions of FFR by either removing the need for adenosine [12] or pressure wire [13] but still require invasive angiography. Recently, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been applied to simulate blood flow to compute FFR CT for patient-specific coronary artery models reconstructed from CTA, with lumped parameter heart and coronary models [14, 15] . The multicenter clinical trials of DIS-COVER-FLOW, demonstrated that FFR CT , derived non-invasively through combining CT images and CFD simulations, improved diagnostic accuracy and discrimination than CT alone in differentiating ischemic and non-ischemic stenoses. The computational time for transient CFD simulation, however, was significant (6 hours[16] or 1-4 hours [19] for CFD analysis per examination), which may limit its utility in the clinic. By modeling vessels as 1D segments in CFD simulation, the computational time was significantly reduced to 5-10 minutes per patient [21] . The latter approach, however, only had moderate to good correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.59) as compared with invasive FFR. Since the calculation of FFR is based on time-averaged pressure measured over several cardiac cycles during coronary angiography [12], we hypothesize that non-invasive FFR SS can be obtained from steady state flow simulation using novel boundary conditions while maintaining acceptable accuracy relative to FFR. In this way, the computational time can be reduced to 1/16 of the transit state model as reported in our previous study [22] . An alternative approach to CFD that yields real-time calculation is the use of analytical models. Huo et al. [23] recently proposed an analytical model to allow real-time computation of FFR AM . The calculation of FFR AM was based on stenosis dimensions (proximal, distal and minimal lumen area, and length) and hyperemic coronary flow rate through the lesion (i.e., no ad hoc or empirical parameters). This method has been validated in-vitro and in swine coronary arteries [23], but not clinically. The aim of this pilot study was to compute FFR SS and FFR AM from CTA using steady state flow simulation and analytical model, respectively. The diagnostic performance of FFR SS and FFR AM was validated against the reference standard of invasive FFR. Non-Invasive FFR PLOS ONE | Notes: LAD: left anterior descending artery; LCX: left circumflex artery D1: first diagonal branch; R-PLB: right posterior descending artery RCA: right coronary artery; OM1: first obtuse marginal branch.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153070 pmid:27187726 pmcid:PMC4871505 fatcat:yunt7afhnralrdd6dddlq5amhu

Interactive knee cartilage extraction using efficient segmentation software: data from the osteoarthritis initiative

Hong-Seng Gan, Tian-Swee Tan, Liang-Xuan Wong, Weng-Kit Tham, Khairil Amir Sayuti, Ahmad Helmy Abdul Karim, Mohammed Rafiq bin Abdul Kadir
2014 Bio-medical materials and engineering  
In medical image segmentation, manual segmentation is considered both labor- and time-intensive while automated segmentation often fails to segment anatomically intricate structure accordingly. Interactive segmentation can tackle shortcomings reported by previous segmentation approaches through user intervention. To better reflect user intention, development of suitable editing functions is critical. In this paper, we propose an interactive knee cartilage extraction software that covers three
more » ... portant features: intuitiveness, speed, and convenience. The segmentation is performed using multi-label random walks algorithm. Our segmentation software is simple to use, intuitive to normal and osteoarthritic image segmentation and efficient using only two third of manual segmentation's time. Future works will extend this software to three dimensional segmentation and quantitative analysis.
doi:10.3233/bme-141137 pmid:25227024 fatcat:4u3o7vk4mfhxloaqstj4unjtqi

Beyond fitness tracking: The use of consumer-grade wearable data from normal volunteers in cardiovascular and lipidomics research

Weng Khong Lim, Sonia Davila, Jing Xian Teo, Chengxi Yang, Chee Jian Pua, Christopher Blöcker, Jing Quan Lim, Jianhong Ching, Jonathan Jiunn Liang Yap, Swee Yaw Tan, Anders Sahlén, Calvin Woon-Loong Chin (+6 others)
2018 PLoS Biology  
The use of consumer-grade wearables for purposes beyond fitness tracking has not been comprehensively explored. We generated and analyzed multidimensional data from 233 normal volunteers, integrating wearable data, lifestyle questionnaires, cardiac imaging, sphingolipid profiling, and multiple clinical-grade cardiovascular and metabolic disease markers. We show that subjects can be stratified into distinct clusters based on daily activity patterns and that these clusters are marked by distinct
more » ... emographic and behavioral patterns. While resting heart rates (RHRs) performed better than step counts in being associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disease markers, step counts identified relationships between physical activity and cardiac remodeling, suggesting that wearable data may play a role in reducing overdiagnosis of cardiac hypertrophy or dilatation in active individuals. Wearable-derived activity levels can be used to identify known and novel activity-modulated sphingolipids that are in turn associated with insulin sensitivity. Our findings demonstrate the potential for wearables in biomedical research and personalized health. Author summary Little is known about how data from wearable sensors can be used apart from fitness tracking. We comprehensively studied 233 normal volunteers, integrating data from PLOS Biology |
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.2004285 pmid:29485983 pmcid:PMC5828350 fatcat:rf45vibgnbc7rakeizokvd5h7u

Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography and Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Fractional Flow Reserve Before and After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Gaurav Chandola, Jun-Mei Zhang, Ru-San Tan, Ping Chai, Lynette Teo, John C. Allen, Ris Low, Weimin Huang, Shuang Leng, Jiang Ming Fam, Chee Yang Chin, Ghassan S. Kassab (+5 others)
2021 Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology  
Copyright © 2021 Chandola, Zhang, Tan, Chai, Teo, Allen, Low, Huang, Leng, Fam, Chin, Kassab, Low, Tan, Chua, Lim and Zhong.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fbioe.2021.739667 pmid:34557479 pmcid:PMC8452917 fatcat:nmmviaf4qrc6litkjhdgwbf4aa

NF2 and Canonical Hippo-YAP Pathway Define Distinct Tumor Subsets Characterized by Different Immune Deficiency and Treatment Implications in Human Pleural Mesothelioma

Haitang Yang, Sean R. R. Hall, Beibei Sun, Liang Zhao, Yanyun Gao, Ralph A. Schmid, Swee T. Tan, Ren-Wang Peng, Feng Yao
2021 Cancers  
(1) Inactivation of the tumor suppressor NF2 is believed to play a major role in the pathogenesis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) by deregulating the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway. However, NF2 has functions beyond regulation of the Hippo pathway, raising the possibility that NF2 contributes to MPM via Hippo-independent mechanisms. (2) We performed weighted gene co-expression analysis (WGCNA) in transcriptomic and proteomic datasets obtained from The Cancer Gene Atlas (TCGA) MPM cohort to
more » ... identify clusters of co-expressed genes highly correlated with NF2 and phospho (p)-YAP protein, surrogate markers of active Hippo signaling and YAP inactivation. The potential targets are experimentally validated using a cell viability assay. (3) MPM tumors with NF2 loss-of-function are not associated with changes in p-YAP level nor YAP/TAZ activity score, but are characterized by a deficient B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway. Conversely, MPM tumors with YAP activation display exhausted CD8 T-cell-mediated immunity together with significantly upregulated PD-L1, which is validated in an independent MPM cohort, suggesting a potential benefit of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in this patient subset. In support of this, mutations in core Hippo signaling components including LATS2, but not NF2, are independently associated with better overall survival in response to ICI in patients. Additionally, based on cancer cell line models, we show that MPM cells with a high Hippo-YAP activity are particularly sensitive to inhibitors of BCR-ABL/SRC, stratifying a unique MPM patient subset that may benefit from BCR-ABL/SRC therapies. Furthermore, we observe that NF2 physically interacts with a considerable number of proteins that are not involved in the canonical Hippo-YAP pathway, providing a possible explanation for its Hippo-independent role in MPM. Finally, survival analyses show that YAP/TAZ scores together with p-YAP protein level, but not NF2, predict the prognosis of MPM patients. (4) NF2 loss-of-function and dysregulated Hippo-YAP pathway define distinct MPM subsets that differ in their molecular features and prognosis, which has important clinical implications for precision oncology in MPM patients.
doi:10.3390/cancers13071561 pmid:33805359 fatcat:iazxukjnnfbqzhpp76ylgqhi2q

Influence of n-type versus p-type AlGaN electron-blocking layer on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diodes

Yun Ji, Zi-Hui Zhang, Zabu Kyaw, Swee Tiam Tan, Zhen Gang Ju, Xue Liang Zhang, Wei Liu, Xiao Wei Sun, Hilmi Volkan Demir
2013 Applied Physics Letters  
Investigation of surface plasmon coupling with the quantum well for reducing efficiency droop in GaN-based light emitting diodes
doi:10.1063/1.4817381 fatcat:2yfivjbakffi3m3mtaoerwftdq

Nonradiative recombination — critical in choosing quantum well number for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes

Yi Ping Zhang, Zi-Hui Zhang, Wei Liu, Swee Tiam Tan, Zhen Gang Ju, Xue Liang Zhang, Yun Ji, Lian Cheng Wang, Zabu Kyaw, Namig Hasanov, Bin Bin Zhu, Shun Peng Lu (+2 others)
2014 Optics Express  
In this work, InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) possessing varied quantum well (QW) numbers were systematically investigated both numerically and experimentally. The numerical computations show that with the increased QW number, a reduced electron leakage can be achieved and hence the efficiency droop can be reduced when a constant Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) nonradiative recombination lifetime is used for all the samples. However, the experimental results indicate that, though the efficiency
more » ... droop is suppressed, the LED optical power is first improved and then degraded with the increasing QW number. The analysis of the measured external quantum efficiency (EQE) with the increasing current revealed that an increasingly dominant SRH nonradiative recombination is induced with more epitaxial QWs, which can be related to the defect generation due to the strain relaxation, especially when the effective thickness exceeds the critical thickness. These observations were further supported by the carrier lifetime measurement using a pico-second time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) system, which allowed for a revised numerical modeling with the different SRH lifetimes considered. This work provides useful guidelines on choosing the critical QW number when designing LED structures.
doi:10.1364/oe.23.000a34 pmid:25836251 fatcat:wut63hhvvnfgtoj3qfio25ud3a


Eugene Tan, Chang Feng Xu, Feng Liang, Rajalakshmi Santhanakrishnan, Michelle MY Chan, Swee-Chong Seow, Chi Keong Ching, Mark Richards, Tze Pin Ng, Toon Wei Lim, Carolyn Lam
2014 Journal of the American College of Cardiology  
Category: 27. Background: Existing reference values for electrocardiography (ECG) were derived in Caucasian adults. We studied the association of ethnicity, age and body size with ECG measurements in a multi-ethnic community-based cohort of Asian adults.
doi:10.1016/s0735-1097(14)61639-9 fatcat:azbq26k6grdnbf4zxvxipv2bsa
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