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Swarm Verification Techniques

Gerard J. Holzmann, Rajeev Joshi, Alex Groce
<span title="">2011</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/dthyqga2onff5nwf4agwqtrhxi" style="color: black;">IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering</a> </i> &nbsp;
The range of verification problems that can be solved with logic model checking tools has increased significantly in the last few decades.  ...  APPLICATION The test model from Fig. 1 illustrates the potential of swarm verification techniques. No single example can, of course, be representative of large search problems in general.  ...  With the swarm technique we have described here, we would like to see how problem coverage (measured as the fraction of the cumulative number of all reachable states covered in a swarm run) changes with  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/tse.2010.110">doi:10.1109/tse.2010.110</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/cm6zvkf2rfctjosvc3fqxe2tza">fatcat:cm6zvkf2rfctjosvc3fqxe2tza</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170817205732/http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/35714/GroceAlexElectricalEngineeringComputerScienceSwarmVerificationTechniques.pdf?sequence=1" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/1e/36/1e368d2bd60e22ba421e36a5f6ac78dc02915198.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/tse.2010.110"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

Model checking of emergent behaviour properties of robot swarms

S Juurik, J Vain
<span title="">2011</span> <i title="Estonian Academy Publishers"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/mesuscb5nbhe7m5ygzz2nktrwm" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences</a> </i> &nbsp;
space reduction methodsstate vector compression, bit state hashing, and symmetry reduction -were applied on an exercise with the objective of verifying a distributed coordination algorithm for robot swarms  ...  A natural solution for overcoming the complexity barrier of swarm analysis is to use the compositional verification approach.  ...  CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK In this paper a case study of explicit state model checking techniques based on a dynamic cleaning problem for proving properties of emergent behaviour of robot swarms was presented  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3176/proc.2011.1.05">doi:10.3176/proc.2011.1.05</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/oiktdzc57fgyvoje2gnoftmw6i">fatcat:oiktdzc57fgyvoje2gnoftmw6i</a> </span>
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Bounded Model Checking and Feature Omission Diversity [article]

Mohammad Amin Alipour, Alex Groce
<span title="2016-09-20">2016</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
Adapting a technique developed in software testing to this problem provides a simple way to produce useful partial verification problems, with a resulting decrease in average time until a counterexample  ...  If no counterexample is found, partial verification results can also be useful in practice.  ...  INTRODUCTION Model checking [5] is a technique for formal verification, which inspects all reachable states of a system for violations of a property.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1610.08020v1">arXiv:1610.08020v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/4swgc2guybgb7owjagpqwjnbzi">fatcat:4swgc2guybgb7owjagpqwjnbzi</a> </span>
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Verifying Autonomous Robots: Challenges and Reflections (Invited Talk)

Clare Dixon, Martin Theobald, Ana Ozaki, Emilio Muñoz-Velasco
<span title="2020-09-15">2020</span> <i title="Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/5notxo7dsndjfej4w6752adxc4" style="color: black;">International Symposium/Workshop on Temporal Representation and Reasoning</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this talk I will discuss experiences from several projects in developing and applying verification techniques to autonomous robotic systems.  ...  We advocate using a range of verification techniques including formal verification, simulation based testing and end user experiments to improve the reliability of such systems.  ...  Here we focus on temporal verification using automatic tools and techniques such as model checking and deduction (see for example [8] ) that do not require user interaction.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.4230/lipics.time.2020.1">doi:10.4230/lipics.time.2020.1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/time/Dixon20.html">dblp:conf/time/Dixon20</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/e3a3dz65jfe2bbm4yysskpccmm">fatcat:e3a3dz65jfe2bbm4yysskpccmm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201212055724/https://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2020/12969/pdf/LIPIcs-TIME-2020-1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/76/0c/760c5e8d4d57d70274c6214d7b2a4fa3d1c34bbc.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.4230/lipics.time.2020.1"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Symmetry Reduction Enables Model Checking of More Complex Emergent Behaviours of Swarm Navigation Algorithms [chapter]

Laura Antuña, Dejanira Araiza-Illan, Sérgio Campos, Kerstin Eder
<span title="">2015</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
These emergent behaviours can be verified to assess their correctness, through techniques like model checking.  ...  A comparison of the state-space and verification results with an absolute (or global) and a relative encoding of the Alpha algorithm highlights the advantages of our approach, allowing model checking larger  ...  Eder was partially supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), grants EP/J01205X/1 RIVERAS: Robust Integrated Verification of Autonomous Systems and EP/K006320/1 Trustworthy  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-22416-9_4">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-22416-9_4</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/6wdvedugc5b5pmrkjdqbfwf65q">fatcat:6wdvedugc5b5pmrkjdqbfwf65q</a> </span>
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Coherent Swarming through the Local Interaction by Exploiting Simulation Techniques for Many Particle Systems
多粒子系の動力学解析手法を応用した群ロボットの自律分散的形態制御

Masahiro SHIMIZU, Toshihiro KAWAKATSU, Akio ISHIGURO
<span title="">2005</span> <i title="The Society of Instrument and Control Engineers"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2phyh6hw5vckxnkzptkaisrmki" style="color: black;">Transactions of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers</a> </i> &nbsp;
R2 (t) = 1 (rz (t) -RG (t))2 (12 N 0d The obtained correlation under test environment 2 FigFig. 8 A 8 verification of the adaptability under test environment 1 (see left to right) Fig. 9 A verification  ...  of the adaptability under test environment 2 (see left to right) Fig. 10 A verification of the fault tolerance (see left to right)  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.9746/sicetr1965.41.126">doi:10.9746/sicetr1965.41.126</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/6lypasjoired5przoxrejxo7sm">fatcat:6lypasjoired5przoxrejxo7sm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190507034715/https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/sicetr1965/41/2/41_2_126/_pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/37/e8/37e8ea7b1c5b9bf55c65e66847da1c4fcba47ab1.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.9746/sicetr1965.41.126"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Analysing robot swarm behaviour via probabilistic model checking

Savas Konur, Clare Dixon, Michael Fisher
<span title="">2012</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ncwahgzkgbfljbalytxadcov3u" style="color: black;">Robotics and Autonomous Systems</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this paper, we will develop and apply the use of automated probabilistic formal verification techniques to robot swarms, involving an exhaustive mathematical analysis, in order to assess whether swarms  ...  or experiments with robot swarms themselves.  ...  Formal Verification of Robot Swarms We here highlight previous work in which the formal verification of robot swarms has been considered, typically using model checking or deductive techniques for temporal  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2011.10.005">doi:10.1016/j.robot.2011.10.005</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/rlvovyxlbre55jubibwzrem2ly">fatcat:rlvovyxlbre55jubibwzrem2ly</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120712144604/http://www.csc.liv.ac.uk/~michael/RAS11WWW.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/91/8c/918c2a51a721afee6d049bf4c90af609e3e1360d.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2011.10.005"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> elsevier.com </button> </a>

Some Verification Issues at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center [chapter]

Michael G. Hinchey, James L. Rash, Christopher A. Rouff
<span title="">2008</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
In verifying the desired behavior of swarms of intelligent interacting agents, the two significant sources of difficulty are the exponential growth of interactions and the emergent behaviors of the swarm  ...  We describe the work being conducted by NASA GSFC to develop a formal method specifically for swarm technologies.  ...  Acknowledgements The Formal Approaches to Swarm Technologies (FAST) project is funded by the NASA Office of Systems and Mission Assurance (OSMA) through its Software Assurance Research Program (SARP),  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-69149-5_43">doi:10.1007/978-3-540-69149-5_43</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/mvexffclazh3rp7oay47h53yvy">fatcat:mvexffclazh3rp7oay47h53yvy</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20060930224022/http://isd.gsfc.nasa.gov/Papers/DOC/verificationissues.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/2e/82/2e82ffa7b53d7f36e715de50ea3dbd00e1847607.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-69149-5_43"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Robotics and Integrated Formal Methods: Necessity Meets Opportunity [chapter]

Marie Farrell, Matt Luckcuck, Michael Fisher
<span title="">2018</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
The techniques for developing and verifying each of these system varieties are often quite distinct.  ...  This, together with the sheer complexity of robotic systems, leads us to argue that diverse formal techniques must be integrated in order to develop, verify, and provide certification evidence for, robotic  ...  Robot swarms can be quite large, and so a challenge when verifying robot swarms using current model-checking techniques is state space explosion caused by the large number of concurrent, interacting agents  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-98938-9_10">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-98938-9_10</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/kklbl7yxjzdb5exiom2z5valma">fatcat:kklbl7yxjzdb5exiom2z5valma</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200824040630/https://arxiv.org/pdf/1805.11996v2.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download [not primary version]" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <span style="color: #f43e3e;">&#10033;</span> <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/a6/bd/a6bd027e491fd3f372dc35889256ef4c62de8adc.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-98938-9_10"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Towards Informed Swarm Verification [chapter]

Anton Wijs
<span title="">2011</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
swarm verification (SV) [Holzmann et al., '08] Towards Informed SV (1) • Can we bound workers to specific areas?  ...  We will deal mainly with explicit state, action-based model checking (LTSs) • For large state spaces, we can focus on debugging instead of verification (guaranteeing bug-absence) • Techniques such as  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-20398-5_30">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-20398-5_30</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/w2s35qse2fd3ho5kq43tglt3hu">fatcat:w2s35qse2fd3ho5kq43tglt3hu</a> </span>
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Towards temporal verification of swarm robotic systems

Clare Dixon, Alan F.T. Winfield, Michael Fisher, Chengxiu Zeng
<span title="">2012</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ncwahgzkgbfljbalytxadcov3u" style="color: black;">Robotics and Autonomous Systems</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this paper we assess and apply the use of formal verification techniques for analysing the emergent behaviours of robotic swarms.  ...  These techniques, based on the automated analysis of systems using temporal logics, allow us to analyse whether all possible behaviours within the robot swarm conform to some required specification.  ...  So, our aim is to develop, deploy and extend formal verification techniques for use in swarm robotics and so show that formal verification is viable in this, more restricted, context.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2012.03.003">doi:10.1016/j.robot.2012.03.003</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/rowiz3l4hrdrfkeryb7tkqfizm">fatcat:rowiz3l4hrdrfkeryb7tkqfizm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200309180440/https://uwe-repository.worktribe.com/preview/942375/Dixon_etal_RAS_TowardsTemporalVerification_finaldraft.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/fe/bd/febd9aaf70f717577e201fbcfc444c30b81320b9.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2012.03.003"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> elsevier.com </button> </a>

Formal Verification of Probabilistic Swarm Behaviours [chapter]

Savas Konur, Clare Dixon, Michael Fisher
<span title="">2010</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this paper we will utilise automated formal verification techniques, involving an exhaustive mathematical analysis, in order to assess whether our swarms will indeed behave as required.  ...  In order to assess swarm effectiveness, either experiments with real robots or computational simulations of the swarm are usually carried out.  ...  A general alternative to simulation and testing is to use formal verification, and particularly the technique called modelchecking [3] .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-15461-4_42">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-15461-4_42</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/oipktjmphnc2hlxn5df6q72cze">fatcat:oipktjmphnc2hlxn5df6q72cze</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170923021227/http://cgi.csc.liv.ac.uk/~michael/ants10j.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/7d/ad/7dad71cd5a2bf217a963c6a06f7a0cdf6e83686f.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-15461-4_42"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Functional Verification of Digital Systems Using Meta-Heuristic Algorithms [chapter]

Alfonso Martínez-Cruz, Ignacio Algredo-Badillo, Alejandro Medina- Santiago, Kelsey Ramírez-Gutiérrez, Prometeo Cortés-Antonio, Ricardo Barrón-Fernández, René Cumplido-Parra, Kwang-Ting Cheng
<span title="2018-11-28">2018</span> <i title="IntechOpen"> Digital Systems </i> &nbsp;
In this chapter, we will describe the main techniques used in the functional verification of digital systems of medium complexity, focusing especially on meta-heuristic algorithms such as particle swarm  ...  To reduce the time and cost of the verification process, artificial intelligence techniques based on the optimization of the coverage of behavioral areas have been proposed.  ...  Techniques such as genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization algorithms were used to verify the digital systems, and a comparison was presented.  ... 
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Formal Specification and Verification of Autonomous Robotic Systems: A Survey [article]

Matt Luckcuck, Marie Farrell, Louise Dennis, Clare Dixon, Michael Fisher
<span title="2019-05-01">2019</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
This paper systematically surveys the state-of-the-art in formal specification and verification for autonomous robotics.  ...  Autonomous robotic systems are complex, hybrid, and often safety-critical; this makes their formal specification and verification uniquely challenging.  ...  [138] Synchronous language Quartz and verification using model-checking techniques of the Averest verification framework (Beryl). Mobile outdoor robot RAVON.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1807.00048v3">arXiv:1807.00048v3</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ssc63easujgijisrznyzwo7ieq">fatcat:ssc63easujgijisrznyzwo7ieq</a> </span>
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A Review Paper On An Enhanced Face Recognition System Using Correlation Method And Abpso

Ms. Navpreet Kaur*, Ms. Rasleen Kaur
<span title="2016-06-20">2016</span> <i title="Zenodo"> Zenodo </i> &nbsp;
This paper deals with using of Particle Swarm Optimization techniques for Face Recognition.  ...  Face Recognition is one of the problems which can be handled very well using Hybrid techniques or mixed transform rather than single technique.  ...  Particle Swarm Optimization: Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) [8] is a swarm intelligence technique developed by Dr. Eberhart and Dr. Kennedy in 1995.  ... 
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