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Moreover, in vitro studies indicate that phospho-ERKs interfere with 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. ... The growth-and apoptosis-regulating signaling molecules ERK 1 and 2 are important to cancer growth and progression. ... phospho-ERK scores) whilst stage III patients with high phospho-ERK scores showed very poor RFS ( Figure 4C ). ...doi:10.18632/oncotarget.26741 fatcat:p5fhk6n3pbcilir4wis3nzolyq
Psychological considerations suggest that the omission of rewards in humans comprises two e¡ects: ¢rst, an allocentric e¡ect triggering learning and behavioural changes potentially processed by dopaminergic neurons according to the prediction error theory; second, an egocentric e¡ect representing the individual's emotional reaction, commonly called frustration. We investigated this second e¡ect in the context of omission of monetary reward with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Asdoi:10.1097/00001756-200505120-00003 pmid:15858403 fatcat:smjuenmmkve7xiixtqxxzkvtlm
more »... the contrast omission relative to receipt of reward led to a decrease in ventral striatal activation consistent with prediction error theory. Increased activation for this contrast was found in areas previously related to emotional pain: the right anterior insula and the right ventral prefrontal cortex.We interpreted this as a neural correlate of the egocentric e¡ect. NeuroReport 16:669^672 c 2005 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Using event-related fMRI we investigated the rewarding properties of cultural objects (cars) signaling wealth and social dominance. It has been shown recently that reward mechanisms are involved in the regulation of social relations like dominance and social rank. Based on evolutionary considerations we hypothesized that sports cars in contrast to other categories of cars, e.g. limousines and small cars, are strong social reinforcers and would modulate the dopaminergic reward circuitry. Twelvedoi:10.1097/00001756-200212200-00024 pmid:12499856 fatcat:fmzb7hupqraqnfr6cdfkwfakli
more »... ealthy male subjects were studied with fMRI while viewing photographs of di¡erent car classes followed by an attractivity rating. Behaviorally sports cars were rated signi¢cantly more attractive than limousines and small cars.Our fMRI results revealed signi¢cantly more activation in ventral striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate and occipital regions for sports cars in contrast to other categories of cars.We could thus demonstrate that arti¢cial cultural objects associated with wealth and social dominance elicit activation in reward-related brain areas. NeuroReport 13:2499^2503
Conclusion: The data suggests that the presence of a subpopulation of CAFs, defined by minimal activated ERK signaling, is linked to an impaired tamoxifen response. ... Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate ERK phosphorylation as a stromal biomarker for breast cancer prognosis and tamoxifen treatment prediction within a randomized tamoxifen trial. ... These differences in basal ERK phosphorylation levels indicate an intrinsic capacity of fibroblasts to regulate ERK signaling. ...doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045669 pmid:23029174 pmcid:PMC3454403 fatcat:yedl4oiydfewzgbqllrajquzse
It activates PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK signalling which mainly govern its pro-survival effects on ECs. ... Here the role of PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK signalling in cAMP/Epac-mediated endothelial barrier stabilisation was analysed. ... via PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK pathways. ...doi:10.3389/fphys.2019.01387 pmid:31787905 pmcid:PMC6855264 fatcat:ejk2xz2ulnh6bdbqs76c7z2eyu
In neuroeconomics, reward and social interaction are central concepts to understand what motivates human behaviour. Both concepts are investigated in humans using neuroimaging methods. In this paper, we provide an overview about these results and discuss their relevance for economic behaviour. For reward it has been shown that a system exists in humans that is involved in predicting rewards and thus guides behaviour, involving a circuit including the striatum, the orbitofrontal cortex and thedoi:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2005.06.016 pmid:16216683 fatcat:3vjoxpwd5raibk4r35mdx4b36m
more »... ygdala. Recent studies on social interaction revealed a mentalizing system representing the mental states of others. A central part of this system is the medial prefrontal cortex, in particular the anterior paracingulate cortex. The reward as well as the mentalizing system is engaged in economic decision-making. We will discuss implications of this study for neuromarketing as well as general implications of these results that may help to provide deeper insights into the motivating forces of human behaviour.
Emotions have been shown to modulate memory processes. However, the neuronal substrate underlying these modulatory effects is largely unknown. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated whether the context of emotional encoding modulates brain activation predictive for subsequent recall of emotionally neutral material. While inferior frontal activation predicted recall in general, our data show that in a positive encoding context, recall was predicted bydoi:10.1016/s1053-8119(02)00015-0 pmid:12595197 fatcat:dkcvxwcwwvhrrifl6ee7s5xn2q
more »... tivation of right anterior parahippocampal and extrastriate visual brain areas, whereas in a negative encoding context, recall was predicted by activation of the amygdala. Thus, we could demonstrate that successful episodic encoding is differentially modulated by emotional context. These results contribute to the understanding of the interaction of emotion and cognition and moreover are of general relevance for studies of episodic memory.
Correspondence: Susanne Erk, MD, PhD, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Division of Mind and Brain Research, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Charitéplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin, ... Author Contributions: Drs Erk and Spottke contributed equally. Financial Disclosure: None reported. ...doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.80 pmid:21810648 fatcat:yzzbdmdtuzc5bfb4bcq64ckt2y
Although lamivudine was able to inhibit HBV replication, it failed to reverse the changes on ERK and Akt phosphorylation. ... Recently, we reported that replication of HBV in liver-derived cells (Huh7) and primary marmoset hepatocytes was associated with the upregulation of phosphorylated ERK (pERK), Akt (pAkt) and c-Myc (pc-Myc ... Infection of Huh7 cells with rAdHBV-wt resulted in an increase in pERK1/2 and pAkt compared with mock controls, whereas the levels of total ERK and Akt remained unchanged (Figures 2A & 3A) . ...pmid:18505173 fatcat:utkoi3nknfgxdidcg6sn4n4eg4
Neuroimaging has demonstrated that voluntary emotion regulation is effective in reducing amygdala activation to aversive stimuli during regulation. However, to date little is known about the sustainability of these neural effects once active emotion regulation has been terminated. Methodology/Principal Findings: We addressed this issue by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy female subjects. We performed an active emotion regulation task using aversive visual scenesdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006726 pmid:21949675 pmcid:PMC3175755 fatcat:wd57c22zgff3xavszqrrtbzsea
more »... task 1) and a subsequent passive viewing task using the same stimuli (task 2). Here we demonstrate not only a significantly reduced amygdala activation during active regulation but also a sustained regulation effect on the amygdala in the subsequent passive viewing task. This effect was related to an immediate increase of amygdala signal in task 1 once active emotion regulation has been terminated: The larger this peak postregulation signal in the amygdala in task 1, the smaller the sustained regulation effect in task 2. Conclusions/Significance: In summary, we found clear evidence that effects of voluntary emotion regulation extend beyond the period of active regulation. These findings are of importance for the understanding of emotion regulation in general, for disorders of emotion regulation and for psychotherapeutic interventions.
At the same time, PKC-mediated JNK activation is reduced, providing evidence for a mutual regulation of PKC/PKC affecting different arms of the p38/ERK/ JNK pathways. ... Activation of PKC by the growth factor PDGF via a phospholipase C␥-mediated pathway (14) points to a role in the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) cascade ... leads to the inhibition of PKC-triggered JNK activity and to increased PKC-dependent MAPK activity, providing evidence for a mutual regulation of these PKC members affecting different arms of the p38/ERK ...doi:10.1074/jbc.m106083200 pmid:11741879 fatcat:s5qlgxhusng4bklf3jecthvuqa
Activation of the right TPJ/IPL is in line with previous reappraisal studies (Ochsner et al. 2002; Johnstone et al. 2007; Delgado et al. 2008; Goldin et al. 2008; Staudinger et al. 2009; Walter et al. 2009; Erk ...doi:10.1093/cercor/bhr041 pmid:21459835 fatcat:gy7lqxxtc5cmbj54bh2xwppgjq
-51 -39 -3 4.75 Superior temporal gyrus L 22 -42 -33 -18 3.88 Caudate nucleus L -9 -21 -0 4.73 Amygdala-hippocampal region L -21 -15 -12 4.18 Amygdala R -27 -6 -24 4.00 Buchheim /Erk ...doi:10.1159/000091800 pmid:16531690 fatcat:ogi7ee3ckrfjnhq2b75pbzwohe
Even though KRAS-mutations were not correlated with survival, all KRAS-mutants were found capable of potentially activating MEK/ERK- and sustaining PI3K/AKT-signaling in MM cells. ... of MEK/ERK-and EGFR-inhibitors  . ... In JJN3, a slight activation of MEK but no activation of ERK was visible after transposition with Sleeping Beauty vectors. ...doi:10.3390/cancers12020455 pmid:32079091 pmcid:PMC7072554 fatcat:rxl7yecy6vf63os77e3f5ot3ey
These group ROIs comprised regions reported by previous studies investigating ER with the same Köhler/Weilnhammer/Walter/Erk/Guhn/ Sterzer Neuropsychobiology 4 DOI: 10.1159/000518996 paradigm ...doi:10.1159/000518996 pmid:34571510 fatcat:yzqnk6cjrvhd3ot2i7l56eyagy
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