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Confronting Surprise

Robert Lempert, Steven Popper, Steven Bankes
<span title="">2002</span> <i title="SAGE Publications"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/bwtlvblcpjazvj7sl4x6pivdnu" style="color: black;">Social science computer review</a> </i> &nbsp;
The authors propose employing computer-assisted reasoning methods in conjunction with simulation models to create large ensembles of plausible future scenarios.  ...  Surprise takes many forms, all tending to disrupt plans and planning systems.  ...  FAST is believed to be one of the 432 SOCIAL SCIENCE COMPUTER REVIEW most efficient and accurate global sensitivity analysis algorithms.  ... 
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<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20100624125617/http://cscs.umich.edu/~rlr/CSCS530/uploads//Main/lempert-popper-bankes-2002.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/32/1a/321a74c8dd27b6dd8cd47d52c9e8f86a6c6bf082.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1177/089443902237320"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> sagepub.com </button> </a>

The Surprising Power of Epidemic Communication [chapter]

Kenneth P. Birman
<span title="">2003</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Several attempts to commercialize distributed computing technologies with strong properties failed.  ...  Gossip-based techniques offer surprising scalability and robustness because information spreads through the system along a set of paths that grows exponentially over time.  ... 
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<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170830073318/http://www.cs.cornell.edu/Info/Projects/Spinglass/public_pdfs/Surprising%20Power.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/ce/78/ce78190ebbc8b67068c3ce09c15e0ef4fd4e2695.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-37795-6_18"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Surprise-Based Qualitative Probabilistic Networks [chapter]

Zina M. Ibrahim, Ahmed Y. Tawfik, Alioune Ngom
<span title="">2009</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
This paper is a continuation of the study of surprise as a base for constructing qualitative calculi for representing and reasoning about uncertain knowledge.  ...  Having formulated surprise propagation rules via order of magnitude conditional operators, we commit this paper to show some of the properties that κ ++ possesses which make it an improvement on κ, the  ...  computing the Weaver index).  ... 
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Four Shorts Stories on Surprising Algorithmic Uses of Treewidth [chapter]

Dániel Marx
<span title="">2020</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Counting subgraphs It is a well-known phenomenon in theoretical computer science that in many cases finding a solution is easier than counting the number of all solutions.  ...  But perhaps the nicest and most surprising reason for arriving at this notion is when the original goal has nothing to do with treewidth, but suddenly treewidth appears as the right theoretical tool for  ... 
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Demeter Interfaces: Adaptive Programming Without Surprises [chapter]

Therapon Skotiniotis, Jeffrey Palm, Karl Lieberherr
<span title="">2006</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Computation along a traversal is defined through specialized Visitors while the traversal itself is separately defined against a graph-based model of the underlying data structure with the ability to abstract  ...  ., data structure and behavior (computations) with a third definition succinctly binding the two contexts together.  ...  This is not surprising since even in plain Java, switching the order of member definitions does not change a program's behavior.  ... 
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Reasoning About Surprising Scenarios in Description Logics of Typicality [chapter]

Gian Luca Pozzato
<span title="">2016</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
We continue our investigation on nonmonotonic procedures for preferential Description Logics in order to reason about plausible but surprising scenarios.  ...  introduce a further extension of the proposed approach in order to reason about all plausible extensions of the ABox, by restricting the attention to specific degrees of expectedness ranging from the most surprising  ...  We define a procedure computing the following steps: 1. compute the set C a of all typicality assumptions that are minimally entailed from the KB in the nonmonotonic logic ALC + T RaCl R ; 2. compute all  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-49130-1_31">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-49130-1_31</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/igjhrekh3jchtj5wpq4zahjviq">fatcat:igjhrekh3jchtj5wpq4zahjviq</a> </span>
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Graph Clustering with Surprise: Complexity and Exact Solutions [chapter]

Tobias Fleck, Andrea Kappes, Dorothea Wagner
<span title="">2014</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
We show that the problem of finding a clustering with optimum surprise is N Phard.  ...  Moreover, a bicriterial view on the problem permits to compute optimum solutions for small instances by solving a small number of integer linear programs, and leads to a polynomial time algorithm on trees  ...  Algorithm 1 computes the surprise value of an optimal clustering with respect to surprise in O(n 5 ) time. Proof. Consider a solution of MACP on a tree deleting k edges with value F r (k).  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-04298-5_20">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-04298-5_20</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/cpytwxoknzet3hhe5zmizn2ysi">fatcat:cpytwxoknzet3hhe5zmizn2ysi</a> </span>
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Discovery of surprising exception rules based on intensity of implication [chapter]

Einoshin Suzuki, Yves Kodratoff
<span title="">1998</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
However, PEDRE, being too conservative, have difficulty in discovering surprising rules. Historic exception discoveries show that surprise is often linked with interestingness.  ...  This paper presents an algorithm for discovering surprising exception rules from data sets.  ...  Intensity of implication [3] is an evaluation criterion of surprise for a rule. It represents the degree of surprise that a rule Art --+ c has so few counter examples.  ... 
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Identifying Surprising Events in Videos Using Bayesian Topic Models [chapter]

Avishai Hendel, Daphna Weinshall, Shmuel Peleg
<span title="">2011</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
We propose to compute this abstract measure of surprise by first modeling a corpus of video events using the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model.  ...  To this end we employ the notion of Bayesian surprise, as defined in [1, 2] , in which an event is considered surprising if its occurrence leads to a large change in the probability of the world model.  ...  The Bayesian Surprise formula when applied to the LDA model can be now written as: S(α, α) = KL DIR (α, α) (6) The Kullback -Leibler divergence of two Dirichlet distributions can be computed as [19] :  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-19318-7_35">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-19318-7_35</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ykplmgveyjcvbcx7immasbc5ay">fatcat:ykplmgveyjcvbcx7immasbc5ay</a> </span>
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Surprising Areas in the Quest for Small Universal Devices

Maurice Margenstern
<span title="">2009</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/uy5mv2ncw5eahkdx47hkrglxmm" style="color: black;">Electronical Notes in Theoretical Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
It leads from properties belonging to the classical domain up to results on super-Turing computations.  ...  which is used far beyond the community of computer science.  ...  Of course, within the frame of computer science, we cannot accept that a cell has an infinite amount of information at its disposal.  ... 
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Do Hypervolume Regressions Hinder EMOA Performance? Surprise and Relief [chapter]

Leonard Judt, Olaf Mersmann, Boris Naujoks
<span title="">2013</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
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Planning to Be Surprised: Optimal Bayesian Exploration in Dynamic Environments [chapter]

Yi Sun, Faustino Gomez, Jürgen Schmidhuber
<span title="">2011</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Acknowledgement This research was funded in part by Swiss National Science Foundation grant 200020-122124/1, and the EU IM-CLeVeR project (#231722).  ...  Others renamed this Bayesian surprise [3] .  ...  This can be interpreted as the degree of 'unexpectedness' or 'surprise' caused by observing samples from p when expecting samples from q.  ... 
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Heredity, Complexity, and Surprise: Embedded Self-Replication and Evolution in CA [chapter]

Chris Salzberg, Hiroki Sayama
<span title="">2004</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Von Neumann observed that natural organisms have a surprising collective tendency to increase such complication over time.  ...  In particular, such models lack the "surprise!" [23] element that plays a crucial role in the emergence of complexity-increasing evolution.  ... 
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<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200321161100/http://harvey.binghamton.edu/~sayama/papers/acri2004.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/18/17/1817a57a973fb3d9b4e766e4b77d6ec7bafe9c1c.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-30479-1_17"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Suspense? Surprise! or How to Generate Stories with Surprise Endings by Exploiting the Disparity of Knowledge between a Story's Reader and Its Characters [chapter]

Byung-Chull Bae, R. Michael Young
<span title="">2009</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Surprise and suspense can be effectively combined to increase story interest, complementing each other. In particular, stories with surprise endings can make a strong impression on the readers.  ...  In this paper we present an extension of our previous efforts to generate a story with surprise endings maintaining the reader's suspense by adopting the notion of disparity of knowledge between the reader  ...  Our previous paper [2] has presented a planning-based computational model of surprise arousal motivated by the Structural Affect Theory.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-10643-9_35">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-10643-9_35</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/42zw64czefhehfnkfw57q4u3ga">fatcat:42zw64czefhehfnkfw57q4u3ga</a> </span>
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The Element of Surprise in Timed Games [chapter]

Luca de Alfaro, Marco Faella, Thomas A. Henzinger, Rupak Majumdar, Mariëlle Stoelinga
<span title="">2003</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
We prove that the ability to take each other by surprise adds extra power to the players.  ...  First, players can take each other by surprise, because actions are played with delays that cannot be anticipated by the opponent.  ...  Introduction Games have become a central modeling paradigm in computer science.  ... 
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<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20080221160122/http://www.soe.ucsc.edu/~luca/papers/03/concur03timed.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/a6/0a/a60ae345a2a53065808e0eac801c020910c729f2.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-45187-7_9"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>
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