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Succinct Randomized Encodings and their Applications

Nir Bitansky, Sanjam Garg, Huijia Lin, Rafael Pass, Sidharth Telang
2015 Proceedings of the Forty-Seventh Annual ACM on Symposium on Theory of Computing - STOC '15  
of Π's time and space complexity. • Publicly-verifiable 2-message delegation where verifying the result of a long computation given by Π and input x is as fast as encoding the corresponding computation  ...  We also show how to transform any 2-message delegation scheme to an essentially non-interactive system where the verifier message is reusable.  ...  Acknowledgements We thank Boaz Barak and Guy Rothblum for their input regarding the plausibility of interactive proofs with fast verification (relevant to the plausibility of perfectly-private succinct  ... 
doi:10.1145/2746539.2746574 dblp:conf/stoc/BitanskyGLPT15 fatcat:xh456jdiz5aivdovp56tnb4ugq

Succinct Arguments from Multi-prover Interactive Proofs and Their Efficiency Benefits [chapter]

Nir Bitansky, Alessandro Chiesa
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Succinct arguments of knowledge are computationally-sound proofs of knowledge for NP where the verifier's running time is independent of the time complexity of the NP nondeterministic machine for the considered  ...  The scheme is based on fully-homomorphic encryption (and no additional assumptions are needed for our succinct argument). (3) In addition, we revisit the problem of non-interactive succinct arguments of  ...  We thank Eli Ben-Sasson for discussions about MIP constructions. We also thank Ran Canetti, Omer Paneth, and Ben Riva for valuable discussions on MIP-based SNARKs.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-32009-5_16 fatcat:je4zuvn23bcfvb5xwzgv3t3zjm

Multi-collision resistance: a paradigm for keyless hash functions

Nir Bitansky, Yael Tauman Kalai, Omer Paneth
2018 Proceedings of the 50th Annual ACM SIGACT Symposium on Theory of Computing - STOC 2018  
This includes: • 3-message zero-knowledge arguments for NP. • 3-message succinct arguments of knowledge for NP. • 4-message ε-zero-knowledge proofs for NP. • 5-message public-coin zero-knowledge arguments  ...  for NP. * MIT,  ...  We also thank Benny Applebaum, John Steinberger, and Avi Wigderson for valuable discussions.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3188745.3188870 dblp:conf/stoc/BitanskyKP18 fatcat:wkozeczwgvhz7cmwj6ev4nmuki

Batch Arguments for NP and More from Standard Bilinear Group Assumptions [article]

Brent Waters, David J. Wu
2022 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
As corollaries to our main construction, we also obtain the rst publicly-veri able non-interactive delegation scheme for RAM programs with a CRS of sublinear size (in the running time of the RAM program  ...  Previously, batch arguments for NP were only known from LWE, or a combination of multiple assumptions, or from non-standard/non-falsi able assumptions.  ...  Many works have focused on constructing delegation schemes for deterministic computations.  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/WatersW22 fatcat:rvtiizzhizfsxebsafr6sprg2e

Delegating Computation

Shafi Goldwasser, Yael Tauman Kalai, Guy N. Rothblum
2015 Journal of the ACM  
Using this theorem we make progress on several questions: • We show how to construct short (polylog size) computationally sound non-interactive certificates of correctness for any log-space uniform N C  ...  These proof systems can be used for delegating computation: a server can run a computation for a client and interactively prove the correctness of the result.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank Salil Vadhan for illuminating conversations and insightful comments. Thanks also to Adam Kalai and Ran Raz for their generous assistance.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2699436 fatcat:loxaz5ha4zfu3euozgvdw6xmim

Delegating computation

Shafi Goldwasser, Yael Tauman Kalai, Guy N. Rothblum
2008 Proceedings of the fourtieth annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing - STOC 08  
Using this theorem we make progress on several questions: • We show how to construct short (polylog size) computationally sound non-interactive certificates of correctness for any log-space uniform N C  ...  These proof systems can be used for delegating computation: a server can run a computation for a client and interactively prove the correctness of the result.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank Salil Vadhan for illuminating conversations and insightful comments. Thanks also to Adam Kalai and Ran Raz for their generous assistance.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1374376.1374396 dblp:conf/stoc/GoldwasserKR08 fatcat:vi6ybbxxsvhgzlsrwgwyubnuhy

Delegating Computation: Interactive Proofs for Muggles [article]

Shafi Goldwasser, Guy N. Rothblum, Yael Tauman Kalai
2017 Electronic colloquium on computational complexity  
These proof systems can be used for delegating computation: a server can run a computation for a client and interactively prove the correctness of the result.  ...  In particular, for languages computable by log-space uniform N C (circuits of polylog(n) depth), the prover is efficient, the verifier runs in time n • polylog(n) and space O(log(n)), and the communication  ...  Acknowledgements We thank Ran Raz and Salil Vadhan for their encouragement, illuminating conversations and insightful comments. We also thank anonymous referees for many helpful comments.  ... 
dblp:journals/eccc/GoldwasserRK17 fatcat:nt36zqcwtzbnznkttl3lzx6e4m

Somewhere Statistical Soundness, Post-Quantum Security, and SNARGs for P [article]

Yael Tauman Kalai, Vinod Vaikuntanathan, Rachel Yun Zhang
2021 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
PCP is known to exist only for deterministic languages and for specific subclasses of non-deterministic languages such as NTISP, but not for all of NP). • We put forward a natural conjecture that constant-round  ...  non-interactive argument (SNARG) for BatchNP into a SNARG for any language that has a non-signaling PCP, including any deterministic language and any language in NTISP, using a somewhere statistically  ...  deterministic languages and for specific classes of non-deterministic languages (such as BatchNP or the class NTISP(t, s) 3 ) since a computationally non-signaling PCP with the desired parameters exists  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/KalaiVZ21 fatcat:q4ux6amfnreszbxopav6ss74nm

Generalizing Homomorphic MACs for Arithmetic Circuits [chapter]

Dario Catalano, Dario Fiore, Rosario Gennaro, Luca Nizzardo
2014 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Following the recent development of cloud computing, it is becoming popular for users to delegate the storage of their data to remote service providers. On  ...  Beyond security, homomorphic MACs are required to produce short tags (succinctness) and to support composability (i.e., outputs of authenticated computations should be re-usable as inputs for new computations  ...  Governments are authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation hereon.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-54631-0_31 fatcat:bizafzy52rhtjiujqxd6xybme4

Fully Succinct Garbled RAM

Ran Canetti, Justin Holmgren
2016 Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Conference on Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science - ITCS '16  
We construct the first fully succinct garbling scheme for RAM programs, assuming the existence of indistinguishability obfuscation for circuits and one-way functions.  ...  A key technical challenge here is how to combine the fixed-prefix technique of KLW, which was developed for deterministic programs, with randomized Oblivious RAM techniques.  ...  Acknowledgements This work was done in part while the authors were visiting the Simons Institute for the Theory of Computing, supported by the Simons Foundation and by the DIMACS/Simons Collaboration in  ... 
doi:10.1145/2840728.2840765 dblp:conf/innovations/CanettiH16 fatcat:lngwueuuvndengkclr7n7tsjq4

Rational arguments

Siyao Guo, Pavel Hubáček, Alon Rosen, Margarita Vald
2014 Proceedings of the 5th conference on Innovations in theoretical computer science - ITCS '14  
The low interaction nature of our protocols, along with their sub-linear verification time, make them well suited for delegation of computation.  ...  In this paper, we show that by considering rational arguments, in which the prover is additionally restricted to be computationally bounded, the class NC1, of search problems computable by log-space uniform  ...  For problems outside of P, the main notion considered is that of succinct non-interactive arguments.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2554797.2554845 dblp:conf/innovations/GuoHRV14 fatcat:gle7jmcp3jhtznvw4dyfqjfocm

Impossibilities in Succinct Arguments: Black-box Extraction and More [article]

Matteo Campanelli, Chaya Ganesh, Hamidreza Khoshakhlagh, Janno Siim
2022 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
The celebrated result by Gentry and Wichs established a theoretical barrier for succinct non-interactive arguments (SNARGs), showing that for (expressive enough) hard-on-average languages we must assume  ...  Under the existence of SNARGs (without extractability) and from standard assumptions, it is possible to build SNARKs with black-box extractability for a non-trivial subset of NP. 3.  ...  We thank the reviewers of CRYPTO 2022 for constructive feedback, in particular, for pointing out the connection between blackbox extractability and leakage-resilient cryptography.  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/CampanelliGKS22 fatcat:5t52djd5j5b7xffx2cgsjaqqjm

Fast reductions from RAMs to delegatable succinct constraint satisfaction problems

Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Daniel Genkin, Eran Tromer
2013 Proceedings of the 4th conference on Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science - ITCS '13  
Specifically, we construct reductions from the correctness of computation of a T -step non-deterministic random-access machine to: 1. (succinct) circuit satisfiability with O(log T ) overhead, and 2.  ...  Succinct arguments for NP are proof systems that allow a weak verifier to retroactively check computation done by a more powerful prover.  ...  For example, in an ideal world, we would want practical non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs for any problem in NP, practical delegation protocols for any polynomial-time function, practical succinct  ... 
doi:10.1145/2422436.2422481 dblp:conf/innovations/Ben-SassonCGT13 fatcat:q3dkmogkevhp5j6ljdcxb6iw5m

Litmus: Towards a Practical Database Management System with Verifiable ACID Properties and Transaction Correctness

Yu Xia, Xiangyao Yu, Matthew Butrovich, Andrew Pavlo, Srinivas Devadas
2022 Proceedings of the 2022 International Conference on Management of Data  
CCS Concepts • Security and privacy → Database and storage security; • Theory of computation → Theory of database privacy and security.  ...  Verifiable Computation (VC): This is a cryptographic protocol that enables a (usually computationally limited) client to delegate expensive computation to an untrusted server.  ...  In the DBaaS setting, the single client is the organization that delegates the database, which might be the proxy of millions Optional for universal verifiable computation schemes *Optional if using deterministic  ... 
doi:10.1145/3514221.3517851 fatcat:ox74vsiacng6tameuirqtqklta

Two Protocols for Delegation of Computation [chapter]

Ran Canetti, Ben Riva, Guy N. Rothblum
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Using this simplification we construct two computationally sound protocols for delegation of computation of any circuit C with depth d and input length n, even a non-uniform one, such that the client runs  ...  In contrast, in the single server setting all known one-round succinct delegation protocols are computationally sound.  ...  We note that the same technique can be applied to the protocols of [CKLR11] for memory and streaming delegation that are based on the protocol of [GKR08] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-32284-6_3 fatcat:ziuzeov4lfetlbw55g5dwqquj4
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