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Succinct Non-interactive Arguments via Linear Interactive Proofs [chapter]

Nir Bitansky, Alessandro Chiesa, Yuval Ishai, Omer Paneth, Rafail Ostrovsky
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Succinct non-interactive arguments (SNARGs) enable verifying NP statements with lower complexity than required for classical NP verification.  ...  Additionally, these constructions seem to have "escaped the hegemony" of probabilistically-checkable proofs (PCPs) as a basic building block of succinct arguments.  ...  ] in bilinear groups.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-36594-2_18 fatcat:jdnygt3cszazpaubzom77wdyku

NECTAR: Non-Interactive Smart Contract Protocol using Blockchain Technology [article]

Alexandra Covaci and Simone Madeo and Patrick Motylinski and Stéphane Vincent
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Our solution is based on programming tools which optimize the time execution and the required memory while preserving the embedded functionality.  ...  Bilinear Groups. The protocol as described herein is based on bilinear pairing cryptography, i.e. the polynomials of a QAP are encoded into elements of groups.  ...  There are many ways to set up bilinear groups, and our construction uses asymmetric bilinear groups where G 1 G 2 .  ... 
arXiv:1803.04860v1 fatcat:lsfzxdhx4jaynit5nwe3a6b22u

Non-interactive Zero-knowledge for Blockchain: A Survey

Juha Partala, Tri Hong Nguyen, Susanna Pirttikangas
2020 IEEE Access  
For current zero-knowledge argument schemes, practical computations can be performed only for relatively small circuits.  ...  For nonalgebraic statements and, in particular, for general computations Σ-protocols tend to be inefficient. 2) Zero-knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge (SNARKs) [38] follow the  ...  Since 2018, he has been a doctoral student in the Center for Ubiquitous Computing, University of Oulu.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3046025 fatcat:crl77kezmbfydhtvvv6i3lrzdi

ADSNARK: Nearly Practical and Privacy-Preserving Proofs on Authenticated Data

Michael Backes, Manuel Barbosa, Dario Fiore, Raphael M. Reischuk
2015 2015 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy  
In this paper, we formalize the above three-party model, discuss concrete application scenarios, and then we design, build, and evaluate ADSNARK, a nearly practical system for proving arbitrary computations  ...  over authenticated data in a privacy-preserving manner.  ...  A scheme for Succinct Non-interactive Arguments over Authenticated Data (AD-SNARG, for short) for arithmetic circuit satisfiability consists of a tuple of algorithms (Setup, AuthKG, Auth, AuthVer, Gen,  ... 
doi:10.1109/sp.2015.24 dblp:conf/sp/0001BFR15 fatcat:tktsxud24vglnpawurm7p7y2ju

Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge Proofs for Composite Statements [chapter]

Shashank Agrawal, Chaya Ganesh, Payman Mohassel
2018 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Motivated by applications such as privacy-preserving credentials and privacy-preserving audits in cryptocurrencies, we study the design of NIZKs for composite statements that compose algebraic and arithmetic  ...  The former is highly efficient for proving algebraic statements while the latter is superior for arithmetic representations.  ...  Bilinear groups.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-96878-0_22 fatcat:ydijphrvg5gehkfmesqfp7ha6u

An Anonymous On-Street Parking Authentication Scheme via Zero-Knowledge Set Membership Proof [article]

Jerry Chien Lin Ho, Chi-Yi Lin
2021 arXiv   pre-print
It is of utmost importance for us to consider the privacy data leakage and compromised identity from both outside adversaries and inside abuse of data access privilege.  ...  The on-street parking system is therefore immune to privacy data leakage, as for now one cannot mass-query and profile certain user's traces within the system.  ...  The authors of this paper would also like to thank Ting Yi Huang for her contribution to the drawing of charts in this paper.  ... 
arXiv:2108.03629v1 fatcat:2pkj3yjxkjbhtfvnitrgvsrgiu

How to Obfuscate Programs Directly [chapter]

Joe Zimmerman
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
For the first time, the only remaining obstacle to implementable obfuscation in practice is the noise growth in known, "noisy" multilinear maps.  ...  Using our new techniques, along with the assumption that factoring is hard on average, we show that "clean" multilinear maps imply succinct obfuscation for P/poly.  ...  In our view, our results indicate that constructing "clean" multilinear maps is one of the most fundamental open problems in cryptography. Succinctness and keyed circuits.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-46803-6_15 fatcat:6wnoonhj6feblo65oi4xwkxlpu

Authenticating Computation on Groups: New Homomorphic Primitives and Applications [chapter]

Dario Catalano, Antonio Marcedone, Orazio Puglisi
2014 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
As a second result, we show how to construct linearly homomorphic signature schemes to sign elements in bilinear groups (LHSG for short).  ...  Such type of signatures are very similar to (linearly homomorphic) structure preserving ones, but they allow for more flexibility, as the signature is explicitly allowed to contain components which are  ...  If the practical application allows the fid to be a group element and not simply a string, we can replace the signature S with a Structure preserving Signature satisfying the same hypothesis of theorem  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-45608-8_11 fatcat:icmv3ywcrrh7dgxiivwbhf55gy

A Hybrid Architecture for Interactive Verifiable Computation

V. Vu, S. Setty, A. J. Blumberg, M. Walfish
2013 2013 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy  
Worse, it is not always clear which protocol will perform better for a given problem.  ...  Complexity theory and cryptography offer solutions in principle, but if implemented naively, they are ludicrously expensive.  ...  We thank Zuocheng Ren for helpful suggestions and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1109/sp.2013.48 dblp:conf/sp/VuSBW13 fatcat:iwbldzad3zad7ailfpaqtfgxay

Recursive composition and bootstrapping for SNARKS and proof-carrying data

Nir Bitansky, Ran Canetti, Alessandro Chiesa, Eran Tromer
2013 Proceedings of the 45th annual ACM symposium on Symposium on theory of computing - STOC '13  
Cryptography offers a host of potential solutions, but as we argue below, to date these are only partial. Succinct interactive arguments.  ...  By plugging into our transformations the NIZKs of [Groth, ASIACRYPT '10], whose security is based on a Knowledge of Exponent assumption in bilinear groups, we obtain the first publicly-verifiable SNARKs  ...  Acknowledgments We thank Daniel Wichs for discussions of the preprocessing constructions of Groth and Lipmaa.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2488608.2488623 dblp:conf/stoc/BitanskyCCT13 fatcat:jqcnctulgzg5jitytfr6rcyh3q

PvCT: A Publicly Verifiable Contact Tracing Algorithm in Cloud Computing

Yixiao Zhu, Wenjie Ma, Jiangtao Cui, Xiaofang Xia, Yanguo Peng, Jianting Ning, M.A. Jabbar
2021 Security and Communication Networks  
Furthermore, we provide rigorous security proof of our algorithm based on the q -Strong Bilinear Diffie–Hellman assumption.  ...  To guarantee the integrity and accuracy of contact tracing results, PvCT applies a novel set accumulator-based authentication data structure whose computation is outsourced, and the client can check whether  ...  A possible solution is to utilize general verifiable computation schemes [10, 11] by using techniques such as succinct noninteractive argument of knowledge (SNARK).  ... 
doi:10.1155/2021/5514137 fatcat:344oy2a26jftpkeiaodxhgvpoy

VAIM: Verifiable Anonymous Identity Management for Human-centric Security and Privacy in the Internet of Things

Gyeongjin Ra, Taehoon Kim, Imyeong Lee
2021 IEEE Access  
Also, It is based on the zero-knowledge succinct non-interactive argument of knowledge (ZK-SNARKs) and circuit and quadratic arithmetic program (QAP) polynomial scheme [18] .  ...  Due to the complexity of the inverse bilinear pairing operation problem (IBPOP), it is computationally infeasible to compute the second argument provided the fourth equation and values of c and d. • Completeness  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3080329 fatcat:s2nnhs3tsjc5ppfs7r5yffep2q

Multi-Party Proof Generation in QAP-based zk-SNARKs [article]

Ali Rahimi, Mohammad Ali Maddah-Ali
2021 arXiv   pre-print
There are various versions of zk-SNARK, among them, Quadratic Arithmetic Program (QAP)-based zk-SNARK has been widely used in practice, specially in Blockchain technology.  ...  Zero-knowledge succinct non-interactive argument of knowledge (zkSNARK) allows a party, known as the prover, to convince another party, known as the verifier, that he knows a private value v, without revealing  ...  Let e : G 1 × G 2 → G T be a non-trivial bilinear map from two groups G 1 and G 2 to a group G T , and g 1 , g 2 be generators of G 1 , G 2 respectively.  ... 
arXiv:2103.01344v1 fatcat:woluvtp5yzd5vhgljemefwjzlu

Verifiable Subgraph Matching With Cryptographic Accumulators in Cloud Computing

Yixiao Zhu, Hui Li, Jiangtao Cui, Yong Ma
2019 IEEE Access  
Meanwhile, the increasing popularity of storing graph data in the cloud drives demands for graph query processing on a remote cloud server.  ...  To that end, we have put forth both public and designated verification schemes which focus on subgraph matching problems for outsourced graph data.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to appreciate the editors and anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on an earlier draft of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2019.2955243 fatcat:3gy4rohvo5bd5akjtna4bsnesm

Secure Sampling of Public Parameters for Succinct Zero Knowledge Proofs

Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Matthew Green, Eran Tromer, Madars Virza
2015 2015 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy  
However, succinct NIZKs (e.g., zk-SNARK schemes) necessitate a trusted party to generate and publish some public parameters, to be used by all provers and verifiers.  ...  senses) and can be subsequently used for generating and verifying numerous proofs without any further trust.  ...  The new proofs are known as zero-knowledge succinct arguments of knowledge (zk-SNARKs) [15] - [17] , and have already found practical applications, e.g., to building decentralized electronic cash [8  ... 
doi:10.1109/sp.2015.25 dblp:conf/sp/Ben-SassonC0TV15 fatcat:lh2mmdyenjhexcmt3cytfwncfa
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