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Structured Bit-Interleaved LDPC Codes for MLC Flash Memory

Kathryn Haymaker, Christine A. Kelley
2014 IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications  
Due to a structural feature in the programming process of MLC (two bits per cell) and TLC (three bits per cell) flash memory, the majority of errors that occur are singlebit errors.  ...  In this work we analyze binary regular LDPC codes in the standard bit-interleaved coded modulation implementation, assuming different probabilities on the bits, to determine what ratio of each type of  ...  Structured Bit-Interleaved LDPC Codes for MLC Flash Memory Kathryn Haymaker and Christine A.  ... 
doi:10.1109/jsac.2014.140507 fatcat:jw2pydohnvhljasmzwa52kq2ii

A Low-Cost Improved Method of Raw Bit Error Rate Estimation for NAND Flash Memory of High Storage Density

Kainan Ma, Ming Liu, Tao Li, Yibo Yin, Hongda Chen
2020 Electronics  
Cells wear fast in NAND flash memory of high storage density (HSD), so it is very necessary to have a long-term frequent in-time monitoring on its raw bit error rate (RBER) changes through a fast RBER  ...  Experimental results show that when RBER is close to the upper bound of LDPC code, the reading efficiency can be increased by 35.8% compared to the case of no rate penalty.  ...  Among types of LDPC codes, quasi-cyclic LDPC (QC-LDPC) code [32] is a structured LDPC code recommended because it satisfies the row/column constraint to make sure no loop iteration in decoding which  ... 
doi:10.3390/electronics9111900 fatcat:tn4h44x62rfqvbvp3aijx66cii

Data storage time sensitive ECC schemes for MLC NAND Flash memories

C. Yang, D. Muckatira, A. Kulkarni, C. Chakrabarti
2013 2013 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing  
In both cases, we first apply Gray coding and 2-bit interleaving.  ...  For instance, for a 2KB MLC Flash used in long storage time applications, the proposed ECC scheme has 50% lower energy and 60% lower decoding latency compared to the BCH scheme.  ...  Since the error correction capability of Hamming code [5] is not sufficient for increased error rate in NAND Flash memories, especially for MLC NAND Flash in scaled technology nodes, BCH code based ECC  ... 
doi:10.1109/icassp.2013.6638108 dblp:conf/icassp/YangMKC13 fatcat:hp33blqmtbbgpidbaasvstopga

Error Correction Codes and Signal Processing in Flash Memory [chapter]

Xueqiang Wang, Guiqiang Dong, Liyang Pan, Runde Zhou
2011 Flash Memories  
NAND flash memory structure NAND flash memory cells are organized in an array->block->page hierarchy, as illustrated in Fig. 1 ., where one NAND flash memory array is partitioned into many blocks, and  ...  each Flash Memories  ...  Modern NAND flash memories use either even/odd bit-line structure, or all-bit-line structure.  ... 
doi:10.5772/19083 fatcat:sndd6bcb25ghtby7nnh4dsevz4

Guest Editorial Communication Methodologies for the Next-Generation Storage Systems

Lara Dolecek, Mario Blaum, Jehoshua Bruck, Anxiao Andrew Jiang, Kannan Ramchandran, Bane Vasic
2014 IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications  
Solid state drives (NAND flash based and DRAM based) are rapidly gaining importance due to their energy efficiency at high access speeds.  ...  Such non-volatile memories (NVMs) have already found use in consumer electronics and in enterprise storage, but still lag hard disk drives in terms of the cost.  ...  The paper "Structured Bit-Interleaved LDPC Codes for MLC Flash," by K. Haymaker and C. A.  ... 
doi:10.1109/jsac.2014.140501 fatcat:rghjd3xwibcpjakdzcn7pc2gt4

Error Control Coding for Flash Memory [chapter]

Haruhiko Kaneko
2011 Flash Memories  
Nonbinary LDPC code for flash memory The following evaluates the decoded BER of the nonbinary LDPC codes for a channel model of 8-level cell flash memory (Maeda & Kaneko, 2009) , where the threshold voltages  ...  for Flash Memory Flash Memories Error Control Coding for Flash Memory Will-be-set-by-IN-TECH  ...  Error Control Coding for Flash Memory, Flash Memories, Prof.  ... 
doi:10.5772/18803 fatcat:brzewvo73bbu5jafivbsrjazga

Optimal Detector for Multilevel NAND Flash Memory Channels with Intercell Interference

Meysam Asadi, Xiujie Huang, Aleksandar Kavcic, Narayana Prasad Santhanam
2014 IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications  
In this paper we derive the optimal detector for multilevel cell (MLC) flash memory channels with intercell interference (ICI).  ...  Index Terms-Fast Fourier transform (FFT), intercell interference (ICI), maximum a posteriori (MAP) detector, multilevel cell (MLC), NAND flash memory.  ...  MLC NAND FLASH BASICS A. Structure A NAND flash memory consists of lots of cells.  ... 
doi:10.1109/jsac.2014.140503 fatcat:lgysmyb7urhpzahtrbzrihvbyq

Error Characterization, Mitigation, and Recovery in Flash Memory Based Solid-State Drives [article]

Yu Cai, Saugata Ghose, Erich F. Haratsch, Yixin Luo, Onur Mutlu
2017 arXiv   pre-print
., MLC, TLC) cell data coding.  ...  We provide rigorous experimental data from state-of-the-art MLC and TLC NAND flash devices on various types of flash memory errors, to motivate the need for such techniques.  ...  They would also like to thank their collaborator Seagate for their continued dedicated support.  ... 
arXiv:1706.08642v3 fatcat:ozzc62npvzewhgkb54ebvnh5ta


2018 International Journal of Computing Communications and Networking  
parity check (LDPC), tail-biting Convolutional, and turbo codes as the forward error correcting codes (FEC) scheme for data and overhead channels.  ...  Therefore, many efficient algorithms have been proposed for decoding these codes.  ...  Hamming ECC is commonly used to correct NAND flash memory errors. This provides single-bit error correction and 2bit error detection.  ... 
doi:10.30534/ijccn/2018/25722018 fatcat:5kfljg5ptzgldaohfvu6yuppsu

Protograph-based Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation: A Promising Bandwidth-Efficient Design Paradigm [article]

Yi Fang, Pingping Chen, Yong Liang Guan, Francis C. M. Lau, Yonghui Li, Guanrong Chen
2021 arXiv   pre-print
As an established bandwidth-efficient coded modulation technique, bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) can achieve very desirable error performance with relatively low implementation complexity for  ...  FEC solution for BICM systems, and found widespread applications such as deep-space communication, satellite communication, wireless communication, optical communication, and flash-memory-based data storage  ...  [57] Constructed a family of RC-PLDPC codes and a novel bit-mapping scheme for MLC BICM-NI flash-memory systems. Fang et al.  ... 
arXiv:2112.08557v1 fatcat:szkgba5muvedvbtbrcnfndcrom

Errors in Flash-Memory-Based Solid-State Drives: Analysis, Mitigation, and Recovery [article]

Yu Cai, Saugata Ghose, Erich F. Haratsch, Yixin Luo, Onur Mutlu
2018 arXiv   pre-print
., MLC, TLC) cell data coding.  ...  We provide rigorous experimental data from state-of-the-art MLC and TLC NAND flash devices on various types of flash memory errors, to motivate the need for such techniques.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank Rino Micheloni for his helpful feedback on earlier drafts of the paper. They would also like to thank Seagate for their continued dedicated support.  ... 
arXiv:1711.11427v2 fatcat:rvnbeg4eevfa7lczf2h2ificxi

NAND Flash Memory Organization and Operations

Novotny R Kadlec J
2015 Journal of Information Technology & Software Engineering  
Acknowledgement This research has been supported by the European ARTEMIS Industry Association by the project 7H12002 "Interactive Power Devices for Efficiency in Automotive with Increased Reliability and  ...  Table 1 : 1 The major differences between NAND and NOR flash memory. Table 2 : 2 Error correction for MLC flash and for SLC flash.  ...  In convolutional codes the information bits are spread along the sequence [32] Hamming codes, Bose-Chaudur-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes [33] , Reed-Solomon (RS) codes, and Low-density parity check (LDPC)  ... 
doi:10.4172/2165-7866.1000139 fatcat:qfkfwr3rzvhmpm43qswf2illu4

Read-and-Run Constrained Coding for Modern Flash Devices [article]

Ahmed Hareedy, Simeng Zheng, Paul Siegel, Robert Calderbank
2021 arXiv   pre-print
One of the most important innovations in that regard is enabling the storage of more than one bit per cell in the Flash device, i.e., having more than two charge levels per cell.  ...  Our coding schemes work for any number of levels per cell, offer systematic encoding and decoding, and are capacity-approaching.  ...  An idea that allows page separation for MLC Flash was introduced in [15] .  ... 
arXiv:2111.07415v1 fatcat:5odfjkzh2rfwdc634itzcwwjna

Product Code Schemes for Error Correction in MLC NAND Flash Memories

Chengen Yang, Yunus Emre, Chaitali Chakrabarti
2012 IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (vlsi) Systems  
Error control coding (ECC) is essential for correcting soft errors in Flash memories. In this paper we propose use of product code based schemes to support higher error correction capability.  ...  While these schemes have slightly larger latency and require additional parity bit storage, they provide an easy mechanism to increase the lifetime of the Flash memory devices.  ...  In [18] , 8-bit even-parity code in both dimensions with bit interleaving has been used for SRAM caches of size 256 256 bits.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tvlsi.2011.2174389 fatcat:yxyvfe667zgdriz7nemnrlpjga

Architectural Techniques for Improving NAND Flash Memory Reliability [article]

Yixin Luo
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Raw bit errors are common in NAND flash memory and will increase in the future. These errors reduce flash reliability and limit the lifetime of a flash memory device.  ...  and write-cold data. (2) We propose a new framework that learns an online flash channel model for each chip and enables four new flash controller algorithms to improve flash reliability by up to 69.9%  ...  Soft Information Estimation for LDPC Codes To tolerate flash errors more efficiently, today's flash controllers use LDPC codes to detect and correct multiple raw bit errors in the data read from the flash  ... 
arXiv:1808.04016v1 fatcat:fotned4yajc2xmaoezwjdrgypu
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