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Structural Evolution of Central Pattern Generators for Bipedal Walking in 3D Simulation

Krister Wolff, Jimmy Pettersson, Almir Heralic, Mattias Wahde
2006 2006 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics  
Anthropomorphic walking for a simulated bipedal robot has been realized by means of artificial evolution of central pattern generator (CPG) networks.  ...  The approach has been investigated through full rigid-body dynamics simulations in 3D of a bipedal robot with 14 degrees of freedom.  ...  of structural evolution of CPG networks: Two of the three methods introduced in this paper solved the problem of generating gaits for the simulated bipedal robot in 2D and 3D environments.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icsmc.2006.384387 dblp:conf/smc/WolffPHW06 fatcat:w4mhe7d5brfp5oeqhq3atoj2bq

Theories of bipedal walking: an odyssey

Christopher L Vaughan
2003 Journal of Biomechanics  
They include: evolution, minimising energy consumption, maturation in children, central pattern generators, linking control and effect, and robots on two legs.  ...  In this paper six theories of bipedal walking, and the evidence in support of the theories, are reviewed.  ...  Acknowledgements I gratefully acknowledge the financial support of The Wellcome Trust, the South African Medical Research Council, and the National Research Foundation.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0021-9290(02)00419-0 pmid:12600342 fatcat:jm7opewivnds5lk4mbvoroj3s4

Facilitating Controller Evolution in Morpho-functional Machines — A Bipedal Case Study [chapter]

Torsten Reil, Colm Massey
2003 Morpho-functional Machines: The New Species  
Simulations of bipedal walking showed that the evolution of stable gaits can be greatly facilitated by harnessing design solutions inspired by those of biological organisms.  ...  It is shown that an appropriate implementation of these components greatly improves the speed of evolution -stable straight line walking is typically achieved in substantially less than 100 generations  ...  Torsten Reil is supported by the Guy Newton Scholarship in Zoology, Oxford. We also acknowledge funding through a UCSF grant, University of Oxford.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-4-431-67869-4_5 fatcat:xfs5ykfqnjg3tj3bvxuotm4vqm

Central Pattern Generators for Gait Generation in Bipedal Robots [chapter]

Almir Heralic, Krister Wolff, Mattias Wahde
2007 Humanoid Robots: New Developments  
In view of their ability to generate rhythmic output patterns, CPGs are well suited as the basis for bipedal locomotion.  ...  to achieve efficient and stable bipedal walking for a simulated robot.  ...  Evolutionary optimization of a bipedal gait in a physical robot. Submitted to: IEEE Transactions on Robotics. Zehr, E. P. & Duysens, J. (2004) .  ... 
doi:10.5772/4873 fatcat:t5z6ueudxzdbrafkx5lcgezxqi

A System for Learning to Locomotion Using Adaptive Oscillators in the Humanoid Robot

Seyed Mojtaba Saif
2011 Journal of clean energy technologies  
This paper proposes a central pattern generators based control architecture using a frequency adaptive oscillator for learning to locomotion of humanoid robot.  ...  Central pattern generators are biological neural networks that can produce coordinated multidimensional rhythmic signals, under the control of simple input signals.  ...  CENTRAL PATTERN GENERATORS Studies made on the vertebrates' neural system tend to show that every degree of freedom in the animal's body corresponds to a single neural oscillator.  ... 
doi:10.7763/ijcte.2011.v3.303 fatcat:rvenxmirejgcvfzwaoueissq4u

Machine Learning Algorithms in Bipedal Robot Control

Shouyi Wang, Wanpracha Chaovalitwongse, Robert Babuska
2012 IEEE Transactions on Systems Man and Cybernetics Part C (Applications and Reviews)  
One of such problems is bipedal walking robot control.  ...  Guidelines for future research on learning control of bipedal robots are provided in the end.  ...  Neural oscillator-based approaches are inspired by central pattern generators (CPGs) which have been identified in the spinal cord of many animals.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tsmcc.2012.2186565 fatcat:tchoesxg6rc2vkuh7gtlxxfosa

Complex networks of simple neurons for bipedal locomotion

Brian Allen, Petros Faloutsos
2009 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems  
Recent bio-inspired approaches have made significant progress by using small numbers of tightly coupled neurons, called central pattern generators (CPGs).  ...  We show this approach generates controllers de novo that are able to control 3D bipedal locomotion up to 10 meters.  ...  CPGs are neural structures observed in the spine of many vertebrates that are believed to be responsible for the generation of cyclical patterns, such as for locomotion control [4] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/iros.2009.5354077 dblp:conf/iros/AllenF09 fatcat:fs4yjvbfzjh4vphxpqafrhrvye

Learning to exploit passive compliance for energy-efficient gait generation on a compliant humanoid

Petar Kormushev, Barkan Ugurlu, Darwin G. Caldwell, Nikos G. Tsagarakis
2018 Autonomous Robots  
For the walking generator part, we develop a variable-centerof-mass-height ZMP-based bipedal walking pattern generator.  ...  challenging open problem of exploiting the passive compliance for the purpose of energy efficient humanoid walking.  ...  Shafii et al. utilized central pattern generators to modulate generated bipedal walking trajectories with varying hip height [41] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10514-018-9697-6 fatcat:w2q4lvbdtbhahjmgre6bbzmzp4

A Dynamic Walking Strategy for the Nao Robot Considering Path Planning, CoM and ZMP

Fredy H. Martínez S., Fernando Martínez S., Edwar Jacinto G.
2018 International Journal of Engineering and Technology  
We propose a dynamic bipedal walking scheme based on a simulated model of inverted pendulum and using the Zero Moment Point (ZMP) as a control strategy.  ...  The strategy was encoded in a NAOqi module in Python, and executed in a Nao V5. The behavior of the robot during the walk demonstrated the success of the strategy.  ...  The authors thank the research groups ARMOS and DIGITI for the evaluation carried out on prototypes of ideas and strategies.  ... 
doi:10.21817/ijet/2018/v10i5/181005021 fatcat:ctnm4lwfbraffjvrcrdy4bn5lu

Dynamic Joint Passivization for Bipedal Locomotion [chapter]

Shohei Kato, Minoru Ishi
2011 Biped Robots  
Motion control using a central pattern generator (CPG) has attracted much attention as an effective control mechanism for biped robots to achieve human-like walking (e.g., ; Kotosaka & Schaal (2000) ;  ...  simulation), and velocityẋ(t + ∆T),ẏ(t + ∆T) (ż(t + ∆T) for 3D simulation) of each link after motion.  ... 
doi:10.5772/14588 fatcat:nnmgywbmbfaztgi4ph4lbvqn6i

Morphology independent dynamic locomotion control for virtual characters

Adrian Boeing
2008 2008 IEEE Symposium On Computational Intelligence and Games  
The controllers are simulated in a 3D environment and demonstrated for bipedal, tripedal and snake-like characters.  ...  Existing dynamic simulation controllers are often complex to understand and manipulate, and so are of limited use for animators.  ...  Bräunl for his advice.  ... 
doi:10.1109/cig.2008.5035651 dblp:conf/cig/Boeing08 fatcat:eqvo2ny7dnbzbpgodqrugfmjsq

Visualization of a Juvenile Australopithecus afarensis Specimen: Implications for Functional Foot Anatomy

Eleanor Milman, John Daugherty, Zeresenay Alemseged, Kevin Brennan, Leah Lebowicz
2019 Journal of Biocommunication  
Because bipedal locomotion is one of the earliest characteristics of human functional anatomy to appear in the fossil record, its associated anatomy in early hominins has significant implications for human  ...  evolution (Stern, 2000).  ...  Edward Abraham of for permission to use patient data from UIC Orthopaedics. Thank you to the excavation team who discovered and preserved the Dikika fossil.  ... 
doi:10.5210/jbc.v43i2.10229 fatcat:5uhnx7n35vbcrokaaio4gf2ej4

Sensor-Based Programming of Central Pattern Generators in Humanoid Robots

Hamed Shahbazi, Kamal Jamshidi, Amir Hasan Monadjemi
2013 International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems  
In the present article, a method for generating curvilinear bipedal walking patterns is proposed which is able to generate rhythmic and periodic trajectories for a Nao soccer player robot.  ...  To do so, a programmable central pattern generator was used which was inspired from locomotion structures in vertebrate animals.  ...  In this paper, a model for programmable central pattern generators capable of generating curvilinear bipedal locomotion patterns is developed.  ... 
doi:10.5772/55462 fatcat:d2dimra53ngrxcgdjyoows6g5q

Musculoskeletal simulation-based parametric study of optimal gait frequency in biped locomotion

Leng-Feng Lee, Venkat N. Krovi
2008 2008 2nd IEEE RAS & EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics  
We choose to systematically study this hypothesis in the specific context of bipedal locomotion.  ...  Researchers have hypothesized that animal locomotory patterns seen are consistent with the resonant frequencies endowed by their musculoskeletal structures.  ...  In this paper, we will focus on bipedal walking as a prototypical task for the following reasons: (i) It possesses considerable richness in terms of complexity of underlying neuromusculoskeletal structure  ... 
doi:10.1109/biorob.2008.4762864 fatcat:xjt2nfjebvhh5nuebaoilollim

Evolved Controllers for Simulated Locomotion [chapter]

Brian F. Allen, Petros Faloutsos
2009 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
No a priori knowledge of the appropriate cycles or patterns of motion is needed.  ...  Our approach provides two key features: (a) the topology of the neural network controller gradually grows in size to allow increasingly complex behavior, and (b) the evolutionary process requires only  ...  The evolved artificial CPG's generate open-loop patterns that drive joint angles of a bipedal model to show very "natural motion" through a walk cycle.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-10347-6_20 fatcat:74g65awxdfaflm56a5hnmn4shu
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