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Kevin Butler acknowledges the support of NSF awards CNS-1254198 and CNS-1118046. NSPW'13, September 9-12, 2013, Banff, AB, Canada. ...doi:10.1145/2535813.2535814 dblp:conf/nspw/BishopBBGG13 fatcat:z27lg4s2fvaljedc2kjzohpuo4
Butler et al. www.sobp.org/journal P.D. Butler et al. www.sobp.org/journal ... Adapted from Kwon et al. , used with permission; [B and C] adapted from Butler et al. ...doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.03.023 pmid:18549875 pmcid:PMC2435292 fatcat:mrthsgkvfjewdjsefo2e6bdo3q
graduated from Brigham Young University with bachelor's degrees in mathematics and economics in 2001. He is currently finishing his Master's degree in mathematics at BYU and will be leaving BYU to start towards a doctorate degree this fall. He enjoys taking long walks and teaching mathematics, though not at the same time.doi:10.2307/3595781 fatcat:gszzcarkbjcszkeyjiorkgm4py
graduated from Brigham Young University with bachelor's degrees in mathematics and economics in 2001. He is currently finishing his Master's degree in mathematics at BYU and will be leaving BYU to start towards a doctorate degree this fall. He enjoys taking long walks and teaching mathematics, though not at the same time.doi:10.1080/07468342.2003.11921991 fatcat:6g6cqohg5bdm7g6s32lho3yvya
The estimand framework included in the addendum to the ICH E9 guideline facilitates discussions to ensure alignment between the key question of interest, the analysis, and interpretation. Therapeutic knowledge and drug mechanism play a crucial role in determining the strategy and defining the estimand for clinical trial designs. Clinical trials in patients with hematological malignancies often present unique challenges for trial design due to complexity of treatment options and existence ofarXiv:2010.00957v1 fatcat:bxq2bry2traohexku3wmk4racq
more »... ntial curative but highly risky procedures, e.g. stem cell transplant or treatment sequence across different phases (induction, consolidation, maintenance). Here, we illustrate how to apply the estimand framework in hematological clinical trials and how the estimand framework can address potential difficulties in trial result interpretation. This paper is a result of a cross-industry collaboration to connect the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) E9 addendum concepts to applications. Three randomized phase 3 trials will be used to consider common challenges including intercurrent events in hematologic oncology trials to illustrate different scientific questions and the consequences of the estimand choice for trial design, data collection, analysis, and interpretation. Template language for describing estimand in both study protocols and statistical analysis plans is suggested for statisticians' reference.
Data are analyzed using various models of the slug-induced flow system (Butler 1998) . ... The current generation of methods is not capable of providing such information for two primary reasons (Butler 2005 ). ...doi:10.1007/s00767-011-0182-9 fatcat:jt6wpjpfyvdtjdn545sjdtw6sa
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.0010077 pmid:16758004 pmcid:PMC1323465 fatcat:5aipqp5ajbduxbyq6t74sjavna
Prefrontal cortex is crucial for learning and decision-making. Classic reinforcement learning (RL) theories centre on learning the expectation of potential rewarding outcomes and explain a wealth of neural data in prefrontal cortex. Distributional RL, on the other hand, learns the full distribution of rewarding outcomes and better explains dopamine responses. Here we show distributional RL also better explains prefrontal cortical responses, suggesting it is a ubiquitous mechanism for reward-guided learning.doi:10.1101/2021.06.14.448422 fatcat:d4w25eh3h5curduoggvbr6hciy
Over 100 years after trypanosomatids were first discovered in plant tissues, Phytomonas parasites have now been isolated across the globe from members of 24 different plant families. Most identified species have not been associated with any plant pathology and to date only two species are definitively known to cause plant disease. These diseases (wilt of palm and coffee phloem necrosis) are problematic in areas of South America where they threaten the economies of developing countries. Indoi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004484 pmid:25607944 pmcid:PMC4301809 fatcat:lhrxiuytqze2nkuwsarpqotfpi
more »... st to their mammalian infective relatives, our knowledge of the biology of Phytomonas parasites and how they interact with their plant hosts is limited. This review draws together a century of research into plant trypanosomatids, from the first isolations and experimental infections to the recent publication of the first Phytomonas genomes. The availability of genomic data for these plant parasites opens a new avenue for comparative investigations into trypanosomatid biology and provides fresh insight into how this important group of parasites have adapted to survive in a spectrum of hosts from crocodiles to coconuts. PLOS Pathogens |
Introduction The eighth annual Bio-Ontologies meeting was held on 24 th June at ISMB 2005 in Detroit. Its principle aim over the years has been to build a community forum that brings together biologists and computer scientists to discuss the development and use of ontologies within the domain of biology. During this time, it has aimed to stimulate discussion about the role of Ontologies and their associated technologies for describing, sharing, analysing and searching knowledge about biologicaldoi:10.1002/cfg.499 pmid:18629196 pmcid:PMC2447490 fatcat:23wi5rzkhvg3heec2hzahqnjim
more »... systems. Ontology papers have been appearing in the ISMB proceedings since the conference's inception. Pioneering work by Peter Karp with Eco-Cyc  demonstrated the use of ontologies as the backbone of knowledge bases. Since the first Bio-Ontologies meeting in 1998, ontologies have an increasing presence in bioinformatics; particularly with the advent of the Gene Ontology  that demonstrated the value of supplementing genomic annotation with ontology terms. This meeting, like its predecessors from 1998 onwards, has been dominated by talks about the Gene Ontology. This interest in ontology from the biomedical sciences is intersecting with interest in bio-ontologies and their use from the outside world in the form of the Web community; the Semantic Web vision now being actively promoted as the "next generation" Web makes heavy use of ontological technology; this, in turn, is leading to increasing provision of mature tools and experience, lessening the activation energy for those biologists who wish to develop or use ontologies. In the main ISMB conference, the use of semantic web, or at least its technologies, was a recurrent theme. A recurrent issue in this year's meeting, highlighted particularly by Mark Musen's keynote, are the attempts to move bio-ontology development to a more industrial scale (Further information about this talk and others mentioned in this article are available from the Bio-Ontologies Website). Currently, ontology development is often carried out by small groups of individuals, mirroring much of biology before the advent of community wide sequencing efforts. With the large numbers of ontologies currently being produced (see http://obo.sourceforge.net, for examples), orthogonality, maintenance and consistency are all becoming key issues. At the current time, there is a relatively poor understanding of both the best practises which are necessary and the technology which will be required to support these best practices; what, for instance, are the best mechanisms for peer review of ontologies; is Editorial 371 centralised management necessary as has happened with human gene naming, or are more "free-forall", decentralised approaches possible? This theme was re-visited in the day's panel session. Panel session This year we had a post-lunch panel session with the following panelists: • Mark Musen, Stanford University; • Larry Hunter, University of Colorado; • Judith Blake, Jackson Lab; • Eric Neumann, W3C co-chair, Health-care and Life Sciences Interest Group. In the current context of rapidly growing activity in the bio-ontology sector and possible new horizons in the Semantic Web, there are many contentious issues facing our community. With this in mind, we gave the panelists the following questions with which to focus discussion: 1. We should be more authoritarian and less liberal in the building of Bio-Medical Ontologies.
Following our previous study of the Lick survey (Cumming, Marcy, & Butler 1999, hereafter CMB) , the aim of this work is to carefully assess the detection threshold and selection biases for a sample of ...arXiv:astro-ph/0209199v1 fatcat:6rq7frjvsvdsxmu32zlh67ubdq
Synthetic Magnetic Polarity Stratigraphies Johnson and McGee [1983) and Hall and Butler (1983) have used synthetic polarity stratigraphiea to illustrate the potential effects of sampling method and ... Contrary to the opinion of Hall and Butler [1983) , polarity intervals of short duration generally do not "provide a basis upon which sections can be correlated" because their probability of being recorded ...doi:10.1029/gl012i006p00341 fatcat:ywzqybwfmnfrpiuo2kut52z7ba
Butler Jr., and S. M. Gorelick (2005), Estimation of groundwater consumption by phreatophytes using diurnal water table fluctuations: A saturated-unsaturated flow assessment, Water Resour. ... However, more than one pumping test should be done at each site in order to partially compensate for the impact of media heterogeneity on specific yield estimates obtained from pumping tests [Butler, ...doi:10.1029/2005wr003942 fatcat:vmzqr4f7tzdjpf5o2aamctpox4
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