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Stealthy Opaque Predicates in Hardware – Obfuscating Constant Expressions at Negligible Overhead [article]

Max Hoffmann, Christof Paar
2019 pre-print
Our results show that we are able to implement stealthy opaque predicates in hardware with minimal overhead in area and no impact on latency.  ...  Simplified, an opaque predicate implements an expression that provides constant Boolean output, but appears to have dynamic behavior for static analysis.  ...  This work was supported in part by grant ERC 695022 and NSF CNS-1563829.  ... 
doi:10.13154/tches.v2018.i2.277-297 arXiv:1910.00949v1 fatcat:zcvmd5e5uvfxlbj6ulsm7q2iza

On Secure and Usable Program Obfuscation: A Survey [article]

Hui Xu, Yangfan Zhou, Yu Kang, Michael R. Lyu
2017 arXiv   pre-print
Nevertheless, the mechanism incurs too much overhead for practical usage. Besides, it focuses on obfuscating computation models (e.g., circuits) rather than real codes.  ...  However, general obfuscation methods (e.g., lexical obfuscation, control obfuscation) implemented in mainstream obfuscation tools are heuristic and have little security guarantee.  ...  However, such opaque predicates incur much overhead. To compose opaque constants resistant to static analysis, Moser et al. [49] suggested employing 3-SAT problems, which are NP-hard.  ... 
arXiv:1710.01139v1 fatcat:tef5esco7rggthw2sjybnze4dy

Drndalo: Lightweight Control Flow Obfuscation Through Minimal Processor/Compiler Co-Design [article]

Novak Boskov, Mihailo Isakov, Michel A. Kinsy
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We propose a compiler extension for obfuscation and a minimal hardware modification for dynamic deobfuscation that takes advantage of a secret key stored in hardware.  ...  On PARSEC benchmarks, our deobfuscation technique incurs only a 5\% runtime overhead. We evaluate the security of Drndalo by training classifiers on pairs of obfuscated and unobfuscated binaries.  ...  The technique of opaque predicates is used in obfuscation tools such as Obfuscator-LLVM [10] .  ... 
arXiv:1912.01560v1 fatcat:34pudt4opngi5nw2x6tfzzkoqe

Dynamic graph-based software fingerprinting

Christian S. Collberg, Clark Thomborson, Gregg M. Townsend
2007 ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems  
W is stealthy; W has a high data rate; embedding W into P does not adversely affect the performance of P ; and W has a mathematical property that allows us to argue that its presence in P is the result  ...  In this article, we describe a software fingerprinting technique in which a dynamic graph fingerprint is stored in the execution state of a program.  ...  are almost negligible.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1286821.1286826 fatcat:gk4rnouxdzdzdnn3reavsbjtty

Integrated Software Fingerprinting via Neural-Network-Based Control Flow Obfuscation

Haoyu Ma, Ruiqi Li, Xiaoxu Yu, Chunfu Jia, Debin Gao
2016 IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security  
Finally, Neuroprint also demonstrates negligible runtime overhead.  ...  In this paper, we suggest a novel mode of dynamic fingerprinting called integrated fingerprinting, of which the goal is to ensure all fingerprinted software copies possess identical behaviors at semantic  ...  Furthermore, it is also worth mention that as a potent control obfuscator, Neuroprint may also use its neural networks to construct opaque predicates which appears like conditional branches but in fact  ... 
doi:10.1109/tifs.2016.2555287 fatcat:lweugzs5pzhltpf3dfi42hzm4e

An Exhaustive Survey on P4 Programmable Data Plane Switches: Taxonomy, Applications, Challenges, and Future Trends

Elie F. Kfoury, Jorge Crichigno, Elias Bou-Harb
2021 IEEE Access  
Despite the impressive advantages of programmable data plane switches and their importance in modern networks, the literature has been missing a comprehensive survey.  ...  Recently, data plane programmability has attracted significant attention from both the research community and the industry, permitting operators and programmers in general to run customized packet processing  ...  Metric Switch-based relay [145] Server-based relay Relay server Lower; negligible with Higher; averages at 50% CPU 900 active sessions for 900 active sessions Latency Lower; almost constant at Higher;  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3086704 fatcat:2jgbxj2cbfbp7fawkxwrztbbia

An Exhaustive Survey on P4 Programmable Data Plane Switches: Taxonomy, Applications, Challenges, and Future Trends [article]

Elie F. Kfoury, Jorge Crichigno, Elias Bou-Harb
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Despite the impressive advantages of programmable data plane switches and their importance in modern networks, the literature has been missing a comprehensive survey.  ...  Recently, data plane programmability has attracted significant attention from both the research community and the industry, permitting operators and programmers in general to run customized packet processing  ...  Metric Switch-based relay [145] Server-based relay Relay server CPU Lower; negligible 900 active sessions with Higher; averages at 50% for 900 active sessions Latency Lower; almost constant  ... 
arXiv:2102.00643v2 fatcat:izxi645kozdc5ibfsqp2y2foau

Quantitative measures for code obfuscation security

Rabih Mohsen, Steffen Van Bakel, Sergio Maffeis, Engineering And Physical Sciences Research Council
2017
We apply our proposed definition to prove the possibility of obtaining security in code obfuscation under reasonable assumptions.  ...  In this thesis we establish a quantitative framework to measure and study the security of code obfuscation, an effective software protection method that defends software against malicious reverse engineering  ...  Figure 4 . 3 : 43 Obfuscating x=x+i expression using opaque predicate with no encoding Because each sub-program in Q has length at most n, then Q can contain at most 2 n distinct sub-programs.  ... 
doi:10.25560/55180 fatcat:k36rpte7vrg35l4gb7imvope7u

PillarBox: Combating Next-Generation Malware with Fast Forward-Secure Logging [chapter]

Kevin D. Bowers, Catherine Hart, Ari Juels, Nikos Triandopoulos
2014 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We introduce PillarBox, a tool for securely relaying SAS data in a security analytics system.  ...  We also show, based on data from a large enterprise and on-host performance measurements, that PillarBox has minimal overhead and is practical for real-world security analytics systems.  ...  /or is itself protected by trusted hardware, as in Terra [20] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-11379-1_3 fatcat:q7z4f2pvqvdzbhv2mhueoml76u

Using complexity to protect elections

Piotr Faliszewski, Edith Hemaspaandra, Lane A. Hemaspaandra
2010 Communications of the ACM  
Since such data is typically read-shared, writes to such variables are rare, and their analysis overhead is negligible.  ...  We also believe that memory models at different levels (e.g., the hardware level) and for different languages (e.g., C++MM) can be expressed as instances of this model.  ...  at economical group rates.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1839676.1839696 fatcat:hbqpm5boabe3jcpa4jcs7czf6y

A Roadmap for Big Model [article]

Sha Yuan, Hanyu Zhao, Shuai Zhao, Jiahong Leng, Yangxiao Liang, Xiaozhi Wang, Jifan Yu, Xin Lv, Zhou Shao, Jiaao He, Yankai Lin, Xu Han (+88 others)
2022 arXiv   pre-print
In each topic, we summarize clearly the current studies and propose some future research directions. At the end of this paper, we conclude the further development of BMs in a more general view.  ...  At present, there is a lack of research work that sorts out the overall progress of BMs and guides the follow-up research.  ...  [228] pointed out that hardware and algorithmic efficiency gains can be multiplied, and neither factor is negligible.  ... 
arXiv:2203.14101v4 fatcat:rdikzudoezak5b36cf6hhne5u4

Exploring semantic reverse engineering for software binary protection

Pengfei Sun
2019
ReViver achieved 98.1% average accuracy in recovering memory data structure instances without execution traces for real-world applications.  ...  Using the discovered data structure instances in live memory, I develop a new domain-specific semantic memory data attack against power grid controllers.  ...  This causes a negligible runtime overhead (1.8%) but improves the memory forensics significantly.  ... 
doi:10.7282/t3-zy08-nn55 fatcat:dqxzc5akg5ag3iihoknm5lyb64

From Zero to Hero: How Zero-Rating Became a Debate about Human Rights

Linnet Taylor
2016 IEEE Internet Computing  
We also extend our sincere appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for its funding of this International Research Group (IRG14-28).  ...  Yet, a non-negligible portion results in large volumes.  ...  Identifying these differences bears a resemblance to standard HOPs; however, by showing the taskbar at different times, a system can influence those perceptual and cognitive functions in predicable ways  ... 
doi:10.1109/mic.2016.88 fatcat:imrhaaoac5gifool7wjegaxl5q