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Biological fluid dynamics of airborne COVID-19 infection

Giovanni Seminara, Bruno Carli, Guido Forni, Sandro Fuzzi, Andrea Mazzino, Andrea Rinaldo
2020 Rendiconti Lincei SCIENZE FISICHE E NATURALI  
The relevance of the subject stems from the key role of airborne virus transmission by viral particles released by an infected person via coughing, sneezing, speaking or simply breathing.  ...  We review the state of knowledge on the bio-fluid dynamic mechanisms involved in the transmission of the infection from SARS-CoV-2.  ...  The authors wish to thank Andrea Prosperetti and Mogens Høgh Jensen for thorough and insightful remarks on an earlier version of the manuscript. Thanks are also due to Giorgio Parisi, Pietro Cappuc-  ... 
doi:10.1007/s12210-020-00938-2 pmid:32837713 pmcid:PMC7429142 fatcat:lhf4ue3gwba6xbrjpnxgj45qd4

Respiratory aerosols and droplets in the transmission of infectious diseases [article]

Mira L. Pöhlker, Ovid O. Krüger, Jan-David Förster, Thomas Berkemeier, Wolfgang Elbert, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Eberhard Bodenschatz, J. Alex Huffman, Simone Scheithauer (+1 others)
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The results confirm the high relevance of vocalization for the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 as well as the usefulness of physical distancing, face masks, room ventilation, and air filtration as preventive  ...  Knowing the physicochemical properties of exhaled droplets and aerosol particles is a prerequisite for a detailed mechanistic understanding and effective prevention of the airborne transmission of infectious  ...  H: Face mask transmission curves were measured at high air velocity, with surgical mask transmissibility representing the average of three types of surgical masks and community mask transmissibility representing  ... 
arXiv:2103.01188v4 fatcat:fkmiprnxq5dtpjapb42iudet7q

A cross-disciplinary view of testing and bioinformatic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 and other human respiratory viruses in pandemic settings

Md Arafat Hossain, Barbara Brito-Rodriguez, Lisa M Sedger, John Canning
2021 IEEE Access  
This can do away with the need for ultra-precise and ultra-accurate analysis by taking mass measurements that can relax tolerances and build resilience through networked analytics and informatics, the  ...  A new paradigm is introduced - scaled and multiple diagnostics for mapping and spreading of a pandemic rather than traditional accumulation of individual measurements.  ...  For example, it was mentioned earlier that known anti-virals can be inserted into face masks.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3133417 pmid:35582017 pmcid:PMC8843158 fatcat:f6to2jafe5bwxbkx67k3gmh7wu

Viral factors in influenza pandemic risk assessment

Marc Lipsitch, Wendy Barclay, Rahul Raman, Charles J Russell, Jessica A Belser, Sarah Cobey, Peter M Kasson, James O Lloyd-Smith, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh, Steven Riley, Catherine AA Beauchemin, Trevor Bedford (+7 others)
2016 eLife  
The threat of an influenza A virus pandemic stems from continual virus spillovers from reservoir species, a tiny fraction of which spark sustained transmission in humans.  ...  We describe such efforts, identify progress and ongoing challenges, and discuss three specific traits of influenza viruses (hemagglutinin receptor binding specificity, hemagglutinin pH of activation, and  ...  Viral fitness components are rarely measured at 164 both scales for the same strain and are imperfectly correlated across scales(60-62); 165 • the role of stochastic events in the ecology and evolution  ... 
doi:10.7554/elife.18491 pmid:27834632 pmcid:PMC5156527 fatcat:pffupgrfxbc7fp32rlyjyge64m

Guidelines for safe work practices in human and animal medical diagnostic laboratories. Recommendations of a CDC-convened, Biosafety Blue Ribbon Panel

J Michael Miller, Rex Astles, Timothy Baszler, Kimberle Chapin, Roberta Carey, Lynne Garcia, Larry Gray, Davise Larone, Michael Pentella, Anne Pollock, Daniel S Shapiro, Elizabeth Weirich (+3 others)
2012 MMWR Supplements  
of household bleach; dependence on risk assessments for many activities; development of written safety protocols that address the risks of chemicals in the laboratory; the need for negative airflow into  ...  the laboratory; areas of the laboratory in which use of gloves is optional or is recommended; and the national need for a central site for surveillance and nonpunitive reporting of laboratory incidents  ...  separate eye protection and face mask. 8.10.3.  ... 
pmid:22217667 fatcat:tnhwr55rpndgbiqcne6i2q7u3u

'Cleanse or Die': British Naval Hygiene in the Age of Steam, 1840–1900

Elise Juzda Smith
2018 Medical history  
Yet, despite the scientific thrust of Victorian naval medicine, with its emphasis on collecting measurements and collating statistics, consensus about the causes of disease eluded practitioners.  ...  Such efforts reflected the sanitarian idealism of naval medicine in this period, inherited from the eighteenth-century pioneers of the discipline.  ...  to imperfectly direct air below decks.  ... 
doi:10.1017/mdh.2018.3 pmid:29553010 pmcid:PMC5883164 fatcat:5xe7tx7wwrdo7i3l4vpdpjrusq

Introduction to the Biosafety Consensus Documents [chapter]

2006 Safety Assessment of Transgenic Organisms, Volume 1  
The OECD is a unique forum where the governments of 30 democracies work together to address the economic, social and environmental challenges of globalisation.  ...  The OECD is also at the forefront of efforts to understand and to help governments respond to new developments and concerns, such as corporate governance, the information economy and the challenges of  ...  transmission rates for the virus.  ... 
doi:10.1787/9789264095380-2-en fatcat:j4dwrifnanex3k4thz2mmo7b2y

APHA conference report, 1969

1970 Public Health Reports (1896-1970)  
No instances were noted of excessive transmission of the X-ray beam through the viewing screen.  ...  Classically, infectious hepatitis (virus A) is an orally or parenterally transmitted viral illness of short Incubation, while serum hepatitis (virus B) is thought to require parenteral transmission and  ... 
pmid:4985518 pmcid:PMC2031618 fatcat:t3ogkpmcdjalbpsnluxggoqysm

Risk Assessment [chapter]

Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition  
Acknowledgments We acknowledge the assistance of Tanya Graham, DVM, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD; Larry Thompson  ...  Blood Bank Transfusion-Transmitted Diseases Many infectious agents are transmitted through transfusion of infected blood; these include hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency viruses  ...  -Before use, the respirator must be fit tested to determine the size of respirator that best fits the worker and ensures a tight seal to the face.  ... 
doi:10.1128/9781555818814.ch15.9 fatcat:2r5xyk42vraobkszkmgfppb2sa

Mathematical models of gonorrhoea and chlamydia: Biology, behaviour and interactions

Katherine Mary Elizabeth Turner
In chapter four, models of reinfection are used to investigate the interaction of population level parameters such as degree of assortative mixing and rates of reinfection.  ...  Mathematical models are presented, together with empirical data, to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of gonorrhoea and chlamydia.  ...  Acknowledgements Many people have helped in many ways during the writing of this thesis. Firstly thanks to Geoff Garnett, my supervisor, for your support and encouragement.  ... 
doi:10.25560/1303 fatcat:nim2x7qombcizdzlyk4c3gpcn4

Evaluation and pathophysiological characterisation of a bovine model of respiratory Chlamydia psittaci infection [article]

Carola Heike Ostermann, Universitätsbibliothek Der FU Berlin, Universitätsbibliothek Der FU Berlin
Moreover, the pathogenetic potential of C. psittaci for bovines and potential transmission routes were evaluated by assessing clinical and immunological variables of health and lung function as well as  ...  The present project aimed to develop, to evaluate and to characterise a bovine model of experimentally induced respiratory C. psittaci infection which might be beneficial for both human and veterinary  ...  Konrad Financial disclosure This study was financially supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) of Germany under Grant no. 01 KI 0720 "Zoonotic chlamydiae -Models of chronic  ... 
doi:10.17169/refubium-5322 fatcat:4t2xzpqphfer5ie77zj7tsmguy

Understanding the Resurgence of an Eliminated Disease: Spatial, Attitudinal, and Regulatory Factors Underlying Measles Outbreaks in the Post-Elimination Era

Nina Masters, University, My
This analysis used a spatial dynamic compartmental model, fixing overall vaccination coverage at 95% (the WHO elimination vaccination threshold for measles) and simulating outbreaks across a landscape  ...  However, a recent global resurgence of measles amid rising levels of vaccine hesitancy threatens elimination.  ...  Recent research has highlighted that non-pharmaceutical interventions (such as social distancing and mask wearing) may have downstream implications for seasonal cycles of respiratory viruses typically  ... 
doi:10.7302/1402 fatcat:pghtssur4vg25ia54bwbhu4ogu

Behaviour, ecology, and vibrational manipulation of insect vectors: the case of the meadow spittlebug Philaenus spumarius, with notes on a psyllid pest

Sabina Avosani
Besides gathering behavioural data, I used occupancy models to estimate P. spumarius presence and detection probability in Trentino (Northern Italy), a rarely deployed approach to study insect distribution  ...  onset of egg maturation, which triggers the female proceptivity (from August onwards).  ...  ., Jeger MJ, Van Den Bosch F (2000) A theoretical assessment of the effects of vector- virus transmission mechanism on plant virus disease epidemics. Phytopathology 90:576–594.  ... 
doi:10.15168/11572_319182 fatcat:7nzsw47u2vf3thklgq2j2q3br4

The ecology of even-aged forest plantations

J.C. Hetherington
1979 Forest Ecology and Management  
The process imposed some restrictions on the use of accepted conventions for abbreviations, symbols and units of measurement.  ...  Evans ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The magnitude of the study which we prepared has led to a major cooperative effort which, besides the Research Branch of the Woods and Forests Department (D.W.F.), includes three  ...  masks the short-tem recycling of nutrients through microbial turnover.  ... 
doi:10.1016/0378-1127(79)90058-6 fatcat:x77pkqmbqjd5vnoqwmv4cqdfvi

The ecology of even-aged forest plantations

G.F. Peterken
1981 Biological Conservation  
The process imposed some restrictions on the use of accepted conventions for abbreviations, symbols and units of measurement.  ...  Evans ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The magnitude of the study which we prepared has led to a major cooperative effort which, besides the Research Branch of the Woods and Forests Department (D.W.F.), includes three  ...  masks the short-tem recycling of nutrients through microbial turnover.  ... 
doi:10.1016/0006-3207(81)90038-0 fatcat:t5wi7lma25e5hoqa5d4xbhfz5a
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